Freedom - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Loss of the relationship between freedom and nature-enjoying good, truth, etc. Loss of sense of happiness as first desire of human nature ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Freedom

  • Excellence or Indeterminance

Modern Theories of Freedom
  • Tendencies lessen or deny the dependence of
    freedom upon truth, VS34
  • Human freedom claims to be able to create values,
  • A moral autonomy with absolute sovereignty

New theories Incompatible with Catholic thought
  • A complete sovereignty of reason in the moral
    domain, separation from Divine Wisdom
  • Man would lay down for himself norms founded
    exclusively in human reason, VS36

New (erroneous)thoughts on Catholic Morals
  • A sharp distinction between and ethical order
    with value for this world and an order of
    salvation encompassing certain intentions and
    attitudes, VS 37
  • Autonomous reason, not revelation makes material
  • Thus, competence of Magisterium denied

What is a rightful autonomy?
  • Reason draws its truth from Eternal Law, Divine
    Wisdom, VS39
  • Natural Law is a properly human law
  • But autonomy does not mean that reason can create
    values and moral norms
  • This would mean that one denies the participation
    of the Divine Wisdom in the rational creature.

Mans Genuine Moral Autonomy
  • An acceptance of Gods moral law
  • Human freedom and Gods law intersect
  • Obedience is not a heteronomy
  • Mans free obedience to Gods law implies that
    human reason and will participate in Gods
  • This is a participated theonony

St. Thomas vs. Ockham
  • St. Thomas-Freedom is a faculty proceeding from
    reason and will, uniting to make the act of
  • Free will is not the originating force but
    presupposes intelligence and will
  • This is rooted in natural inclinations to
    goodness and truth

  • In Ockham the ability of choice (free will)
    precedes the combination of reason and will in
    its operation
  • Freedom is found in the power of the will to
    choose independently between contraries
  • This capacity is in the power of the will, an
    ability to choose between what reason identifies
    and judges as true and its contrary
  • Thus freedom exists in an indetermination or
    radical indifference in the will

  • Freedom is radically indifferent to the opposites
    in front of it, good or evil.
  • The will becomes redefined
  • It is no longer an attraction to the good
    exercised in love or desire
  • It is radical indifference
  • It becomes characterized not by loving but by
    obeying and commanding.

Natural Inclinations
  • In Thomas, freedom is rooted in the natural
    spontaneity toward the good and the true
  • The ultimate end, perfection of the good, (and
    Beatitude) formed the basis of Thomass moral
  • That desire could never be extinguished
  • The important point, this desire for happiness is
    the foundation of natural spontaneity and freedom

Inclinations and Ockham
  • One is always free to refuse happiness
  • One can choose to despise even existence
  • This places inclinations below freedom
  • Harmony between nature and freedom destroyed
  • Freedom is now described as indifferent to nature

The breakdown of Morality
  • Loss of the relationship between freedom and
    nature-enjoying good, truth, etc.
  • Loss of sense of happiness as first desire of
    human nature
  • Habitus, virtue, would be opposed to freedom
    freedom does not grow
  • Final end as a result of pattern of action,
    banished individual acts are not united

Reason and Freedom
  • In Ockham, reason does not influence freedom or
    determine choice
  • Freedom would have to affirm itself against
    reason voluntarism
  • The power to say no in Thomas is recognized, but
    the freedom to reject Beatitude is a weakness
  • Indeterminate freedom, power to say no to reason
    is essential to freedom

What is the next question?
  • Is the problem reason?
  • Or is the problem will?
  • Thats not the question you ought to be asking
    right now, btw.