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Gender budgeting in India

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Stress repriotisation rather an overall increase in public spending. ... Public Expenditure with Pro-women allocations: Findings. In gender-intensive Ministries: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gender budgeting in India


1
Gender budgeting in India
  • Ashok Lahiri
  • Lekha S Chakraborty
  • P N Bhattacharyya

2
Focus of the study
  • Gender Diagnosis
  • in access to resources viz.. health, nutrition,
    education etc.
  • Women in Economy
  • Valuation of womens contribution to the market
    and care economy
  • Preparing gender-sensitive budget
  • budget through gender lens gender disaggregated
    public expenditure benefit incidence.

3
GDI A Quick Look
4
Fiscal Policy GDI Any Link?
  • Fixed Effects Model Econometric Verification
  • Using cross-country data pooled for 1993,1994 and
    1995 , analysis of link between per capita
    combined expenditure on health and education and
    GDI revealed that one percent increase in the
    former leads to 0.06 points increase in GDI.

5
Gender Diagnosis contd..Missing Women in India
  • Adverse Sex Ratio in India (972 per 1000 males in
    1901 to 933 per 1000 males in 2001)
  • Sex ratio at birth (0-6) is 927 per 1000 males
    Census 2001

6
Statistical Invisibility of Care Economy
  • Global estimates suggest that womens unpaid work
    in care economy produces an output of 11
    trillion, compared to a global GDP of about 23
    trillion (UNDP, 1995).
  • Extension of Production Boundary of SNA 1993 by
    UNSD led to the inclusion of CARE ECONOMY in
    National Accounts as Satellite Accounts.

7
Time spent on Care Economyhours per week
8
III. Preparing gender budget
  • Global Context
  • SHD paradigm of UN Conference of 90s.
  • people-mattered budget initiative
  • Gender Budgets Country Examples
  • Australia (1984)
  • Commonwealth Initiative in South Africa, Sri
    Lanka, Barbados, St. Kitts and Nevis and Fiji.

9
Indian Context for Gender Budgeting
  • ? Special Reference in Budget Speech, 2000
  • pertaining to the access of women to national
    resources.
  • ? National Development Council adopted
    Empowerment of Women as specific objective of
    9th FYP on February 19,1999.
  • ?Womens Component Plan to ensure that not less
    than 30 of funds and benefits flow to women
    from developmental sectors.
  • ? Gender equality recognized in Indian
    Constitution.

10
Gender Budgeting in Indian Context
  • Economic Survey, 2000-01 2001-02
  • An entire section on gender equality.
  • Highlights of Union Budget 2002-03
  • Increase in the plan allocation of DWCD by 33 per
    cent to Rs 2200 crores.
  • National Nutrition Mission
  • 100 scholarships per year to be provided by Dept
    of Science Tech. To women scientists/technologis
    ts.

11
Union Budget 2003 Policy announcements through
gender lens
  • Access of women to microcredit through Self-Help
    Groups skewed evidence.
  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana Poor Targeting.
  • Health Insurance for BPL Families Can increase
    the health costs in the public care system in the
    long run.
  • Restructured Pension Scheme intrinsically gender
    blind.

12
Gender sensitive budget
  • Budgetary resource allocation through gender
    lens.
  • Are not separate budgets for women.
  • Dissection of budget to establish its
    gender-specific impacts.
  • Gendered incidence of budgetary policies for the
    effective targeting of public spending
  • Stress repriotisation rather an overall increase
    in public spending.
  • Thrust to ensure a greater visibility to care
    economy.

13
Preparing gender-sensitive budget
  • ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
  • Category i. Specifically targeted expenditure to
    women
  • Category ii. Public Expenditure with pro-women
    allocation
  • Category iii Mainstream expenditure that make
    gender-differential impacts.

14
Categorization of Specifically targeted
expenditure
  • gt Protective and Welfare Services
  • to prevent atrocities viz. domestic violence,
    kidnapping, rape, dowry deaths
  • gt Social Services
  • education, health, nutrition
  • gt Economic Services
  • self employment training programs
  • gt Regulatory Services Awareness Generation
    Programs
  • Maternal benefit schemes

15
Categorization of specifically targeted programs
for women Union Budget 2003-04
16
SPECIFICALLY TARGETED EXPENDITURE. FINDINGS
  • Direct allocations specially targeted to women
    and girls under various Ministries in Union
    Budget 2003-04 amounted to Rs. 3665 crores
  • 0.84 per cent of total expenditure of 2003-04
  • Significant deviation of revised estimates from
    the budget estimates Rs 3370 crores in BE
    2002-03 and Rs 2835.93 in RE 2002-03

17
Specifically Targeted Programs for Womenshare
in various Ministries
18
Public Expenditure with Pro-women allocations
  • Certain public expenditure have pro-women
    allocations though they are not exclusively
    targeted for women.
  • Eg., poverty alleviation employment generation
    schemes provision for drinking water, fuel,
    housing, improved energy resources etc.

19
Public Expenditure with Pro-women
allocationsFindings
  • In gender-intensive Ministries
  • Pro-women Allocation TE-WSPWC
  • In Ministries with few gender-intensive schemes
  • Pro-women allocation ? SCS WC
  • Share declined from 3.89 percent in 1995-96 to
    2.02 per cent in 2001-02 and further to 2.63 per
    cent in 2002-03 and 2.19 per cent in 2003-04 in
    total expenditure.

20
Gender Disaggregated Benefit Incidence
  • How gender-inclusive is the mainstream
    expenditure?
  • Aims to analyze the distribution of public
    spending by gender.
  • BENEFIT INCIDENCE UNIT COSTS No. of UNITS
    UTILISED

21
Priority Actions
  • Strengthen the gender disaggregated database
    within Departments/Ministries.
  • Segregate the provisions for women in the
    composite schemes. Open a distinct minor head
    Women Development in budget document.

22
Priority Actions (contd)
  • Consolidation of Schemes
  • with provision of Rs.10 crore or less.
  • (Too many programs with too little money.)
  • Expenditure management
  • monitor the implementation of scheme
  • significant deviation between Budget Estimates
    and Revised Estimates.
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