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Alphabet Soup: Invasive Insect Threats to Maine Forests

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Title: Alphabet Soup: Invasive Insect Threats to Maine Forests


1
Alphabet Soup Invasive Insect Threats to Maine
Forests
Allison Kanoti Forest Entomologist Maine
Forest Service allison.m.kanoti_at_maine.gov (207)
287-2431
2
What are invasive species?
  • Are not naturally found in the area
  • Cause harm to
  • environment
  • economy
  • human health

Most non-native (alien) species are not invasive
Photo Jennifer DAppollonio, University of
Maine, Orono
3
Familiar invasive forest pests
Gypsy Moth
Chestnut Blight
Photos Maine Forest Service
Photo Wisconsin Lake Shore Preserve
Dutch Elm Disease
Edward L. Barnard, Fla. Dept. of Ag. and Consumer
Services, Bugwood.org
4
Many Invasive Pests Can Be Moved in or on
Firewood
  • Firewood
  • Recreational
  • Camp owners
  • Commercial dealers
  • Residential Heating

Photo Troy Kimoto
Others Move on Ornamental Plants
5
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)
Photo Troy Kimoto
How it Got Here Solid Wood Packing
Material Spread Firewood, Nursery Stock
Photo David Cappaert, Michigan State University
6
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7
Recognizing EAB
Photo H. Russel, Michigan State University
Photo Ohio Tree Care, Inc.
  • -Bright metallic green
  • -½ inch long
  • Bores under bark of ash trees

8
Maine Hosts White, Green, Brown Ash
White
Green
White
Green
Brown
Brown
Photos Maine Forest Service, Forest Policy and
Management
9
Recognizing EAB
Photo David R. McKay
Epicormic shoots
Crown decline (from top down)
Photo Pennsylvania Department of Conservation
and Natural Resources - Forestry Archive
10
Recognizing EAB
D-shaped exit holes
Photo University of Wisconsin Entomology
Photo Maryland Department of Natural Resources
Photo David Roberts, MSU
Serpentine tunneling under bark
Photo Oregon Department Of Agriculture, Plant
Division
Barksplitting
11
Recognizing EAB
USDA Forest Service - Region 8 Archive, USDA
Forest Service, Bugwood.org
12
Impact
  • Hosts
  • Attacks all species of North American ash
  • Kills all of the trees it attacks
  • Has killed over 40 million trees since 2002
  • Has the potential to wipe out ash

Photo Maine Department of Agriculture
13
Brown Spruce Longhorned Beetle
How it Got Here Solid Wood Packing Material
(before 1998) Spread Logs, Firewood, Hurricane
2004 Locations Nova Scotia (Halifax originally,
now throughout)
Photo Georgette Smith, bugwood.org
14
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15
Maine Hosts Spruce (fir, larch, pines)
Photos Maine Forest Service, Forest Policy and
Management
16
Recognizing BSLB
Round to D-shaped 1/8 exit holes
Resin Covered Trunks
Yellowing Foliage
Photos CFIA (left), Jon Sweeney, bugwood.org
(middle and right)
17
Recognizing BSLB
L-Shaped Pupal Chamber
Larval Feeding Tunnels
Photos Georgette Smith, bugwood.org
18
Recognizing (what is not) BSLB
  • Spruce Beetle
  • Native pest
  • Pitch tubes (not always)
  • Round exit holes (smaller)

19
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB)
Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and
Natural Resources - Forestry Archive
How it got here Solid Wood Packing
Material Spread Firewood, Nursery
Stock Locations WORCESTER, MA NY NJ Chicago
Toronto
Photo Kenneth R. Law, USDA APHIS PPQ, United
States
Photo E. Richard Hoebeke
20
Photos USDA APHIS
  • Hosts Maple, Birch, Willow, Elm
  • Poplar, Horse-chestnut, Ash, Mountain-ash

21
Recognizing ALB
- Large1.25 to 1.5 incheslarger than a paper
clip - Shinylike a bowling ball, patent leather,
or a new car
Photo USDA APHIS
- Black deep dark black (not sort of black, no
traces of brown) - White markingsbold stripes on
antennae, distinctive blotches on back (blue feet
when alive)
22
White patch between wings
23
Recognizing ALB
A heavily infested tree can look reasonably
healthy But look for
Photo USDA APHIS
24
Recognizing ALB
Large exit holes (size of pencil or larger)
Photo E. Richard Hoebeke
Egg niches (chewing marks visible)
Tunnels within the wood
Photo Massachusetts Introduced Pests Outreach
Blog
Photo UMassExtension
25
Recognizing ALB
Sawdust or wood shavings on limbs
Photos USDA APHIS
Adult feeding along midribs of leaves
Oozing foaming sap
26
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid -Already in Southern
Maine-
How it got here Accidental Introduction,
Ornamental planting Spread Eggs, crawlers on
wind, vehicles, clothing, birds, mammals, etc.
all stages on live hemlock material
BackgroundMaine Forest Service Upper Image
Stanton Gill, University of Maryland

Lower Image Rusty Rhea, USDA Forest Service
27
Recognizing Hemlock Woolly Adelgid
  • Hemlock
  • 1/8 discrete white woolly masses
  • Undersides of twigs
  • Newer growth of twigs

Photo Maine Forest Service
28
Where in Maine is HWA found?
Kittery, York, Wells, Eliot, South Berwick, Saco,
Kennebunkport Scattered Infestations Note
Ogunquit is within the HWA quarantine.
29
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30
Elongate Hemlock what?-Elongate Hemlock Scale
2009-on planted hemlock in S. ME-
How it got here Accidental Introduction,
Ornamental planting Spread Crawlers on wind,
vehicles, clothing, birds, mammals, etc. all
stages on live hemlock and fir
Maine Dept. Ag.
31
  • Kennebunkport
  • August 2009
  • Reported by owner
  • Trees planted 5-8 yr. ago
  • Kennebunk
  • September 2009
  • Reported by owner (read in paper about Kport)
  • Trees planted in 1999/2000
  • Spread to native hemlock and fir

32
Recognizing Elongate Hemlock Scale
  • Where to Look
  • Primary hosts hemlock, fir
  • Secondary Hosts many conifers (not pine)
  • CHECK planted hemlock and fir.
  • Esp. planted before 2001
  • Esp. originating from west and south of Maine.

EHS on hemlock (left) and fir (bottom)
33
Recognizing Elongate Hemlock ScaleWhat to look
for
  • Overall Condition
  • Thin, yellowing foliage
  • Waxy buildup on needles

34
Impacts Elongate Hemlock Scale and/or Hemlock
Woolly Adelgid
  • 3 Es
  • Ecological
  • Economic
  • Esthetic

Hemlock health, Water Quality, Wildlife (deer,
trout), Timber, Landscaping, Recreation
35
Leave Your Firewood at Home
  • Messages
  • Buy firewood locally.
  • Try not to buy firewood harvested more than 50
    miles away.
  • If firewood already moved, burn it within 24 hours

Dont move wood across quarantine lines
Photos Maine Forest Service
36
  • You cant tell by looking whether wood is
    infested.

37
Especially important for out-of-staters- but
also for us
  • Worcester, MA didnt think they had anything to
    worry about for 12-15 years

38
Should I really worry, or are you just trying to
scare me?
  • Detection methods are poor and infestations are
    usually not found early.
  • (ALB in Worcester 8-15 years before noticed)
  • Many of these pests may already be here
  • You are the best ally for your forest
  • Most detections by members of the public
  • There are very few entomologists state-wide we
    need your help
  • Therefore Be informed.
  • Know your trees, what they should look like,
    report concerns/changes.
  • Know invasive threats, know what to look for,
    report concerns.

Photo USFWS
39
What can you do?
  • Spread the word
  • Learn more
  • Keep Your Eyes Open
  • Question, Report!
  • Dont move firewood
  • Volunteer to monitor
  • EAB
  • HWA

40
Questions?
  • allison.m.kanoti_at_maine.gov
  • 168 State House Station
  • 50 Hospital Street
  • Augusta, ME 04333-0168
  • (207) 287-2431
  • www.maineforestservice.org/idmhome.htm
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