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Models of Psychopathology

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COGNITIVE MODELS. Cognition = Processes of thinking, perceiving, judging, and ... Early models examined differences between racial/ethnic minorities and Whites; ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Models of Psychopathology


1
Models of Psychopathology
  • 02-04-05

2
Models of Psychopathology
  • Biological/Medical
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Humanistic/Existential
  • Family Systems
  • Multicultural

3
COGNITIVE MODELS
  • Cognition Processes of thinking, perceiving,
    judging, and recognizing
  • Schema Set of underlying assumptions that
    influence the way that person interprets stimuli.
    An individuals schema is influenced by personal
    experiences, values, and perceived capabilities.

4
COGNITIVE MODELS
  • Cognitive models propose that conscious thoughts
    mediate, or modify, an individuals emotional
    state and/or behavior in response to a stimulus.
  • Distorted and/or maladaptive assumptions and
    thoughts contribute to psychopathology

5
Albert Ellis A-B-C Theory of Personality
  • Irrational thought patterns (e.g., musts,
    shoulds) are conditioned through interactions
    with significant others.
  • Unpleasant emotional responses (e.g., depression,
    anxiety) arise from thoughts rather than actual
    events.

6
(No Transcript)
7
Aaron Beck Automatic Thoughts
  • Automatic thoughts are rigid, inflexible, and
    distorted interpretations of events that seem to
    happen by reflex.
  • In depression, automatic thoughts are
    characterized by negative views of the self, the
    world, and the future.

8
Becks Six Types of Faulty Thinking
  • Arbitrary inference
  • Selective abstraction
  • Overgeneralization
  • Magnification and exaggeration
  • Personalization
  • Polarized thinking

9
Becks Types of Faulty Thinking Magnification
and Exaggeration
  • The process of overestimating the significance of
    negative events.
  • Example A runner experiences shortness of
    breath and interprets it as a major health
    problem, possibly even an indication of imminent
    death.

10
Becks Types of Faulty Thinking Personalization
  • Relating external events to one another when no
    objective basis for such a connection is
    apparent.
  • Example A student who raises his hand in class
    and is not called on by the professor believes
    that the instructor dislikes or is biased against
    him.

11
Becks Types of Faulty Thinking Polarized
Thinking
  • An all-or-nothing, good or bad, and
    either-or approach to viewing the world.
  • Example At one extreme, a woman who perceives
    herself as perfect and immune from making
    mistakes at the other extreme, a woman who
    believes she is a total incompetent.

12
Banduras Social Cognitive Theory
  • Observation and modeling
  • Self regulation
  • Self efficacy
  • Reciprocal causation

Cognition/Affect
Behavior
Environment
13
Models of Psychopathology
  • Biological/Medical
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Humanistic/Existential
  • Family Systems
  • Multicultural

14
HUMANISTIC/EXISTENTIAL MODELS
  • To understand an individuals thoughts and
    behaviors, one must understand her subjective
    universe (i.e., her unique experiences and how
    she construes them)
  • Individuals are whole selves, not just the
    products of cause-effect formulas

15
HUMANISTIC/EXISTENTIAL
  • Free will Individuals have the ability to make
    free choices, take responsibility for their
    decisions, fulfill their capacities, and lead the
    lives best suited for them.
  • Self-actualization inherent tendency to strive
    toward the realization of ones full potential.

16
Humanistic ? Carl Rogers
  • Society imposes conditions of worth (via
    conditional positive regard) upon individuals,
    which influences self-concept.
  • Psychological distress arises due to incongruence
    between a persons inherent potential and his
    self-concept.

17
Models of Psychopathology
  • Biological/Medical
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Humanistic/Existential
  • Family Systems
  • Multicultural

18
FAMILY SYSTEMS MODELS
  • Emphasizes the familys influence on individual
    behavior.
  • Families are complex systems characterized by
    interdependence between members. Each family
    member influences, and is influenced by, every
    other member and the family system as a whole.

19
FAMILY SYSTEMS MODELS
  • An individuals psychological symptoms or
    problems can be linked to family dynamics. For
    instance, problematic patterns of family
    communication or relationships can get in the way
    of adaptive family and individual functioning.

20
Models of Psychopathology
  • Biological/Medical
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Humanistic/Existential
  • Family Systems
  • Multicultural

21
MULTICULTURAL MODELS
  • Multicultural psychology
  • Cross-cultural psychiatry cultural anthropology
    social medicine
  • Cultural relativism (emic approach)

Arthur Kleinman
22
MULTICULTURAL MODELS
  • Multicultural models address issues related to
    race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion,
    socioeconomic status, gender, physical
    capabilities, etc.
  • Early models examined differences between
    racial/ethnic minorities and Whites differences
    were interpreted as indications of minority
    inferiority.

23
MULTICULTURAL MODELS
  • Contemporary multicultural models emphasize that
    difference does not equal deviancy, pathology, or
    inferiority just difference. Individual
    behaviors are evaluated from the perspectives of
    a groups value system (e.g., individualism vs.
    collectivism), beliefs, and practices.
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