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Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene


... effects (e.g., headaches, nausea, blurred vision) from very high acute exposures ... Irritation and frostbite from contact with liquefied butadiene ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene

Occupational Exposureto 1,3-Butadiene
  • 29 CFR 1910.1051

Chemical Identification
  • Gaseous monomer CH2CH-CHCH2
  • Stored as liquid under pressure
  • Stabilizer added to prevent formation of polymer
    during storage

Production and Use
  • US production, 1991 3 billion pounds (almost
    all by
  • ethylene co-product process)
  • Used in manufacture of
  • Rubber (about 60 of total)
  • Precursors of Nylon
  • Rocket propellants
  • Lubricating oil additives
  • Agricultural fungicides
  • Latexes
  • Resins
  • Industrial solvents
  • Anthroquinone dyes

Health Effects
  • CNS effects (e.g., headaches, nausea, blurred
    vision) from very high acute exposures
  • Eye, nose, and throat irritation
  • Irritation and frostbite from contact with
    liquefied butadiene
  • Leukemia and other lymphohematopoietic cancers
    and possible reproductive effects from chronic

Benefits of Standard
  • 7600 US workers exposed to significant
    concentrations of butadiene, as high as 10 ppm
  • New standard estimated to prevent at least 59
    cancer deaths over a 45-year working lifetime

History of Butadiene (BD) Rulemaking
  • 1971 - OSHA adopted original standard for BD
    1000 ppm (TWA) Source 1968 ACGIH TLVs
  • 1983 - NTP determined BD causes cancer in
    rodents OSHA and EPA published RFI

History (contd)
  • 1984 - EPA published ANPR under TSCA various
    unions petitioned OSHA for ETS petitions denied
  • 1985 - EPA completed risk assessment and referred
    BD to OSHA
  • 1986 - OSHA published ANPR
  • 1990 - OSHA published PR with 2 ppm TWA and 10
    ppm STEL

History (contd)
  • 1992 - IARC designated BD as probable human
  • 1996 - Joint labor/industry group submitted
    voluntary agreement outlining recommendations for
    final rule OSHA requested comments on
    recommenda- tions final rule published November
    4, 1996 PELs of 1 ppm TWA, 10 ppm STEL, and AL
    of 0.5 ppm

Unique Features of Standard
  • Respirators - Short replacement intervals
    specified for air-purifying cartridges/canisters
    because of rapid breakthrough and migration of BD
    through filter elements
  • Medical Surveillance - Periodic review of
    aggregated information from medical screening
    program to determine whether employees adversely
    affected by BD

Unique Features (contd)
  • Written Exposure Goal Program
  • Required where exposures gt AL
  • Includes the following unless employer can show
    they are not feasible, effective, or necessary
  • Leak detection and prevention
  • Local exhaust ventilation maintenance
  • Pump exposure control technology
  • Gauging devices to limit exposure
  • Unloading devices to limit exposure
  • Engineering controls in control rooms

(a) Scope and Application
  • All occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD)
  • Exceptions
  • Objective data
  • Liquid mixtures containing 0.1 or less BD by
  • BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or
    sealed transportation pipelines

(b) Definitions
  • Business day - any Monday through Friday,
    except those days designated as federal, state,
    local or company specific holidays
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC)
  • White blood cell count (WBC)
  • Hematocrit (Hct)
  • Hemoglobin (Hgb)
  • Differential count of white blood cells
  • Red blood cell morphology
  • Red blood cell indices
  • Platelet count

(b) Definitions (contd)
  • Day - any part of a calendar day
  • Emergency situation - any occurrence such as,
    but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of
    containers, or failure of control equipment that
    may or does result in an uncontrolled significant
    release of BD

(c) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)
  • 8-Hour TWA 1 ppm
  • STEL 5 ppm
  • There is also an Action Level (AL) of 0.5 ppm
    established by the standard.

(d) Exposure Monitoring
  • Representative breathing zone samples
  • Initial monitoring unless
  • Objective data exist
  • Equivalent monitoring within previous two years
  • Periodic monitoring
  • Where results at or above AL but at or below both
  • Where either PEL exceeded

(d) Exposure Monitoring (contd)
  • Termination of monitoring
  • Additional monitoring
  • Accuracy of monitoring
  • Employee notification of results
  • Observation of monitoring

(e) Regulated Areas
  • Wherever exposures exceed or can be expected to
    exceed either PEL
  • Limited access
  • Demarcation of area
  • Communication with other employers

(f) Methods of Compliance
  • Engineering controls and work practices
  • Respirators as supplemental protection
  • Written compliance plan
  • Employee rotation as a method of compliance

(g) Exposure Goal Program
  • Written plan
  • Required where exposure exceeds AL
  • Updated as necessary
  • Respirator use not required

(g) Exposure Goal Program (contd)
  • Includes the following (unless not feasible, not
    effective, or not necessary to reduce exposures
    below AL)
  • Leak detection and prevention program
  • Local exhaust ventilation maintenance
  • Pump exposure control technology
  • Gauging devices to limit exposure
  • Unloading devices to limit exposure
  • Engineering controls in control rooms

(h) Respiratory Protection
  • Allowable during time to implement engineering
    and work practice controls and as supplement
    where such are not adequate to achieve PELs for
    non-routine, infrequent, and limited-duration
    operations in emergencies
  • Respirator program in accordance with 29 CFR
    1910.134 (b) - (d) except (d)(1)(iii),
    (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1), and (2) and (f) - (m)
  • Selection governed by Table 1 NIOSH-approved
    under 42 CFR Part 84
  • PAPRs or supplied air respirators provided for
    employees who cannot use negative pressure

(h) Respiratory Protection (contd)
  • Replacement intervals for cartridges/ canisters
    governed by
  • Table 1 or
  • 90 of expiration-of-service life or
  • NIOSH-approved end-of-service-life indicator
    (when available)
  • Replacement mandatory any time an employee can
    smell BD

(i) Protective Clothing and Equipment
  • To prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure
  • Eye and face protection governed by 29 CFR

(j) Emergency Situations
  • Written plan for applicable elements of
  • 29 CFR 1910.38, Employee Emergency Plans and
    Fire Prevention Plans
  • 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and
    Emergency Response

(k) Medical Screening and Surveillance
  • Coverage
  • Currently exposed employees
  • Previously exposed employees
  • Administration by physician or other licensed
    health care professional
  • Frequency
  • Health questionnaire and complete blood count
  • Physical examinations initially, every 3 years
    or more frequently at discretion of licensed
    health care professional, and at termination if
    12 or more months have elapsed
  • Within 48 hours following an emergency

(k) Medical Screening and Surveillance (contd)
  • Content
  • For anticipated exposure
  • For emergency exposure
  • Written medical opinion to employer and employee
    within 15 business days
  • Periodic review of aggregated medical screening
    data to determine whether employee population
    adversely affected by exposure employees
    informed of any information learned

(l) Communication of BD Hazards to Employees
  • Communication of hazards as required by Hazard
    Communication Standard
  • Training program for employees potentially
    exposed at or above the AL or STEL to be repeated
  • Contents of training program beyond the Hazard
    Communication Standard
  • Medical screening and surveillance
  • Contents of standard and appendices
  • Rights to employee medical and exposure records

(m) Recordkeeping
  • Objective data for exemption from initial
    monitoring - maintain for duration of reliance on
  • Exposure measurements - maintain for 30 years
  • Respirator fit test records - maintain until next
    fit test
  • Medical screening and surveillance - maintain for
    duration of employment plus 30 years

(n) Dates
  • Effective date February 2, 1997
  • Start-up dates
  • Initial monitoring within 60 days of effective
  • Engineering controls within 2 years of effective
  • Exposure goal program within 3 years of effective
  • Other requirements, including feasible work
    practice controls, within 180 days of effective

(o) Appendices
  • Informational
  • A - Substance Safety Data Sheet for 1,3-Butadiene
  • B - Substance Technical Guidelines for
  • C - Medical Screening and Surveillance for
  • D - Sampling and Analytical Method for
  • F - Medical Questionnaires
  • Reserved - Appendix E
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