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Emerging InfectionsA Presentation to SOPHE Conference April 30, 2008

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Through very simple communication signals, they can organize vast groups from ... History. 1937-Uganda. 1950- Egypt. 1957-Israel. 1999-Russia. 1999-United ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Emerging InfectionsA Presentation to SOPHE Conference April 30, 2008


1
Emerging Infections-A Presentation to SOPHE
Conference April 30, 2008
  • Importation of Exotic Infections by Humans-Hits
    and Misses
  • William L. Mason, MD
  • Branch Chief
  • Preparedness and Emergency Response
  • Arkansas Department of Health

2
Who is this that uses effective communication
skills?
  • They have no ability to form an image. All they
    can do is tell night from day. Their lives are
    associated with smells and vibrations and they
    move among each other with pheromones. Through
    very simple communication signals, they can
    organize vast groups from which emerge simple but
    very clear behavioral patterns directed toward
    accomplishing complicated tasks.
  • They are fascinating for scientists for
    understanding how they communicate can
    potentially lead to the organization of computers
    and perhaps to understanding of some basic
    aspects of human behavior.

3
www.cecilw.com/.../macros/3027_ant.sized.jpg
4
More New ThreatsUSA
  • Appearance in early 1980s of AIDS
  • Reemergence of tuberculosis- Multidrug-resistant
    strains
  • West Nile Virus 1999
  • SARS 2003
  • Monkeypox 2003

5
Factors in Emergence of Exotic Diseases
  • Global travel, Globalization- food supply
  • Population growth-The Major Problem
  • Overuse of antimicrobial agents pesticides
  • Increased human contact in rain forests and
    wilderness areas- unknown infectious agents
  • Global climate changes

6
Speed of Global Travel in Relation to World
Population Growth
7
The Emergence of Nipah Virus in Malaysia 1999
Example
8
Reservoir
  • Flying foxes and fruit bats
  • Carry the virus
  • Are not affected
  • Virus found in
  • Urine
  • Partially eaten fruit
  • Migratory




Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
State University - 2003
9
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
State University - 2003
Hog confinement barns affected during the
Malaysia Nipah virus outbreak.
10
Human Incursion into Fruit Bat Habitats
  • Reservoir fruit bats live in caves in the
    background and feed on the fruit trees in close
    proximity to hog confinement barns.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
State University - 2003
11
Cluster 1
Clusters 2 3
12
History
  • 1937-Uganda
  • 1950- Egypt
  • 1957-Israel
  • 1999-Russia
  • 1999-United States

13
West Nile Virus
14
1999
15
2000
16
2001
17
2002
18
2003
19
2005
20
Human Monkeypox
  • A New Disease Emerges in the US

21
Human Monkeypox(Congo)
  • CDC

22
Monkey Pox from Prairie Dogs -5/27/03
Marshfield Clinic
23
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome(SARS) May 2003
24
The Culprits-Humans Again
Raccoon Dog
Masked Palm Civet
25
The Agent - Origin
  • Coronavirus isolated civets a raccoon dog in
    market in Shepzhen, Guangdong Province. The Meat
    of these animals is considered a delicacy.
  • 5/10 civet handlers seropositive
  • 66/508 civet handlers in Guangdong seropositive
    Nature 2003 423467.

26
Keith Sowrheaver, of Gillett, Ark., in a homemade
raccoon hat, chows down on barbequed raccoon
during the Gillett Coon Supper on Friday.
MIKE WINTROATH / AP
27
Anthrax
28
(No Transcript)
29
Anthrax LettersThe letter addressed to Senator
Leahy was postmarked from Trenton, New Jersey, on
October 9, 2001

30
(No Transcript)
31
 
12 July, 2002 Science/Nature First synthetic
virus created
  • Researchers at University of New York, Stony
    Brook, built the infectious agent from scratch
    using the genome sequence for polio
  • Virus identical to its natural counterpart
  • When injected into mice, the animals were
    paralyzed and then died
  • "A good bioterrorist could have put these steps
    together, Dr. Eckard Wimmer

32
Pandemic Influenza
33
Flu Pandemics A Comparison
  • YEAR 1918 2009
  • World Population 1.8 Billion 6.5 Billion
  • Primary Mode of Troopships, Jet Aircraft,
  • Transportation Railroad automobile
  • Time for Virus to 4 months 4 days
  • Circle the Globe
  • Estimated Dead 20Million 60 Million?
  • Worldwide

34
Timeline for Pandemic Flu
39yr
?
42yr
1957
1918
1889
1847
1968
1900
1850
1950
2008
11yr
29yr
40 Years Since Last Pandemic
35
Intergalactic Ban on Importation of Homo
sapiens(humans)
  • Because this species carries diseases which pose
    a direct threat to the health of our citizens, It
    is an Intergalactic Offense to import the above
    species to any signatory planet.
  • W. L. Mason Galactic Zoo .h 4.Galactic
    Quarantine
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