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The Benefits of Inclusive Environments Greater Expectations Institute Association of American Colleg


Hurtado, Milem, Clayton-Pedersen and Allen. Students are educated in distinct racial contexts ... intergroup. Contact person: Dr. Kris Ewing. 480-965-1547 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Benefits of Inclusive Environments Greater Expectations Institute Association of American Colleg

The Benefits of Inclusive EnvironmentsGreater
Expectations InstituteAssociation of American
Colleges and UniversitiesSnowbird, UtahJune 24,
  • Jeffrey F. Milem Jesús Treviño
  • University of Maryland University of Denver

  • Effective participation by members of all racial
    and ethnic groups in the civic life of our Nation
    is essential if the dream of one Nation,
    indivisible, is to be realized
  • -- Justice OConnor in Grutter v. Bollinger

Myths about Racial Diversity in Higher Education
  • Past inequalities in access and opportunities
    that racial and ethnic minority groups have
    suffered have been sufficiently addressed and no
    longer require attention
  • Merit can be defined exclusively by test scores
  • Fairness is best achieved through race-neutral
  • Diversity programs benefit only students of color

Types of Diversity
  • Structural Diversity
  • the numerical and proportional representation of
    students from different racial/ethnic groups in
    the student body (Hurtado, Milem,
    Clayton-Pedersen, Allen, 1998, 1999)
  • Diversity of Interactions
  • Interactions with diverse information and ideas
    and interactions with diverse people
  • Institutional Diversity-Related Initiatives
  • include core diversity courses, ethnic/area
    studies courses, intergroup dialogue programs,
    cultural awareness workshops, etc. that occur on
    college and university campuses

Theory Linking Diversity and Learning
  • Encountering the new and unfamiliar causes us to
    abandon routines and actively think
  • Disequilibrium occurs when one encounters
    perspectives that depart from ones own embedded
    worldview and past experiences
  • Learning and social development occurs when
    interacting with others who hold different
  • Campus diversity creates conditions--unfamiliarity
    , disequilibrium, differing perspectives, and
    contradictory expectations--that promote learning
    and deeper complex thinking

Conditions that Make Diversity Work
  • Presence of diverse peers
  • Discontinuity from previous experiences
  • Equality among peers
  • Discussion under rules of civil discourse
  • Opportunities for the normalization and
    negotiation of conflict

Types of Benefits
  • Individual Benefits
  • ways in which the educational experiences and
    outcomes of individual students are enhanced by
    the presence of diversity on campus
  • Institutional Benefits
  • ways in which diversity enhances the ability of
    colleges and universities to achieve their
    missionsparticularly related to the missions of
    teaching, research, and service
  • Economic and Private Sector Benefits
  • ways in which diversity enhances the economy and
    the functioning of organizations and businesses
    in the private sector
  • Societal Benefits
  • ways in which diversity in colleges and
    universities impact quality of life issues in the
    larger society

Types of Individual Outcomes
  • Gurin (1999) identified two major types of
    individual outcomes
  • Learning outcomes
  • Democracy outcomes
  • citizenship engagement
  • racial/cultural engagement
  • compatibility of differences
  • Synthesis of research (Milem Hakuta, 2000
    Milem, in press) suggests that there are also two
    other types of outcomes
  • Process outcomes
  • Material outcomes

Gurins Study of the Outcomes of Diversity
  • Democracy Outcomes
  • increases in racial understanding
  • higher levels of cultural awareness and
  • engagement with social and political issues
  • openness to diversity and challenge
  • decreases in racial stereotyping and levels of
  • breaks cycle of perpetuation of segregation
  • Learning Outcomes
  • growth in active thinking processes
  • increases in measures of complex thinking and
    social/ historical thinking
  • higher levels of intellectual engagement and
  • higher post-graduate degree aspirations

Material Outcomes
  • Bowen and Bok (1998)
  • African American males average annual income of
    82,000 (twice that of other African American
  • African American females annual income of 58,500
    (80 more than other African American graduates)
  • Daniel, Black, and Smith (2001)
  • Found that attending a more diverse quality
    college predicted increased earnings for Black
    and White men

Process Outcomes
  • Study of Harvard and Michigan Law Students
    (Orfield and Whitla, 2001)
  • 90 percent of students indicated that exposure to
    racial and ethnic diversity had positive impact
    on their law school experience
  • 65 percent indicated that diversity improved
    in-class discussions
  • 62 percent indicated that diversity improved
    their ability to work and get along with others
  • 80 percent reported that discussions with
    students from different races significantly
    affected their views of the criminal justice

Why Its Difficult to Institutionalize Diversity
  • Institutional Isomorphism
  • Emphasis on Resources and Reputation
  • Organizational Inertia
  • Organizational Externalities

Transformational Natureof Diversity
  • Actualizing the value-added educational benefits
    associated with diversity requires active
    engagement in institutional transformation and
    raises critically important questions that must
    be answered (Chang, 2002)
  • Who deserves an opportunity to learn?
  • How is the potential for learning evaluated?
  • What is learned?
  • Who oversees learning?
  • What conditions advance learning for all
  • Who decides what is important to learn?

Enhancing the Campus Racial ClimateKey
Considerations/Assumptions Based on the work of
Hurtado, Milem, Clayton-Pedersen and Allen
  • Students are educated in distinct racial contexts

  • These contexts are shaped by external and
    internal (institutional) forces
  • Most institutions focus on only one element of
    the climate--increasing the numbers of
    racial/ethnic students on campus
  • There are other elements of the climate that
    require attention and constitute key areas for
    focusing diversity efforts

Hurtado, et. al., (1999). Enacting diverse
learning environments Improving the campus
climate for racial/ethnic diversity. ASHE/ERIC
Higher Education Reports Series, San Francisco
Jossey Bass.
External Forces Shaping Climate
  • represent the impact of governmental policy,
    programs, and initiatives
  • financial aid policies and programs
  • state and federal policy regarding affirmative
  • court decisions related to desegregation of
    higher education and/or affirmative action
  • the manner in which states provide for
    institutional differentiation within their state
    system of higher education
  • represent the impact of sociohistorical forces
  • events or issues in the larger society that are
    connected to the ways in which people view racial
    diversity in society

Institutional Forces Shaping Climate
  • The institutional context contains multiple
    dimensions that are a function of educational
    programs and practices. These include
  • an institutions historical legacy of inclusion
    or exclusion of various racial/ethnic groups
  • its structural/compositional diversity in terms
    of numerical representation of various
    racial/ethnic groups
  • the psychological climate that include
    perceptions and attitudes between and among
  • a behavioral climate that is characterized by
    intergroup relations on campus
  • A organizational/structural dimension that
    represents campus policies, procedures, and
    decision-making practices

The Campus Racial Climate
Historical Legacy of Inclusion or Exclusion
  • The historical vestiges of segregated schools and
    colleges continue to affect the climate for
    racial/ethnic diversity on college campuses. This
    is demonstrated by
  • resistance to desegregation in communities and
    specific campus settings
  • maintenance of old campus policies at PWIs that
    best serve a homogeneous population
  • attitudes and behaviors that prevent interaction
    across race and ethnicity

Historical Legacy of Inclusion or Exclusion
  • Because they are embedded in a culture of a
    historically segregated environment, many
    campuses sustain long standing benefits for
    particular student groups which often goes
    unrecognized (Duster, 1993)
  • In assessing the influence of history on campus,
    it is important to reflect upon the extent to
    which embedded benefits may exist on a campus

Structural (Compositional) Dimension
  • Research indicates that increasing the structural
    diversity of an institution is an important
    initial step toward improving the climate
  • Maximizing cross-racial interaction and
    encouraging ongoing discussions about race are
    educational practices that benefit all students
  • However, when the effects of increased structural
    diversity are considered without involvement in
    these activities, this can adversely affect the
    college experience of students (Chang, 1999)

Challenges of Increased Structural Diversity
  • The racial/ethnic restructuring of student
    enrollments can bring about some conflict and
    resistance among groups
  • It can also create a need for substantial
    institutional change. The pressure for change
    affects both the academic and social life of the
    institution which has led to
  • development of ethnic studies programs
  • diverse student organizations
  • specific academic support programs
  • multicultural programming (Treviño, 1992 Muñoz,
    1989 Peterson, et al., 1978)

Psychological Dimension
  • Individuals' views of group relations,
    institutional responses to diversity, perceptions
    of discrimination or racial conflict, and
    attitudes held towards others from different
    racial/ethnic backgrounds
  • Racially and ethnically diverse administrators,
    students, and faculty view the campus climate
  • Who you are and where you are positioned in an
    institution affects the way in which you
    experience and view the institution
  • These differences are significant because
    perception is both a product of the environment
    and a potential determinant of future
    interactions and outcomes (Astin, 1968 Berger
    Milem, 1999 Milem Berger, 1997 Tierney, 1987)

Behavioral Dimension
  • The behavioral dimension of the institutional
    climate consists of
  • actual reports of general social interaction
  • interaction between and among individuals from
    different racial/ethnic backgrounds
  • the nature of intergroup relations on campus
  • Prevalent view is that
  • campus race relations are poor
  • social interaction is low
  • there is a resurgence of segregation or racial
    balkanization on college campuses among minority
    groups (Altbach and Lomotey, 1991 Blitzer, 2000
    Bunzel, 1992)

Organizational/Structural Dimension
  • Organizational and structural aspects of colleges
    and ways in which benefits for some groups become
    embedded into organizational structures and
  • Admissions practices
  • Curricular content
  • Budget allocations
  • Reward structures
  • Tenure Processes

  • What happens, to borrow the words of Adrienne
    Rich, when someone with the authority of a
    teacher describes our society, and you are not
    in it? Such an experience can be disorientinga
    moment of psychic disequilibrium, as if you
    looked into a mirror and saw nothing (Takaki,
    1993, p. 16).

(No Transcript)
Campus Climate for Diversity Model
(Hurtado, et. al., 1999)
Structural Diversity
Multicultural Student Centers Ethnic Houses Mino
rity Student Houses GLBT Houses/Centers Womens

Campus Climate
Campus Intergroup Relations
Intergroup Relations Centers Intercultural Center
Source Hurtado, et. al., (1999). Enacting
diverse learning environments Improving the
campus climate for racial/ethnic diversity. ASH
E/ERIC Higher Education Reports Series 26.
Campus Climate for Diversity Model
(Hurtado, et. al., 1999)
Structural Diversity
Multicultural Student Center
Center for Multicultural Excellence
(Hybrid Model)
Campus Climate
Campus Intergroup Relations
Intergroup Relations Center
Source Hurtado, et. al., (1999). Enacting
diverse learning environments Improving the
campus climate for racial/ethnic diversity. ASH
E/ERIC Higher Education Reports Series 26.
  • Center for Multicultural ExcellenceUniversity of
  • Contact person Dr. Jesús Treviño
  • 303-871-2591
  • Intergroup Relations CenterArizona State
  • Contact person Dr. Kris Ewing
  • 480-965-1547