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Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 1319:

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Girls develop breasts; boys develop hair on face, chest, voice deepens. Pubic hair appears ... and what is right; 'right' action is whatever pleases others best ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 1319:


1
What is Adolescence?
  • Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19
  • Growth spurt
  • Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone,
    testosterone, androgen)
  • Menstruation and ejaculation begin
  • Girls develop breasts boys develop hair on face,
    chest, voice deepens.
  • Pubic hair appears
  • Reproduction becomes possible
  • Interest in dating and sex increase
  • Abstract and scientific thinking appear
  • Teens question Who am I? What will I do with
    my life?
  • Initiation rites include confirmation, bar
    mitzvah, and graduation.

2
Penis adult size mature pubic hair
Underarm, facial hair appearing voice deepening
Pubic hair appearing penis enlarging
Testes enlarging
First ejaculation
Age
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
4
Growth spurt peak
10
GIRLS
BOYS
3
8
6
2
Height increase in centimeters
Height increase in inches
4
1
2
Age
Mature pubic hair
Pubic hair appearing
Breast bud
First menstruation
Underarm hair appearing
Mature breast
3
Adolescents' Reactions to the Onset of Puberty
Time of Onset Early Late
Reaction Initial Later Initial Later
Male Positive Mixed Negative Positive
Female Negative Positive Positive Mixed
4
12 - 17 Years
18 - 25 Years
26 - 34 Years
35 Years and older
All Americans 12 Years and over
Percent of Teenagers Using Illegal Drugs
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
5
One Out of Five Teenagers is Overweight
TEENS
ADULTS
15
21
25
31
'76 - '80
'88 - '91
'76 - '80
'88 - '91
40 increase in proportion of overweight teens,
over a 12-year period
  • Possible Causes
  • Too much junk food
  • Too much TV watching
  • Lack of Exercise

Source National Center for Health Statistics
(1994)
6
FEATURES OF FORMAL OPERATIONAL THINKING
  • Attention to hypothetical ideas and possibilities
  • Scientific reasoning
  • Logical combination of ideas
  • Abstract thinking

7
The Pendulum Problem
A Piagetian test for formal operational thinking
X
1
Y
2
Z
3
B
C
A
  • There are
  • 3 weights (A, B, C)
  • 3 lengths of string (1, 2, 3)
  • 3 push positions (X, Y, Z)
  • Which makes the quickest arc?

Source Howard Gruber J. Jacques Vonesce, The
Essential Piaget. New York, Basic Books (1977).
8
KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL JUDGMENT
  • PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL (emphasis on avoiding
    punishments and getting awards)
  • Stage 1 Heteronomous morality ethics of
    punishment and obedience
  • Stage 2 Instrumental purpose ethics of market
    exchange
  • CONVENTIONAL LEVEL (emphasis on social rules)
  • Stage 3 Interpersonal conformity ethics of
    peer opinion
  • Stage 4 Social system orientation conformity
    to social system ethics of law and order
  • POSTCONVENTIOANL LEVEL (emphasis on moral
    principles)
  • Stage 5 Social contract orientation ethics of
    social contract and individual rights
  • Stage 6Ethics of self-chosen universal
    principles

9
Longitudinal Development of Moral Reasoning
stage 1
stage 2
stage 3
stage 4
stage 5
70
60
50
Moral reasoning (percent)
40
30
20
10
0
10
36
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
Age (in Years)
10
Gilligans's Stages of Moral Development
Features
Stage
Stage 1 Survival orientation Stage
2 Conventional care Stage 3 Integrated care
Egocentric concern for self, lack of awareness of
others' needs "right" action is what promotes
emotional or physical survival Lack of
distinction between what others want and what is
right "right" action is whatever pleases others
best Coordination or integration of needs of
self and of others "right" action takes account
of self as well as others
11
Developmental Changes in Information Processing
Control processes
Environmental stimuli (input)
Increased efficiency
Long-term memory (LTM)
Rehearsal
Short-term memory (STM)
Attention
Greater specific expertise Greater knowledge abou
t problem-solving
Sensory register (SR)
Organization
Recognition
Increased size
Meaningfulness
Response (output)
12
Summary of Adolescent Physical Development
  • Growth spurt proceeds in distal-to-proximal
    direction
  • Hormones increase and puberty occurs
  • Girls mature earlier, on average, than boys
  • High risk for injury and death

13
Summary of Adolescent Cognitive Development
  • Piagets formal operational stage
  • Scientific and abstract thinking develop
  • Information processing skills continue to improve
  • Moral development matures
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