FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 156e0-NWJlM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Description:

Labia Minora. small lips. Internal Genitalia: Essential Organs: A. ... Labia minora. Clitoris. Urethral opening. Bartholin glands. Secretes lubricating fluid ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:564
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 98
Provided by: DrJ75
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


1
  • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • By
  • Dr. Jay Shahed

2
External Genitalia
  • Mons Pubis
  • Top space of external genitalia
  • Clitoris
  • Most innervated part of E.G.
  • Replaces the Penis in males.
  • Hymen
  • Sheet that covers entrance of vagina
  • Perineum
  • Space between genitalia and anus.
  • Episiotomy location during delivery.

3
  • Labia Majora
  • Large lips
  • Outer boarders
  • Labia Minora
  • small lips

4
Internal Genitalia
  • Essential Organs
  • A. Ovaries
  • Female oval gonads
  • Has follicles
  • 1 million at birth
  • 400 at puberty
  • Few around Menopause

5
Ovarian Cycle
  • Primary follicles
  • secondary follicle
  • Granulosa cells, Antrum,Corpus Luteum Corpus
    Albicans.
  • Granulosa cells
  • Produces Estrogen
  • Corpus Luteum
  • Produces progesterone

6
Ovulation
  • The expulsion of the ovum from the Ovary.
  • Occurs 14 days before the start of the next
    expected Menstrual cycle.

7
Oogenesis
  • The meiotic cell division.
  • Ovum
  • 1 Ovum 1 polar body
  • (functional ) (unfunctional)
  • (23 chromosomes)
    (23 chromosomes)

8
Fallopian Tubes
  • 10 cm long both sides
  • Fimbrae
  • Finger like projections
  • Infundibulem
  • Funnel part
  • Tube
  • Opens into uterus one side and other to abdominal
    cavity

9
Uterus
  • Parts
  • Fundus
  • Top part
  • Body
  • Center part
  • Cervix
  • The mouth
  • Cervical canal
  • Cervix

10
Muscular layers
  • Epimetrium
  • The most outer layer
  • Myometrium
  • Middle layer (Thickest )
  • Endometrium
  • Internal layer

11
Vagina
  • 10 cm long
  • Located between the rectum and the bladder
  • Hymen
  • covers the outside opening

12
Vestibule
  • The oval space that includes
  • Labia minora
  • Clitoris
  • Urethral opening
  • Bartholin glands
  • Secretes lubricating fluid

13
Menstrual Cycle ( See Chart)
  • Is the normal body physiological changes that a
    woman goes through on a monthly basis.
  • Normal range 21-34 days
  • Changes occurs in
  • Uterus
  • Ovaries
  • Vagina
  • Breast

14
Menstrual Phases
  • Menses( Menstrual period) 1-5 days
  • Uterine tissue shreds leaving torn blood vessels
    that causes bleeding.
  • Hormonal changes
  • LH level Low
  • FSH level Low
  • Estrogen level Low
  • Progesterone level Low

15
  • Proliferative phase 6-13 days
  • Epithelial cells reproduce, repairing uterine
    lining
  • Hormonal changes
  • LH level Low
  • FSH level Low
  • Estrogen level Low
  • Progesterone level Low

16
  • Ovulation Day 14
  • the expulsion of the ovum from the follicle and
    ovary into the pelvic cavity and then moving to
    the Fallopian tube for possible fertilization.
  • Hormonal changes
  • LH level High
  • FSH level High
  • Estrogen level High
  • Progesterone level Low

17
  • Secretory phase Day 15-28
  • Uterine lining prepares for pregnancy
  • Thickening of the Endometrium
  • Secreting and development of greater blood
    vessels
  • Last day Blood supply decreases greatly causing
    some lining cells to die.
  • Implantation of fertilized ovum
  • Hormonal changes
  • LH level Low
  • FSH level Low
  • Estrogen level Moderate
  • Progesterone level High

18
  • OBSTATRICS
  • GYNECOLGICAL
  • Disorders

19
Premenstrual syndrome ( PMS )
  • Occurs 1-2 weeks before menstruation
  • SS
  • Bloating / irritability
  • Nervousness
  • Numbness
  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • Rhinitis
  • Change in appetite
  • Tx. Salt restrictions

20
Spontaneous Abortion?
  • Miscarriage
  • If less than 20 weeks
  • Still birth
  • If after 20 weeks
  • Symptoms
  • Bleeding, cramps, rupture of membrane
  • Management
  • If Incomplete abortion Do DC (dilation
    curettage)

21
Causes
  • Congenital defect development
  • Abnormal Placenta Previa
  • Abrupta Placenta
  • Endocrine problems
  • Malnutrition
  • Infections
  • Drugs
  • Blood disorder (Erythro Blastosis Fetalis)
    mother ( Rh-) , father ( Rh) child ( Rh)

22
Amenorrhea
  • Absence of menstruation
  • Primary
  • the failure of menstruating
  • Stress, hormonal imbalance, genetic, brain tumors
  • Secondary
  • Loss of 3 or more cycles
  • Weight loss, pregnancy, lactation, menopause,
    pathological.

23
Dysfunctional Uterine bleeding (DUB)
  • Irregular or excessive uterine bleeding
  • Cause
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Hyperplasia of the uterus

24
Toxic Shock syndrome
  • Allergic reaction to the tampon fibers
  • Staphylococcus infection
  • Super infection, septic shock

25
Vaginitis
  • Inflammation or infection of the vagina
  • STD, Yeast infection

26
Cervicitis
  • Abnormal Thick, purulent white discharges.
  • Dysuria pain on urination.
  • Most frequent after vaginal erosion during
    delivery.

27
Cystocele
  • Protrusion of bladder into vagina
  • Causes
  • injury during birth
  • obesity
  • heavy lifting
  • chronic coughing
  • Aging (decrease muscular tone).

28
Dysmenorrhea
  • Spasmodic pelvic pain during menstruation
  • M/F young females (12-14 hrs) start before
    menstrual cycle and last for 24-48hrs.
  • Decrease in elderliness
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness.
  • Nausea / Vomiting diarrhea
  • Fatigue.
  • Low back pain
  • Could also follow an organic Disease.
  • . TX. Surgery

29
  • Cancers
  • Tumors

30
Ovarian cancer
  • Affect 1/70 woman in the USA
  • Usually caused by adenocaricenoma
  • Difficult to detect early
  • Risk factors
  • Age 40 and over
  • Infertility
  • Nullipara
  • Hx of miscarriages
  • Endometriosis

31
Cervical cancer
  • Ages 30-50
  • Often Dx. Early
  • Pap smear
  • Risk factors
  • Multiple partners
  • Sexually active
  • Early age sex
  • Orientals

32
Breast cancer
  • Most common type of cancer in women
  • Common age 40
  • Early detection
  • Self Examination
  • Mammogram annually after age 40 if there is a
    family Hx.

33
Endometriosis
  • Presence of endometrial tissues outside uterus.
    (Menstrual fragments)
  • Causes
  • possible after uterus surgery
  • poor nutrition
  • hormonal influence
  • intercourse during menstruation
  • use of tampons

34
  • SS
  • Lower abdominal pelvic pain.
  • Profuse menses.
  • Rectal bleeding
  • N/V
  • Abdominal cramps.
  • Treatment
  • Hormones therapy
  • Surgery Hysterectomy.

35
Fibrocystic Disease
  • Multiple palpable lumps
  • - breast pain, sacs filled with fluid
  • High Risk of Cancer

36
Fibroid Tumors
  • Benign tumors of smooth muscles or connective
    tissue
  • M/F pelvic tumor in females.
  • Cause unknown
  • Menorrhagia increase menstruation volume.
  • Bladder or rectal pregnancy
  • Pain
  • abdominal symptoms
  • Tx. - surgery

37
Ovarian Cysts
  • Sacs (follicles) filled with blood pus or fluid.
  • Occurs before menopause.
  • Tx Surgery

38
Signs Symptoms
  • Bleeding
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Pelvo-abdominal pain
  • Dx Ultra Sound.

39
Polyps
  • Second Most Frequent abnormality during
    reproductive years (13-40)
  • SS
  • Bleeding after intercourse, douching or tampon
    insertion
  • Tx. Surgery

40
Pelvic inflammatory disease( PID).
  • Multiple pelvic organs are involved.
  • Acute or chronic
  • cervix- Cervicitis
  • Uterus- endometritis.
  • tube - salpangitis
  • Ovaries- oophoritis.

41
  • Most Frequent causes
  • Gonorrhea
  • After the insertion of an IUD
  • Post - operative.
  • Abortion.
  • S S
  • discharge, fever, pain, Dysuria, bleeding, N/V

42
Rectocele
  • Protrusion of the rectum into vagina
  • Post menopausal
  • After pregnancy due to (instruments)

43
  • Sexually Transmitted Disease
  • ( STD )

44
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • ( AIDS)

45
Causative agent
  • HIV virus

46
Transmission
  • Direct contact of body fluid
  • (Serum, CSF, Sperms )
  • Break in the skin or mucosa
  • Sexual contact with infected partner
  • Sharing needles for IV drug use.
  • Contact with contaminated blood or body fluids
  • Blood transfusion ( if not properly screened).
  • Mother -fetus transmission.
  • HIV is not transmitted through
  • Casual contact
  • Insect bite

47
Mechanism
  • HIV attacking the T-Helper cell (CD4, CD8)
    which assist the bodys antibodies fight
    infections.

48
Phases Of AIDS
  • Incubation period (Replication period)
  • 1-3 months
  • Reaches the seroconversion to the antibody
    positive state.
  • Usually Asymptomatic
  • If Symptomatic
  • Malaise, sore throat, cold symptoms, pyrexia
  • If severe
  • Meningitis, Encephalopathy

49
  • Latent stage
  • 8-14 years
  • Infectious period
  • Asymptomatic

50
  • Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy stage (
    PGL )
  • Painless lymphadenopathy
  • Tonsillar enlargement
  • Mild fever
  • General malaise
  • Sweating
  • Weight loss

51
  • AIDS- related complex stage
  • CD4CD8 ratio drops to below 1.0
  • Marked malaise
  • Significant weight loss
  • Adenitis
  • Blood disorders
  • Anemia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Leukopenia

52
  • Skin lesions
  • Seborrhoec dermatitis
  • Oral Candidiasis ( Thrush)
  • Hairy leukoplakia
  • Herpes simplex
  • Herpes Zoster ( Shingles)
  • Impetigo
  • Vasculitis
  • Psoriasis

53
  • Other Opportunistic infections stage ( OI )
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia ( PCP )
  • Parasite
  • Aspergillosis
  • Fungal infection of many organs ( Lung).
  • Nocardiosis
  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Abscesses of brain and skin
  • Cytomegalavirus
  • Virus

54
  • Atypical mycobacterium
  • Bacteria
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Protozoan parasite
  • Brain, eyes.

55
  • Malignancies
  • Kaposis sarcoma
  • vascular skin and mucous membrane tumor
  • Non- Hodgkins Lymphoma
  • Tumors of the lymph nodes

56
  • Slim disease
  • severe weight loss
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Dementia
  • Enlarged lateral ventricles

57
  • HIV detection
  • Seropositive test
  • Positive antibody titer
  • Seronegative test
  • Negative antibody titer
  • Possibly did not reach the titer level to test
    positive ( 1-3 months)
  • ELISA
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
  • Blood test ( HIV antibodies)
  • Western blot
  • Blood test to confirm ELISA

58
.Herpes Simplex II (Genital Herpes)
  • Cause
  • Varecella virus
  • SS
  • Labial vesicles.
  • Tx.
  • Zovirax

59
Gonorrhea
  • MF. Neisseria Gonorrhea.
  • Greenish, yellowish discharge
  • Tx.
  • Ceftriaxone Doxycycline IM
  • Dx.
  • Microscopic.

60
Syphilis (spirochetes).
  • Chancre painless, non-itching lesion
  • Lymph nodes, skin, mucous is involved
  • Goes to brain and other systems
  • Test
  • FTA-ABS (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody with
    Absorbed Serum)
  • VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Lab). Dark Field
    Microscope
  • Tx. Benzathine ( Penicillin)

61
Trichomoniasis Vaginalis
  • Parasite.
  • Yellow foul discharge
  • Dx.
  • Microscopic
  • Tx.
  • Metronidazole
  • Tx both sexes

62
Canadidiasis ( Candida albican )
  • Yeast like fungus
  • Normally in mouth, skin, GI, vagina
  • Overgrowth can be caused by
  • Long-term antibiotics.
  • Estrogen levels.
  • Diabetes
  • Tight clothes.
  • SS
  • itching, dry white thick discharge
  • Tx.
  • Miconazole (Nystatin).

63
Chlamydia Trachomatis ( Lymphogranuloma-venereum)
  • Specialized bacteria.
  • Affects the lymph nodes
  • Causes infection
  • Associated disorders
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Vaginitis
  • Infertility
  • Proctitis.
  • Endometritis
  • Pneumonitis
  • Can transmit to newborn through vagina.

64
  • SS -
  • vaginal discharge
  • Dysuria
  • Frequency in urination.
  • Tx
  • Tetracycline

65
Chancroid
  • Bacteria
  • Starts with a small papule on the skin
  • Changes to a painful coin shape ulcer
  • More frequent in men.
  • Tx.
  • Ceftriaxone

66
Genital warts
  • HPV-6 HPV-7
  • Caused by Papillomavirus
  • Nipple like genital lesions
  • Tx.
  • Surgery
  • Interferon

67
Giardiasis
  • Protozoan ( Giardia lamblia )
  • Sexual transmission causes intestinal infection
  • Could be Asymptomatic
  • If symptomatic
  • Diarrhea
  • Malabsorbtion
  • Tx Quinacrine

68
Hepatitis
  • HBV
  • Causes liver disease
  • Fever
  • Jaundice
  • Tx
  • Symptomatic
  • Prevention
  • Vaccination.

69
Scabies
  • Mites, lice
  • Pubic skin rash
  • Secondary bacterial infection
  • Transmitted through touch
  • TX
  • Special shampoo and comb for 7-10 days ( Sulfur )
  • Steroids
  • Oral antibiotics if another infection occurs
  • Treat all other family members involved
  • Wash all clothes, furniture, carpet

70
Pregnancy
  • 1st trimester -
  • Last menstrual period to 14 week.
  • 2nd trimester -
  • 15th week to 28th week.
  • 3rd trimester -
  • 28th week to delivery.

71
Labor
  • 1st stage
  • onset F labor (complete dilation)
  • 2nd stage
  • complete dilation to birth.
  • 3rd stage
  • birth to expulsion of placenta membrane.

72
Abnormalities
  • Placenta Previa
  • Misimplantation of the placenta
  • Abrupta Placenta
  • Detachment of the Placenta.

73
  • Male
  • REPRODUCTIVE
  • SYSTEM

74
External Genitalia
  • Penis
  • 2 Corpora Cavernosa ducts
  • Filled with blood
  • Scrotum
  • Sac like structure contains testes
  • Prepuce
  • Foreskin

75
Internal Structures
  • Essential organs
  • Gonads (testicles)
  • Tunica Albuginea
  • Lines outside of testes
  • Seminefrous tubules
  • Production of sperm
  • Interstitial cells
  • Production of testosterone

76
Accessory Organs
  • Ducts
  • Epididymis
  • coiled tube 6m in length
  • Lies on top of testes
  • Sperm maturity
  • Vas Deferens (Ductus)
  • Receives sperm from the Epididymis through pelvic
    cavity
  • Passes through the Inguinal Canal

77
  • Ejaculating Duct
  • Connected to seminal vesicle gland and Urethra
  • Passes fluid from the seminal vesicle
  • Prostatic duct
  • Duct going through prostate from bladder to
    urethra
  • Transport prostrate fluid
  • Bulbourethral duct
  • Duct from Cowper gland to urethra

78
Sex Glands
  • 3-5 ml of fluid with 100 million sperms
  • 1.Seminal Vesicles
  • Produces 60 of seminal fluid
  • Yellow, thick, rich in fructose
  • Provides energy for sperm mobility

79
  • 2.Prostate gland
  • Doughnut shape
  • Seminal fluid
  • Milk colored secretion
  • Produces white-fluid that consist of 30 of
    seminal fluid

80
  • 3.Bulbounethral gland (Cowpers)
  • Pea shape and size
  • Mucus like fluid

81
Meiosis
  • Spermatogenesis
  • Production of sperm (Spermatozoa)
  • Spermatogonium
  • primary Spermatocyte

82
  • Male Reproductive Disorders

83
Prostate
  • Prostate hypertrophy
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Affects older people over 50
  • Prostatitis
  • Inflammation of the Prostate.
  • Causes
  • viral infection
  • Urethral Catheter.

84
Penis
  • Phimosis
  • Tight foreskin

85
Scrotum
  • Hydrocele
  • Accumulation of fluid in scrotum
  • Varcocele
  • Ruptured veins in scrotum
  • Inguinal hernia
  • Loosening of muscular wall and bulging

86
Testes
  • Cryptorchidism
  • Undescended testes
  • Testicular Cancer
  • M/F of male cancer
  • Black twice frequent white
  • Genetic diet.
  • MF form adenoma sarcoma
  • Tx.
  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy

87
Epididymis
  • Epididymitis
  • Sperm mature develop the ability to swim
  • Causes
  • Bacterial infection
  • SS
  • Pain inguinal canal
  • Swelling in groin scrotum
  • Decrease Spermatozoa (infertility).
  • Tx.
  • Antibiotics Pillow under scrotum

88
Sterility
  • Absence of sperm production

89
  • Congenital Disorders

90
Impotency
  • Unable to reach or maintain an erection
  • Causes
  • Metabolic disorder
  • 50 psychological 50 physical.
  • Nerve damage
  • Decrease testosterone
  • Decrease sperm count.
  • Decrease normal Temp.( 1C, 3F cooler than body).

91
  • The inability
  • to
  • reproduce

Infertility
92
  • Affects one in six couples
  • The causes are often known and many can be
    corrected.
  • Rates are rising in the USA.

93
MALE INFERTILITY
  • Causes
  • Abnormal sperm structure ( shape )
  • Low sperm count ( less than 400 million )
  • Hormonal imbalance ( Decrease testosterone).
  • Increase scrotum temperature ( inflammation).
  • Diseases ( diabetes, Immune disorders,
    Cryptorchidism ( Undescended testes)
  • Psychological

94
Treatment
  • Surgical repair of abnormal structures
  • Balance hormones.
  • Treat underline disease
  • Undesended testes
  • diabetes

95
Female infertility
  • Abnormality in the reproductive tract structures.
  • Older woman increase risk of producing abnormal
    chromosomes.
  • Abnormal menstrual cycle
  • ( basal body temperature changes).
  • Pathological disorders
  • Ovarian tumors
  • Gland imbalance ( Pituitary, Thyroid, Increase
    prolactin ).

96
  • Vaginal and cervical secretion problems
  • Thick, sticky Low sperm
  • PH imbalance inactive sperms
  • Female antibodies Kills sperms
  • Oocyte fails to produce sperm attraction.
  • Psychological

97
Treatment in females
  • Fertility drugs
  • stimulates ovulation( watch for multiple births)
  • Oocyte donation or ovarian transplant.
  • Surgical repair of abnormal structures.
  • Surgical removal of fibroids,endometriosis
About PowerShow.com