Chapter 28 Reproductive Anatomy and Functions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 28 Reproductive Anatomy and Functions PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 15297a-YTY5N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 28 Reproductive Anatomy and Functions

Description:

Chapter 28 Reproductive Anatomy and Functions – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:875
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 98
Provided by: johnw211
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 28 Reproductive Anatomy and Functions


1
Chapter 28 Reproductive Anatomy and Functions
2
  • Objective 1 list functions of male reproductive
    tract
  • Produce and maintain secondary masculine
    characteristics
  • Production of sperm
  • Delivery of sperm to female reproductive tract

3
  • Objective 2 Describe the endocrinology,
    genetics and anatomy of male fetal development
  • Fertilization of ova by Y carrying sperm
  • 30 days post-conception TDF (Testicular
    Determining Factor) gene in SRY (Sex determining
    Region of Y) of Y chromosome activates
  • Fetal gonads produce testosterone (an androgen)
    and MIF (Müllerian-inhibiting factor)
  • Cells with androgen receptors respond and
    reproductive tract develops as a male. Also
    turns off genes specific for female reproductive
    structures

4
Fig. 28.29
5
Fig. 28.30
6
  • 1. Testis-determining factor is found in or on
  • A) the Y chromosome.
  • B) the X chromosome.
  • C) the gonadal ridges of the embryo.
  • D) the fetal testis.
  • E) the sustentacular cells of the testis.

7
  • Sisters with androgen insensitivity due to
    abnormal receptor gene.
  • Their genotype is
  • XO
  • XX
  • XY
  • XXY
  • XXX
  • XYY

8
  • Testes develop near kidneys
  • Gubernaculm shortens and draws them through
    inguinal canal into scrotum late in gestation
  • Should be fully descended by 1 month old

9
Fig. 28.03a
  • Overall Objective Locate and give functions for
    all structures of the reproductive tract and
    accessory sex glands.

10
  • Spermatic cord and scrotum objective describe
    structure and functions
  • Scrotum
  • Dartos M, temperature regulation
  • Septum
  • Median raphe
  • Spermatic cord
  • Vascular structure (spermatic artery and
    pampiniform plexus)
  • Cremaster Muscle
  • Vas deferens
  • Autnomic and somatic nerves
  • Lymphatics
  • Inguinal canal

11
Fig. 28.04
12
  • Testes Objective describe structure, cell types,
    hormones produced and functions of testes
  • Tunics external to gland
  • Sperm produced in seminiferous tubules
  • Spermatagonium (capable of mitosis)
  • Primary spermatocytes
  • Secondary spermatocytes
  • Spermatids
  • Sperm
  • Seminiferous Tubules also contain Sertoli cells
  • Form blood-testes barrier
  • Secrete inhibin (endocrine feedback for sperm
    production)
  • Various support functions
  • Interstitial (Leydig) cells produce testosterone

13
Fig. 28.05b
  • Tunics

14
Fig. 28.05a
  • Note location of seminiferous tubules within
    testis, connections with epididymis and vas
    deferens

15
Fig. 28.06
  • Tubular structure related to spermatogenesis

16
Fig. 28.07
  • Review spermatogenesis if needed. Be sure you
    know how diploid primary spermatocytes become
    haploid sperm

17
Fig. 28.08
  • Sperm objective describe structure (head,
    midpiece and tail) and functions of
  • Flagellum
  • Mitochondria
  • Acrosome
  • Nucleus

18
  • 4. The cell in spermatogenesis that undergoes
    meiosis I is
  • A) a type A spermatogonium.
  • B) a type B spermatogonium.
  • C) a primary spermatocyte.
  • D) a secondary spermatocyte.
  • E) a spermatid.

19
  • Testosterone Objective Describe the effects and
    negative feed back control of testosterone.
  • Testosterone control
  • GnRH from hypothalamus
  • LH from Ant. Pituitary
  • Leydig cells
  • Some converted to DHT (alternate androgen)

20
  • Effects of testosterone
  • Prenatal
  • Puberty
  • Libido
  • Anabolism
  • Spermatogenesis objective Describe the hormone
    control.
  • GnRH
  • FSH plus testosterone
  • Spermatogenic cell response
  • Negative feedback via inhibin from Sertoli cells

21
  • Male duct system objective Follow path of sperm
    during ejaculation and know functions of each
    reproductive accessory gland.
  • Epididymis (head and tail) connected to efferent
    ducts of testes (storage and capacitation of
    sperm)
  • Vas Deferens store and propel sperm via
    peristalsis (ampulla at end)

22
  • Ejaculatory ducts are union of ampulla and
    seminal vesicle duct, combine sperm and seminal
    vesicle fluid during ejaculation
  • Urethra passes through prostate and collects
    fluid from ejaculatory duct, prostate and
    bulbourethal glands

23
  • 5. All of the following play a role in
    thermoregulation of the testes except
  • A) the countercurrent heat exchanger.
  • B) the cremaster muscle.
  • C) the pampiniform plexus.
  • D) the bulbocavernosus muscle.
  • E) the dartos muscle.

24
  • THE CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL has issued a
    no-nonsense, albeit
  • Delayed, warning about a new, highly virulent
    strain of sexually transmitted disease. This
    disease is contracted through dangerous and high
    risk behavior.
  • The disease is called Gonorrhea Lectim
    (pronounced "Gonna Re-elect him"). Many victims
    have contracted it after having been screwed for
    the past 6 years, in spite of having taken
    measures to protect themselves from this
    especially troublesome disease.
  • Cognitive sequellae of individuals infected with
    Gonorrhea Lectim include, but are not limited
    to, anti-social personality disorder traits
    delusions of grandeur with a distinct messianic
    flavor chronic mangling of the English language
    extreme cognitive dissonance inability to
    incorporate new information pronounced
    xenophobia and homophobia inability to accept
    responsibility for actions exceptional cowardice
    masked by acts of misplaced bravado uncontrolled
    facial smirking total ignorance of geography and
    history tendencies toward creating evangelical
    theocracies and a strong propensity for
    categorical, all-or-nothing behavior.
  • The disease is sweeping Washington. Naturalists
    and epidemiologists are amazed and baffled that
    this malignant disease originated only a few
    years ago in a Texas bush.
  • Please inform any of your friends and associates
    who have been acting unusual lately.

25
Accessory Sex Glands
  • Seminal vesicles
  • High pH to neutralize low pH of female tract
  • Fructose for ATP production in sperm
  • Prostaglandins for motility and may affect female
    tract to move sperm
  • Seminal fluid clotting proteins to keep semen in
    female tract

26
  • Prostate (NOT prostrate) gland
  • Surrounds prostatic urethra
  • Normally hypertrophies after age 45, may infer
    with urine flow
  • Contents
  • Citric acid (for TCA)
  • Proteolytic enzymes to break down clotting
    proteins (this includes Prostatic Specific Enzyme
    PSA used to help identify prostate cancers)

27
  • Bulbourethral (Cowpers) glands
  • Alkaline fluid to increase pH acid urethra and
    female tract
  • Mucous to prevent damage to sperm during passage

28
Semen
  • Combination of accessory gland fluids and sperm
  • 2.5 to 5 ml volume of typical ejaculation
  • About 100 million sperm/ml
  • Also contains seminalplasmin, which has
    antibiotic effect on bacteria of male and female
    tracts

29
  • 6. Contractions of the female reproductive tract
    may be stimulated by ___ in the semen.
  • A) spermint
  • B) fructose
  • C) prostaglandins
  • D) fibrinolysin
  • E) leukotrienes

30
  • Penis
  • Three erectile structures composed of venous
    sinuses
  • 2 corpora caverosum doral to urethra
  • Corpora spongiosum penis surrounds urethra
  • Sexual stimulation causes
  • Arterial dilation (special parasympathetic effect
    and local nitric oxide)
  • Fills venous sinuses
  • Efferent veins are compressed keeping sinuses
    filled (turgidity and erection)
  • Ejaculation via SNS reflex (closure or internal
    bladder sphincter, peristalsis of all ducts and
    release form accessory glands

31
  • Other penile anatomical structures
  • Glans
  • Corona
  • Prepuce (foreskin)

32
Fig. 28.12
33
  • 2. Men have only one ___ but have two of all the
    rest of these.
  • A) bulbourethral gland(s).
  • B) prostate gland(s).
  • C) ejaculatory duct(s).
  • D) seminal vesicle(s).
  • E) corpus cavernosum (corpora cavernosa).

34
  • 3. Until ejaculation, sperm are stored mainly in
  • A) the corpus spongiosum.
  • B) the seminal vesicles.
  • C) the seminiferous tubules.
  • D) the prostate.
  • E) the epididymis.

35
On to the Female Reproductive Tract!
  • Objective Describe development of female
    secondary characteristics
  • Objective Describe the location, anatomy and
    ligamentous structures of the ovaries
  • Objective List the chronology of follicle
    development

36
Fig. 28.13a
37
Fig. 28.13b
38
Fig. 28.14
  • Ovarian and broad ligaments

39
  • Follicular development
  • All ova are produced before birth, begin meiosis,
    stop at prophase I, and are enclosed in a
    primordial follicle
  • At puberty, surviving follicles become primary
    follicles, surrounded by additional epithelial
    cells
  • 1-2 months before each cycle, one (rarely more)
    begin to produce follicular fluid, complete
    meiosis 1 and become secondary follicle
  • Secondary follicle contains ova that proceeds to
    metaphase II and stops as mature (Graafian)
    follicle
  • Mature follicle ruptures at ovulation
  • Follicle replaced is by corpus luteum

40
  • 9. Estrogen causes all of the following effects
    in adolescent girls except
  • A) growth of the breasts.
  • B) growth of the pubic and axillary hair.
  • C) vaginal metaplasia.
  • D) endometrial mitosis.
  • E) fat deposition.

41
Fig. 28.T01
42
Fig. 28.15
43
Fig. 28.16a
44
Fig. 28.16b
45
Fig. 28.17
  • Fertilization is required to complete meiosis II
    and production of second polar body

46
  • Reproductive anatomy Objective Now follow ova
    through reproductive tract. Note location of
    fertilization.
  • Uterine (oviducts or Fallopian) tubes
  • Infundibulum (funnel like opening)
  • Fimbriae (fingers) sweep ova into oviduct
  • Lined by ciliated epithelium to move ova to
    uterus
  • As secondary oocyte only lives 24 hours, it must
    be fertilized here, then becomes a zygote or
    dies.
  • Transport to uterus takes 5-6 days

47
Fig. 28.18
48
Fig. 28.19
49
  • Uterus objective Describe the histology and
    structure of the uterus and cervix
  • Structure
  • Fundus
  • Body and cavity
  • Cervix, cervical canal, internal and external os
  • Broad and round ligaments

50
  • Histology
  • Serosa
  • Myometrium,
  • Endometrium with uterine glands and simple
    columnar epithelium. Two layers Stratum
    functionalis responds to hormone levels and
    sloughs during menstruation. Stratum basalis
    regenerates stratum functionalis.
  • Vascular uterine artery and vein
  • Cervix produces mucous that protects sperm and
    form cervical plug during pregnancy

51
  • Vagina
  • Functions as seminal receptacle, menstrual fluid
    outflow and birth canal
  • Fornix at cervical attachment (location for
    diaphragm insertion)
  • Mucosa maintains low pH as protection against
    bacteria
  • Muscularis of smooth muscle
  • Hymen partially closes inferior vagina

52
Fig. 28.21
53
  • Vulva (external genitals)
  • Mons pubis
  • Labia majora
  • Labia minor
  • Clitoris (erectile tissue and sensory nerves)
  • Prepuce
  • Vestibule
  • Opening to vagina (vaginal orifice and hymen)
  • Urethral orifice
  • Vestibular glands (produce mucous lubricant
    during sexual stimulation)
  • Bulb of vestibule (analogous to corpus
    spongiosum)

54
Fig. 28.22
  • Perineum may be incise (episiotomy) during child
    birth

55
Fig. 28.23
56
  • Objective Describe structure of mammary glands,
    hormone control of milk production and ejection.
  • Mammary Glands
  • Function to synthesize, secrete and eject milk
  • Modified sudoriferous glands
  • Alveoli within lobes of glands produce milk,
    which passes into mammary duct and lactiferous
    sinus
  • Lactiferous ducts connect lactiferous sinus with
    nipple
  • Suspensory (Coopers) ligaments between skin and
    deep fascia of pectoralis m.

57
Fig. 28.24
58
  • Hormone control
  • Synthesis and secretion stimulated by prolactin
    of anterior pituitary (controlled by PRH from
    hypothalamus) with help from estrogen and
    progesterone
  • Ejection stimulated by oxytocin from posterior
    pituitary
  • Combination is lactation

59
  • 11. Mammary gland development and lactation
    depend on all of the following hormones except
  • A) estrogen.
  • B) progesterone.
  • C) insulin.
  • D) prolactin.
  • E) All of these are required

60
  • Female reproductive cycle objective Describe
    the pituitary, ovarian and uterine events of the
    three phases of the cycle. Include the levels of
    various hormones and how they affect the phases.
  • Hormone Control of Ovarian and Uterine Activity
  • Low ovarian activity stimulates hypothalamus to
    secrete GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)
    which stimulates the ovary as described on day
    1-5). Day one is recognized as the first day of
    menstrual flow.

61
  • Menstrual Phase (Day one to five of cycle)
  • Endocrine activity Little (low progesterone)
  • Ovarian Cycle without pregnancy, CL of previous
    cycle degenerates, reducing progesterone levels
  • Uterine cycle Low progesterone levels cause
    release of prostaglandins, causing
    vasoconstriction of spiral arteries to
    endometrium and death of most of endometrium
  • This causes menstrual flow of blood, mucous and
    dead epithelium

62
  • Preovulatory phase
  • Endocrine activity increasing GnRH causes
    release of LH and FSH
  • Ovarian cycle stimulated by FSH (growth of new,
    dominant follicle to become Graafian follicle and
    secretion of estrogen)
  • Uterine cycle begins proliferative phase,
    stimulated by estrogen to replace lost
    endometrium

63
  • 8. At the time of the sexual cycle when the
    uterus is building up endometrial tissue by
    mitosis,
  • A) several follicles are developing antra.
  • B) the corpus luteum is shrinking.
  • C) the corpus luteum is enlarging.
  • D) oogonia are transforming into primary oocytes.
  • E) the oocyte completes meiosis II.

64
Fig. 28.27
  • Ovulation (? day 14)
  • Increasing estrogen causes increased sensitivity
    of follicle to LH and increased GnRH to increase
    LH secretion by pituitary gland
  • LH causes rupture of follicle and release of ova
    (ovulation)

65
  • 7. All of the following processes are important
    in follicular development. Which one occurs
    first?
  • A) FSH secretion
  • B) estrogen secretion
  • C) LH secretion
  • D) prolactin secretion
  • E) GnRH secretion

66
  • Postovulatory Phase
  • Ovarian Cycle LH stimulates conversion of corpus
    hemorrhagicum into corpus luteum which secretes
    progesterone
  • CL lasts about 14 days if no pregnancy
  • Uterine cycle progesterone causes growth and
    secretion of endometrial glands (secretory
    phase). Secretions are meant to nourish embryo
  • If no embryo implants in uterus, CL degenerates,
    progesterone levels decrease and new cycle begins

67
Fig. 28.25
68
Fig. 28.26
69
(No Transcript)
70
(No Transcript)
71
(No Transcript)
72
(No Transcript)
73
(No Transcript)
74
(No Transcript)
75
(No Transcript)
76
(No Transcript)
77
(No Transcript)
78
(No Transcript)
79
(No Transcript)
80
(No Transcript)
81
(No Transcript)
82
(No Transcript)
83
(No Transcript)
84
(No Transcript)
85
(No Transcript)
86
(No Transcript)
87
(No Transcript)
88
  • If embryo implants
  • Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) is secreted by
    uterus (basis of pregnancy test as it is secreted
    in urine)
  • HCG prevents degeneration of CL, maintaining
    progesterone levels, inhibiting new cycle

89
Fig. 28.28
90
  • 2. The second half of the menstrual cycle is
    regulated largely by
  • A) the corpus luteum.
  • B) the corpus albicans.
  • C) the corpus spongiosum.
  • D) the chloasma.
  • E) the placenta.

91
  • 3. Pregnancy tests are based on the detection of
    ___ in the urine.
  • A) estrogen
  • B) progesterone
  • C) FSH
  • D) LH
  • E) HCG

92
  • 4. In the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, ___
    inhibits FSH and LH secretion.
  • A) inhibin
  • B) HCG
  • C) progesterone
  • D) androgen
  • E) relaxin

93
  • 5. In the luteal phase, all of the following
    things happen except
  • A) the uterus secretes mucus rich in glycogen.
  • B) the corpus luteum secretes progesterone.
  • C) FSH secretion is inhibited.
  • D) the endometrium nearly doubles in thickness.
  • E) the endometrial cells exhibit rapid mitosis.

94
  • 6. Ovulation is triggered by
  • A) LH.
  • B) FSH.
  • C) estriol.
  • D) estradiol.
  • E) progesterone.

95
(No Transcript)
96
  • Objective Explain the mechanism of oral,
    injectable (implantable), patch and ring
    hormone contraceptive.
  • All are combinations of estrogen and pregesterone
  • Maintain levels above base line at end of normal
    ovarian cycle
  • Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary do not sense
    low hormone levels so no secretion of GnRH, FSH
    or LH
  • Therefore no maturation of primary oocyte or
    ovulation

97
  • Other benefits
  • Regulation of cycle length and more predictable
    time of menstrual period
  • Reduced menstrual bleeding
  • Reduced endometrial thickness, reduced risk of
    uterine and ovarian cancers and endometriosis
About PowerShow.com