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Composites Manufacture

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Title: Composites Manufacture


1
Composites Manufacture
  • There are no off the shelf properties - the
    material is made at the same time as the part.

2
Hand Lay-upspray gel coat application
3
Hand Lay-upapplication of gel coat by roller
4
Hand Lay-upapplication of reinforcement
5
Hand Lay-upapplication of reinforcement
6
Hand Lay-upapplication of resin and consolidation
7
Hand Lay-upfurther consolidation
8
Hand Lay-upaddition of woven ply
9
Chopper head for spray-up
10
Spray-up equipment
11
Spray application on existing gel coat
12
Spray application of fibre and resin
13
Consolidation after spray application
14
Advantages of Hand Lay-up
  • Low cost tooling
  • Low cost materials
  • Large parts possible
  • Low technology
  • Room-temperature cure

15
Disadvantages of Hand Lay-up
  • Laminate quality dependent on operator skill.
  • Poor working environment.
  • Health and safety issues associated with styrene

16
Advantages of Spray Lay-up
  • Low cost tooling.
  • Rapid deposition.
  • Mature industry

17
Disadvantages of Spray Lay-up
  • Resin-rich laminates.
  • Only short fibres can be used.
  • Low viscosity resins required (inferior
    properties).
  • Health and safety implications of styrene.
  • High wastage.

18
Hand lay-up
  • Materials options
  • Any thermosetting resin.
  • Any reinforcement (some heavy fabrics hard to
    wet-out)
  • Applications
  • Production boats
  • Water storage tanks
  • Architectural mouldings.

19
Spray lay-up
  • Materials options
  • Generally polyester.
  • Glass roving only
  • Applications
  • Small production boats
  • Enclosures
  • Vehicle body panels.

20
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21
Effect of voids on properties
22
Sources of voids
  • Layers of air trapped between plies
  • Dissolved air or volatiles emerging from solution
  • Resin shrinkage on cure
  • Poor wetting of fibre surface
  • Lack of impregnation

23
Effect of consolidation pressure on voids
24
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25
Vacuum Bag Moulding
  • Uses contact mould.
  • Wet lay up or specialist prepreg materials -
    usually epoxy and other high performance, long
    cure time resins.
  • Room temperature cure or oven cure under vacuum
    only.
  • Autoclave cure under pressure for highest quality
    laminates.

26
Process schematic (SP Systems)
27
Vacuum bagging
Preparation of carbon/epoxy prepreg
28
Vacuum bagging
Hand lay-up of tailored prepreg
29
Vacuum bagging
  • Application of peel-ply to back of laminate.
    Gives clean textured surface for subsequent
    bonding or painting

30
Vacuum bagging
Application of release film (semi-porous)
31
Vacuum bagging
Breather mat added to lay up. Sealant tape
applied to mould flanges.
32
Vacuum bagging
Nylon bagging film attached to sealant tape.
Pleats ensure excess bag to conform to mould
contours.
33
Vacuum bagging
Vacuum connection attached through bagging film.
34
Vacuum bagging
Vacuum applied - check for leaks and ensure
consolidation.
Completed lay up ready for cure cycle.
35
40 m wind turbine blade. Plywood/epoxy wet lay
up prior to vacuum bagging.
36
40 m wind turbine blade. Application of vacuum
bag.
37
Effect of consolidation pressure on voids
38
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39
Composite panel being loaded into autoclave.
40
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41
Vacuum bagging
  • Disadvantages
  • High cost and storage requirements of prepregs.
  • High labour/skill content.
  • Cost of consumables.
  • Capital cost of oven / autoclave.
  • Advantages
  • High quality composite parts.
  • Large sizes possible.
  • Relatively low cost, lightweight tooling.
  • Clean manufacturing environment.

42
Vacuum bagging applications
43
JEC Composites May 2003
44
Autoclave technology Length doesnt matter.
Cost increases exponentially with diameter.
Hoop stress ? d end load ? d2
Aeroform Ltd
45
12m spar for A400 (resin film infusion) GKN
Westland Aerospace
46
  • MANUFACTURE OF POLYMER COMPOSITES BY COMPRESSION
    MOULDING

47
Compression moulding
  • Materials options
  • Dry reinforcement / liquid resin
  • Polyester and phenolic resin moulding compound
    (SMC, BMC)
  • Epoxy prepregs
  • Applications
  • Car and truck body panels, engine components
  • Electrical housings
  • Building cladding panels
  • High precision optical parts

48
Typical compression moulding press
49
Cold press mouldingdry fibre / liquid resin
50
Cold press mouldingdry fibre / liquid resin
51
Cold press mouldingdry fibre / liquid resin
52
Sheet moulding compound
53
Truck body parts compression moulded from SMC
54
Advanced composite parts from compression moulded
carbon prepreg (heated tooling)
yacht steering gear
movie camera
safety helmet
record deck tone arm
55
Compression moulding
  • Advantages
  • Rapid cycle times with polyester SMC
  • Excellent surface finish in heated tooling
  • High tolerances
  • Low material waste
  • Disadvantages
  • High capital investment
  • Limited press size
  • High cost tooling

56
Resin Transfer Moulding
  • Matched mould tool - fixed cavity.
  • Dry reinforcement preform loaded into tool.
  • Catalysed liquid resin injected under positive
    pressure.

57
RTM process schematic (www.plastech.co.uk)
58
RTM Tooling
Bottom half
Top half
59
RTMLoading the reinforcement preform
60
RTM
Resin injection
Closing the tool
61
RTM - part removal
62
RTM - Ford Transit Van Roof
Plastech Thermoset Tectonics
63
RTM Applications
Plastech
University of Plymouth
64
RTM - Advantages
  • Good thickness tolerance
  • Two moulded surfaces
  • High fibre content possible
  • Reduced styrene emission
  • Potential for automation

65
RTM - disadvantages
  • Expensive tooling
  • Size limitations
  • Flow prediction difficult
  • Properties of low viscosity resins

66
Vacuum Resin Infusion
  • Also known as
  • VARTM
  • RIFT
  • SCRIMP

67
Vacuum Resin Infusion
  • Uses contact mould.
  • Dry reinforcement encapsulated by sealed
    polymeric bag or lightweight laminate.
  • Catalysed resin drawn through reinforcement under
    vacuum.

68
Process schematic (SP Systems)
69
Vacuum resin infusion
Tool with fibre mat loaded
Contact mould tool
70
Vacuum resin infusion
Infusion under vacuum
Semi-rigid top attached
71
www.polyworx.com
72
www.polyworx.com
73
Resin Infusion - advantages over hand lay-up
  • Higher quality laminate
  • Reduced styrene emissions
  • Cored laminates in one operation

74
Resin Infusion - disadvantages over hand lay-up
  • Careful process control required
  • More consumables
  • Low viscosity resin required

75
Resin Infusion - advantages over RTM
  • Much lower tooling cost
  • Less processing equipment required
  • No size restriction
  • Can adapt existing hand lay-up tooling

76
Resin Infusion - disadvantages over RTM
  • Only one moulded surface
  • Less control over part thickness
  • Injection time limited by 1 bar pressure

77
  • Filament Winding

78
Filament winding process schematic
79
Raw material - continuous fibres
80
Filament winding continuous fibre impregnation
winding on to rotating curved surface under
tension
81
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82
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83
Advantages of Filament Winding
  • Rapid process
  • Highly automated
  • Controlled resin content
  • Minimum fibre cost
  • High fibre content - good structural properties

84
Disadvantages of Filament Winding
  • Shape limitations
  • Difficult to place axial reinforcement
  • High mandrel and equipment costs
  • Unmoulded outer surface

85
  • Pultrusion

86
Pultrusion process schematic
87
Pultrusion die detail
Direct resin injection into die
88
Advantages of Pultrusion
  • Fast and economic process
  • Good control of resin content - consistent
    properties
  • Closed mould - low emissions
  • Minimum fibre cost

89
Disadvantages of Pultrusion
  • Limited to constant cross-section components
  • High cost of heated dies

90
  • Centrifugal Casting
  • Reinforcement and matrix deposited on
    inside of cylindrical mould
  • Consolidation by mould rotation

91
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92
Resin and chopped fibre deposition
93
Split mould for part removal
94
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