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Chapter 4: Criminal Justice in the New Millennium

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Chapter 4: Criminal Justice in the New Millennium ... 1st century C.E. & extensive Roman use of crucifixion to intimidate populations ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4: Criminal Justice in the New Millennium


1
Chapter 4 Criminal Justice in the New Millennium
  • Two Major late-20th century developments have
    dramatic impacts on the content of CJ
  • Expansion in national and international terrorism
  • World-wide expansion in information technology

2
1) Terrorism in the 20th century
  • What specifically is terrorism?
  • The systemic use of violence against general
    populations in pursuit of ideological aims
  • Use of violence to terrorize influence
  • Note that terrorism is not a new phenomenon
  • E.g., Jewish Zealots in 1st century C.E.
    extensive Roman use of crucifixion to intimidate
    populations
  • Reign of terror after French revolution
    (late1700s)
  • Bolshevik revolutionaries in Russia in 1917

3
1) Terrorism in the 20th century (cont.)
  • Different Types of terrorism based on
  • Ideological framework
  • Religious
  • Political
  • Ethnic
  • Purpose or Goal
  • Revolution
  • Political change
  • Separatism
  • Racial/Ethnic cleansing

4
1) Terrorism in the 20th century (cont.)
  • Explanations of terrorism Why does it occur?
  • May be focused at two different levels
  • Individual Level (who does it)
  • Psychological pathology
  • Socialization
  • Alienation
  • Social Structural level (why happen here)
  • Inequality and repression
  • Social disorganization

5
1) Terrorism in the 20th century (cont.)
  • Impact of terrorism on Criminal Justice in the
    U.S.
  • Change the substance of the criminal law
  • Change the procedures for criminal justice
    e.g., the USA Patriot Act
  • Changes the organization of criminal justice
    agencies e.g. Home Security
  • Blur boundaries of criminal justice
  • Raise constitutional questions about process

6
1) Information Technology as a Growing Justice
Problem
  • Key issues in IT
  • Computerization of mechanical tasks
  • Global connectivity of communication networks
  • Expansion of the Internet into homes and remote
    locations

7
Growth in Information Technology Results in
Cyber-Crime
  • Cyber-Crime crime committed through use of
    computer systems or networks
  • Three distinct forms identified in text
  • Computer crime (from within computer systems)
  • Internet crime (using the internet to gain
    illegal access to other computer systems from
    outside)
  • Cyber-terrorism (a stretch on the term
    terrorism)
  • A better term would be cyber-vandalism or
    cyber-sabotage

8
Impact of Cyber-Crime on Criminal Justice
  • New forms of crime appear and multiply that
    reflect new technology
  • Spread of crime across geographic areas (physical
    location becomes irrelevant
  • Creation of new laws and new enforcement
    practices
  • Development of new agencies offices
  • Ongoing conflict with traditional freedoms and
    constitutional guarantees
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