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Psychology

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Alzheimer's patients. depressed men. Inference from sample to population. Large (N = 100) ... Assumes no association between IV and DV in population ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology


1
Psychology
  • The Scientific Enterprise

2
History of Psychology
  • Psychology has had a long past but a short
    history
  • - H. Ebbinghaus, 1910
  • What did he mean?

3
Reaction Paper I History
  • What do you think Ebbinghaus meant? What fields
    do you think may have contributed to the
    development of Psychology? What might they have
    contributed?
  • PLEASE TURN THIS IN AFTER CLASS!

4
History of Psychology
  • Philosophy
  • Plato, Hippocrates, Descartes
  • Medicine (physiology)
  • Methods

5
History of Psychology
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • 1st lab in 1879 _at_ Leipzig, Germany
  • Father of Psychology

6
History of Psychology
  • Behaviorism (1910/50)
  • Study observable behavior
  • ALL behavior due to environment
  • Cognitive - (1960-gt)
  • Behavior due to info processing
  • Current paradigm in psychology
  • Structuralism (1880s)
  • Uncover elements of mind w/ introspection
  • Functionalism(1890)
  • How mind worked
  • Psychoanalytical (1900)
  • Unconscious mental processes direct ALL behavior

7
Definition perspectives
  • Psychology is the science of behavior and mental
    processes
  • Perspectives
  • Neuroscience to social-cultural

8
Goals of Psychology
  • 1. Measure/describe behavior
  • 2. Explain/predict behavior
  • Assumes laws govern actions
  • 3. Apply to improve life

9
Science
  • Attitude
  • Curiosity, skepticism, critical thinker,
    empiricist, humility
  • Objective precise observation experimentation
  • Intolerance of error
  • NOT value free

10
Science
  • Method
  • Theory - set of principles that organizes and
    explains phenomenon
  • Hypothesis - testable prediction
  • Theory, hypotheses research form a feedback
    loop
  • More accurate info than personal experience,
    intuition, faith or common sense

11
Goal 1 Description
  • Case Study Intensive study of few
  • Source of theories
  • Brain damage/Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Unrepresentative information, poor
    generalizability
  • healthy long-time smoker
  • Provides good descriptions of behavior but not
    good explanations

12
Goal 1 Description
  • Survey Large N report beh, attitudes
  • Gallup Polls, Kinsey Sex Survey (1948)
  • Easy to conduct, less
  • Wording can bias results (text pg 27)
  • Good descriptive data and some explanation

13
Goal 1 Description
  • Sample from population
  • Alzheimer's patients
  • depressed men
  • Inference from sample to population
  • Large (N 100)
  • Representative
  • Randomly sampled (?)

14
Random Sampling
  • All members have equal chance of being a
    participant
  • Why?
  • Survey adults _at_ Republican Convention
  • Results show 85 are Pro-Life
  • Represent ALL of USA?

Helps obtain a representative sample so you can
draw an inference to pop
15
Goal 2 Explanation
  • Requires evaluating relationships among
    observations
  • Correlation - observations go together
  • Child crying and mother presence
  • Specify/quantify nature of relationship

16
Correlation Coefficient
  • Statistic indicating linear association
  • How well we can predict A from B
  • Ranges from -1.0 ------ 0 ------ 1.0
  • Sign
  • Size

17
Correlation Coefficient
  • Sign direction of association
  • () both increase or decrease
  • calories, weight
  • wages, taxes
  • (-) go in opposite directions
  • Running, weight
  • Smoking, years of life

18
Correlation Coefficient
19
Correlation Coefficient
  • Correlation does not imply causation
  • 3 interpretations (A,B)
  • A-gtB
  • B -gtA
  • C -gtA,B

20
Goal 2 Prediction/Causation
  • Non-experimental research is passive and
    non-causal
  • Observer just records what is happening naturally
  • Experimental research is active/causal
  • Researcher manipulates some variable(s) to
    determine if it causes some other variable(s)
  • Holding other variables constant

21
Experimentation - prediction
  • Variables
  • Independent is manipulated (cause)
  • Dependent is measured (effect)
  • Manipulation creates conditions/groups which
    differ in kind or amount of IV
  • Crowding aggression (5 or 10 people)
  • Prozac depression (placebo or drug)
  • How to put people into groups?

22
Random Assignment
  • Equal chance of being in any of the conditions
  • Ensure groups are same on all but IV
  • Group diffs due to IV

23
Experimentation - prediction
  • Non random assignment or other problems can
    introduce extraneous or confounding variables
  • IVs not part of your hypothesis
  • IVs Different across groups
  • Prevents clear interpretation of results (2 IVS)

24
Confound Example
  • TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
  • Method A Method B
  • Better scores Poor scores
  • Quiet room Noisy room
  • Is A better than B?
  • Not sure! Noise is a confound!

25
Group Activity I Experiment
  • In groups of 4-5 develop an experiment
  • You should pick an IV and DV
  • Develop an hypothesis
  • Decide on how you will manipulate your IV and on
    how many conditions your study will have
  • Summarize for class
  • WRITE ALL THIS DOWN TURN IT IN AFTER CLASS WITH
    NAMES/ID S

26
Group Activity I Experiment
  • fear
  • humor
  • sleep
  • stress
  • crowding
  • aggression
  • strength
  • drug use
  • sexual attraction
  • affiliation
  • Prozac
  • depression
  • alcohol
  • grades
  • studying

27
Research Ethics
  • APA developed research ethics
  • Goal is to protect Ps from harm and abuse
  • Treat human Ps with respect dignity
  • Avoid unnecessary harm
  • IRBs
  • All universities have review boards that have to
    approve research proposals
  • Keep in mind several guidelines to safeguard Ps

28
APA Ethical Guidelines
  • Informed consent
  • P knows what is going to happen and makes a fully
    informed choice to P
  • Protection from harm/discomfort
  • Unnecessary psychological or physical pain
  • Confidentiality
  • Never reveal Ps name/data, keep data locked up
  • Debriefing/explanation
  • Full explanation of purposes of research

29
Chapter 1 Summary
  • History perspectives
  • Philosophy medicine
  • Neuroscience to social psychology
  • Goals, scientific attitude method
  • Describe/understand/apply
  • Skepticism, empiricism
  • Hypotheses and theory
  • Experimental designs
  • Research Ethics

30
Note
  • The following slides are included as a study aid
  • They summarize some of the text material that we
    will not cover in class
  • Please be sure to carefully read the text as well
    as study these slides

31
Describing Data
  • Central
  • Tendencies
  • Mean - arithmetic average
  • Adding scores/N
  • Mode - most frequent score
  • Median - 1/2 point

32
Describing Data
  • Mean differences often key
  • Aggression (1-10)
  • High Crowding 7
  • Low Crowding 3
  • Is this mean differences real or due to chance?
  • First we need to know score variability

33
Describing Data
  • Variability
  • Range (largest - smallest)
  • standard deviation (average var around mean)
  • same mean but very different data

34
Describing Data
35
Describing Data
  • Statistical significance - observed differences
    not likely due to chance
  • Assumes no association between IV and DV in
    population
  • Stat significance level probability of
    observed effect size if that assumption is true
  • If significance level low enough effect is
    considered real
  • p lt .05 is the standard cut-off (only 5 chance
    you would observe that data if assumption of no
    association held)

36
Describing Data
  • Aggression (1-10)
  • High Crowding 7
  • Low Crowding 3
  • N large and representative
  • SD low
  • Mean diff 4
  • p lt .03
  • Its significant!
  • Real differences occur when
  • Representative sample
  • Big effect size
  • Low variability
  • large sample (N)

37
Describing Data
  • Statistical significance is numerical decision
  • Strongly impacted by N (with very big N small
    effects can be sig)
  • Practical significance
  • Does this mean anything in the real world?
  • Teaching a foreign language
  • N 50,000
  • New method scores 77 Old method scores 75
  • p lt .05
  • Do we care? Probably NOT!
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