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Scheduling Parameter Sweep Applications


... Jay Siegel, Noah Beck, Ladislau L. B l ni, Albert I. Reuther, Mitchell ... Oltikar, Ashish Mehta, Ron Pichel, Aaron Horiuchi, Vladimir Shestak, Mohammad Al ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scheduling Parameter Sweep Applications

Scheduling Parameter Sweep Applications
  • Sathish Vadhiyar
  • Sources/Credits Papers on survey of heuristis
    and APST papers. Figures taken from the papers

  • Tasks of a job do not have dependencies
  • A machine executes a single task at a time
    space shared machines
  • Collection of tasks and machines are known
  • Matching of tasks to machines done offline
  • Estimates of execution time for each task on each
    machine is known

Scheduling Problem
  • ETC Expected time to compute matrix
  • ETC(i,j) estimated execution time of task i on
    machine j
  • Notations
  • mat(j) machine availability time for machine j,
    i.e., earliest time at which j has completed all
    tasks that were previously assigned to it
  • Completion time, ct(i,j) mat(j)ETC(i,j)
  • Objective find max ct(i, j), makespan, and find
    heuristic with minimum makespan

Scheduling Heuristics
  • Opportunistic Load Balancing (OLB)
  • Assign next task (arbitrary order) to the next
    available machine
  • Regardless of tasks ETC on that machine
  • User Directed Allocation (UDA)
  • Assign next task (arbitrary order) to the machine
    with lowest ETC
  • Regardless of machine availability
  • Fast greedy
  • Assign each task (arbitrary order) to the machine
    with minimum ct

Scheduling Heuristics
  • 4. Min-Min
  • Start with a list of Unmapped tasks, U.
  • Determine the set of minimum completion times for
  • Choose the next task that has min of min
    completion times and assign to the machine that
    provides the min. completion time.
  • The new mapped task is removed from U and the
    process is repeated.
  • Theme - Map as many tasks as possible to their
    first choice of machine
  • Since short jobs are mapped first, the percentage
    of tasks that are allocated to their first choice
    is high

Scheduling Heuristics
  • 5. Max-Min
  • Start with a list of Unmapped tasks, U.
  • Determine the set of minimum completion times for
  • Choose the next task that has max of min
    completion times and assign to the machine that
    provides the min. completion time.
  • The new mapped task is removed from U and the
    process is repeated.
  • Avoid starvation of long tasks
  • Long tasks executed concurrently with short tasks
  • Better machine-utilization
  • 6. Greedy
  • Combination of max-min and min-min
  • Evaluates both and finds the better solution

Scheduling Heuristics
  • Genetic Algorithm

  • Operates 200 chromosomes. A chromosome represents
    a mapping of task to machines, a vector of size
  • Initial population 200 chromosomes randomly
    generated with 1 Min-Min seed
  • Evaluation initial population evaluated based
    on fitness value (makespan)
  • Selection
  • Roulette wheel probabilistically generate new
    population, with better mappings, from previous
  • Elitism guaranteeing that the best solution
    (fittest) is carried forward

GA - Roulette wheel scheme
  • Chromosomes 1 2 3 4
  • Score 4 10 14 2
  • Probability of 0.13 0.33 0.47 0.07
  • selection
  • Select a random number, r, between 0 and 1.
  • Progressively add the probabilities until the sum
    is greater than r

  • Crossover
  • Choose pairs of chromosomes.
  • For every pair
  • Choose a random point
  • exchange machine assignments from that point till
    the end of the chromosome
  • Mutation. For every chromosome
  • Randomly select a task
  • Randomly reassign it to new machine
  • Evaluation
  • Stopping criterion
  • Either 1000 iterations or
  • No change in elite chromosome for 150 iterations

Simulated Annealing
  • Poorer solutions accepted with a probability that
    depends on temperature value
  • Initial mapping
  • Initial temperature initial makespan
  • Each iteration
  • Generate new mapping based on mutation of prev.
    mapping. Obtain new makespan
  • If new makespan better, accept
  • If new makespan worse, accept if a random number
    z in 0,1 gt y where
  • Reduce temperature by 10

Genetic Simulated Annealing (GSA)
  • Almost same as GA
  • During selection, SA is employed to form new
  • Initial system temperature average makespan of
    the population
  • Each iteration of GA
  • Post-mutation or post-crossover, during a
    comparison of chromosome with the previous
  • if (new makespan) lt (old makespan
    temperature), new chromosome becomes part of the
  • Temperature decreased by 10

Tabu search
  • Keeps track of regions of solution space that
    have already been searched
  • Starts with a random mapping
  • Generate all possible pairs of tasks, (i,j), t in
    (0, t-1) and j in (i1, t)
  • i and js machine assignments are exchanged
    (short hop) and makespan evaluated
  • If makespan better (successful short hop), search
    begins from i0, else search continues from
    previous (i,j)
  • Continue until 1200 successful short hops or all
    pairs have been evaluated
  • Add final mapping to tabu list. The list keeps
    track of solution space searched
  • A new random mapping generated that differs from
    solution space by atleast half the machine
    assignments (long hop)
  • Search continued until fixed number of short and
    long hops

A Comparison Study of Static Mapping Heuristics
for a Class of Meta-Tasks on Heterogeneous
Computing Systems Tracy D. Braun et. al
Simulation Results
  • ETC matrix randomly generated using uniform
  • ETC matrices may be
  • Consistent m/c i faster than m/c j for all
    tasks. Each row is sorted across all columns.
  • Inconsistent not sorted
  • Semi-consistent sorted across even columns.
  • t512, m16
  • OLB, UDA, Fast Greedy and Greedy few seconds
  • SA, tabu 30 seconds
  • GA, GSA 60 seconds
  • A - 20 minutes

Task execution results
  • Consistent cases
  • UDA performs worst in consistent cases why?
  • Inconsistent cases
  • UDA improves because best machines are
    distributed avoiding load imbalance
  • Fast greedy and Min-Min improve upon UDA since
    they consider MCTs and MCTs are also evenly
  • Tabu search gave poor performance for
    inconsistent cases since there are more
    successful short hops than long hops.
  • In both cases, Min-Min performed better than
    Max-Min due to the nature of the task mix
  • In both cases, GAs performed the best.

All tasks were assigned the same machine
AppLeS Parameter Sweep Template (APST)
  • For efficient deployment of parameter sweep
    applications on the Grid
  • Distinct experiments share large input files and
    produce large output files
  • Shared data files must be co-located with
  • PSA set of independent tasks
  • Input set of files, a single file can be input
    to more than 1 task
  • Output each task produces exactly one output
  • Number of computational tasks in PSA orders of
    magnitude greater than number of processors

Scheduling Heuristics
  • Self-scheduled workqueue
  • Adaptive scheduling algorithm assigns tasks to
    nodes as soon as they are available in a greedy
  • Suitable
  • If no large input files
  • Large clusters interconnected with high-speed
  • Computation to data-movement times are high

Gantt Chart
Step 4
  • Min-min
  • f minimum of CTi,j
  • Best minimum
  • Max-min
  • f minimum of CTi,j
  • Best maximum
  • Sufferage
  • f ratio between second minimum and minimum
  • Best maximum
  • a host should be given to a task that would
    suffer the most if not given the host
  • XSufferage
  • Site-level
  • Cluster-level MCTs and cluster-level sufferage
  • Avoids deficiencies of sufferage when a tasks
    input file is in a cluster and 2 hosts in the
    cluster have identical performance

Sufferage and XSufferage
Host k in cluster j
Sufferage and XSufferage
Sample APST Setup
Impact of Quality of Information on Scheduling
  • Random noise -p,p p 0-100 added to
    accuracy of estimates

Robust Static Allocation of Resources for
Independent Tasks-Sugavanam et. al., JPDC 2007
  • ETC numbers are just estimates and inaccurate
  • Need to map tasks to maximize the robustness of
    makespan against estimation errors
  • Robustness?
  • Degradation in makespan is within acceptable
    limits when estimates are perturbed
  • The goal is to maximize the collective allowable
    error in estimation without makespan exceeding
    the constraint

Problem Formulation
  • Cest vector of estimated execution times on a
  • C vector of actual times
  • Performance feature, Ø that determines the
    robustness of the makespan is the finish times of
    machines Fj, 1ltjltM
  • Robustness radius for machine j and for mapping
    µ minimum Euclidean distance between C and Cest
    within which the finish time of machine j can
    reach tolerable variation

Robustness Radius
  • Within this robustness radius, the finish time of
    machine j will be atmost the makespan constraint,
  • The above equation can be interpreted as the
    perpendicular distance from cest to the
    hyperplane, tau-Fj(C) 0
  • Rewritten as

Robustness Metric
  • Robustness metric for the mapping
  • If Euclidean distance between actual and
    estimated is no larger than the above metric, the
    makespan will be atmost the constraint, tau
  • The larger the robustness metric, better the
  • Thus the problem is to maximize the metric such
    that the makespan is within the time constraint

Heuristics Max-Max
Greedy Iterative Maximization (GIM)
Greedy Iterative Maximization (GIM)
Sum Iterative Maximization (SIM)
Robustness improvement change in the sum of
the robustness radii of the machines after task
reassignment or swapping
Sum Iterative Maximization (SIM)
Memetic Algorithm
  • Combines global search using genetic algorithm
    and local search using hill climbing

HereBoy Evolutionary Algorithm
  • Combines GA and SA

HereBoy Evolutionary Algorithm
Reduces the mutation as the current robustness
reaches upper bound
User defined maximum mutation rate
User defined maximum probability
Probability of accepting a poorer solution
UB calculation for Hereboy
  • Assumes a homogeneous MET system execution time
    for a task on all machines is equal to minimum
    execution time on the original set of machines
  • The tasks are arranged in ascending order
  • NT/M. The first N tasks are stored in a set S

GIM and SIM had low makespan and high robustness
  • The AppLeS Parameter Sweep Template User-Level
    Middleware for the Grid by Henri Casanova,
    Graziano Obertelli, Francine Berman and Rich
    wolski Proceedings of the Super Computing
    Conference (SC'2000).
  • Heuristics for Scheduling Parameter Sweep
    applications in Grid environments by Henri
    Casanova, Arnaud Legrand, Dmitrii Zagorodnov and
    Francine Berman in Proceedings of the 9th
    Heterogeneous Computing workshop (HCW'2000),
  • A Comparison Study of Static Mapping Heuristics
    for a Class of Meta-Tasks on Heterogeneous
    Computing Systems Tracy D. Braun, Howard Jay
    Siegel, Noah Beck, Ladislau L. Bölóni, Albert I.
    Reuther, Mitchell D. Theys, Bin Yao, Richard F.
    Freund, Muthucumaru Maheswaran, James P.
    Robertson, Debra Hensgen, Eighth Heterogeneous
    Computing Workshop , April 12 - 12, 1999, San
    Juan, Puerto Rico Page 15
  • Robust static allocation of resources for
    independent tasks under makespan and dollar cost
    constraints. Journal of Parallel and Distributed
    Computing, Volume 67, Issue 4, April 2007, Pages
    400-416. Prasanna Sugavanam, H.J. Siegel, Anthony
    A. Maciejewski, Mohana Oltikar, Ashish Mehta, Ron
    Pichel, Aaron Horiuchi, Vladimir Shestak,
    Mohammad Al-Otaibi, Yogish Krishnamurthy, et al.

Simulation Background
  • ETC(i,j) B(i)xrij
  • B(i) xbi xbi ? 1, ?b
  • xrij ? 1, ?r
  • ?r, ?b can control machine and task heterogeneity
  • ETC matrix randomly generated using uniform

Models used in APST
  • Goal
  • Minimize applications makespan - time between
    when 1st input file submitted and when last
    output file is obtained
  • Sched()
  • Takes into account resource performance estimates
    to generate a plan for assigning file transfers
    to links and tasks to hosts
  • Call sched repeatedly at various point of time
    (called scheduling events) to make it more
  • At each scheduling event, sched() knows
  • Grid topology
  • Number and locations of copies of input files
  • List of computations and file transfers currently
    underway or already completed

APST Architecture
NWS also used for forecasting ETC values