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Life Span Development Theories of Development Ch. 2 Heredity and Environment Ch. 3

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Title: Life Span Development Theories of Development Ch. 2 Heredity and Environment Ch. 3


1
Life Span Development Theories of Development
Ch. 2 Heredity and Environment Ch. 3
  • June 10, 2004
  • Class 2

2
Chapter 2 Theories of Development
  • Questions Central to Theories
  • Do early experiences of breast-feeding or bonding
    or abuse linger into adulthood, even if they seem
    to be forgotten?
  • How important are specific school experiences in
    human intelligence?
  • Can a person develop moral values without being
    taught them?
  • Does culture elicit behavior, e.g., is violent
    crime more common in one place than another for
    example, in China or Canada?
  • If your parents or grandparents schizophrenia, or
    alcoholism, will you develop them suffer from
    depression,?
  • Of all questionsWhy or Why not? When and How?,
    So What?

3
What Theories Do
  • Developmental theorysystematic statement of
    principles and generalizations that provides a
    coherent framework for studying development

4
What Theories Do…
  • Theories
  • form basis for hypotheses that can be tested by
    research studies
  • formulating right question is more difficult that
    finding right answers
  • generate discoveries
  • offer insight and guidance by providing coherent
    view

5
Types of Theories
  • Different Types
  • grand theoriescomprehensive, traditional
    theories
  • originated in psychology
  • minitheoriestheories that focus on specific area
    of development
  • originated more in sociology through study of
    social groups and family structures
  • emergent theoriesnew, comprehensive groupings of
    minitheories
  • multidisciplinary approach includes historic
    events and genetic discoveries

6
Grand Theories
  • Grand Theoriespowerful framework for
    interpreting and understanding change and
    development that applies to all individuals in
    all contexts, across all contents

7
Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Psychoanalytic theory interprets human
    development in terms of motives and drives

8
Behaviorism
  • Behaviorism is built on laws of behavior and
    processes by which behavior is learned
  • focus ways we learn specific behaviors that can
    be described, analyzed, and predicted with
    scientific accuracy

9
Laws of Behavior
  • Conditioningany process in which behavior is
    learned
  • Classical conditioningIvan Pavlov
  • process by which a neutral stimulus become
    associated with a meaningful stimulus
  • stimulus and response (respondent conditioning)
  • Operant conditioningB. F. Skinner
  • process by which a response is gradually learned
    via reinforcement or punishment
  • also called instrumental conditioning

10
Social Learning
  • Extension of learning theory that includes
    modeling which involves people observing behavior
    and patterning their own after it
  • Modeling
  • process in which people observe, then copy
    behavior
  • Alfred Banduramost likely to occur if model is
    admired or observer is inexperienced
  • self-efficacy motivates people to change
    themselves and their contexts

11
Cognitive Theory
  • Focuses on the structure and development of
    thought processes, which shape perceptions,
    attitudes, and actions.
  • Example Jean Piagets 4 Stages

12
Emergent Theories
  • Emergent theories arise from several accumulated
    minitheories and may be the new systematic and
    comprehensive theories of the future

13
Sociocultural Theory
  • Seeks to explain growth of individual knowledge,
    development, and competencies in terms of
    guidance, support, and structure supplied by the
    society
  • human development is the result of dynamic
    interaction of the developing persons and their
    surrounding culture

14
Sociocultural Theory
  • Guided participationtutor engages learner in
    joint activities, providing instruction and
    direct involvement in learning
  • Apprenticeship in thinkingmentor provides
    instruction and support needed by novice

15
Sociocultural Theory
  • Zone of proximal developmentrange of skills
    learner can perform with assistance but not
    independently
  • learner is drawn into learning by teacher
  • Cultural variations Basic principles are
    universal, but skills, challenges, and
    opportunities vary from culture to culture,
    depending on the values and structures of the
    cultures society

16
Epigenetic Theory
  • Emphasizes the interaction between genes and the
    environmentthe newest developmental theory
  • stresses that we have powerful instincts and
    abilities that arise from our biological
    heritage. Timing and pace of certain
    developmental changes are genetically guided
  • performismeverything is set in advance by genes
    and then is gradually manifested in the course of
    maturation

17
What Theories Can Contribute
  • Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of
    importance of early childhood experiences
  • Behaviorism has shown effect of immediate
    environment on learning
  • Cognitive theory helps us understand how
    intellectual process and thinking affect actions
  • Sociocultural theory has reminded us that
    development is embedded in a rich and
    multifaceted context
  • Epigenetic theory emphasizes interactions between
    inherited forces and immediate contexts

18
Eclectic Perspective
  • This is the approach taken by most
    developmentalists in which they apply aspects of
    each of the various theories rather than staying
    with just one

19
The Nature-Nurture Controversy
  • Is it heredity or environment that shapes us?
  • How much is a result of any given
    characteristics, behavior or pattern of
    development is a result of genes and how much is
    a result of experiences
  • Policy and practice nature/nurture theories are
    implicit in many public policies

20
Theoretical Perspectives on Hyperactivity and
Homosexuality
  • AD/HD and homosexualityHow and to what extent
    are nature and nurture involved in each case?
  • Evidence from AD/HD research that it can come
    from either

21
Theoretical Perspectives on Hyperactivity and
Homosexuality
  • Earlier assumptions about homosexuality more
    nurture than nature. As hypotheses tested,
    nurture was revealed as less crucial
  • sexual orientation may be a matter of nature
  • sexual expression may be a matter of cultural
    attitude (nurture) but not sexual orientation
  • evidence supporting nature as main factor (e.g.,
    affect of genetic linkage, prenatal hormones)

22
Theoretical Perspectives on Hyperactivity and
Homosexuality
  • Ideology often adds to complexity and
    polarization of opinions on many subjects when
    nature and nurture are considered
  • Important to separate assumptions from facts
  • done via research and testing of hypotheses

23
Why is someone gay or straight?
  • Psychologists really dont fully understand the
    causes of sexual orientation
  • Lets look at some biological explanations…
  • Concordance rates MZ DZ
  • A homosexual gene?
  • LeVay (1991) INAH3

24
Concordance rates
  • Eysenck (1964)
  • Reported a higher incidence of homosexuality
    among men whose MZ twin was gay than among men
    whose DZ twin was gay
  • Bailey and Pallard (1991)
  • Twin study
  • Homosexual men
  • Co-twin was more than twice as likely to be
    homosexual if the twins were MZ
  • Bailey, Pallard, Neale, Agyei (1993)
  • Replicated earlier study using homosexual women
  • Same results

25
A homosexual gene?
  • Hamer et al. (1993)
  • Examined families of homosexual men
  • Found significantly more gay relatives on
    mothers side of family
  • Maternal uncles and sons of maternal aunts (male
    cousins)
  • Might their be a homosexual gene on the X
    chromosome?

26
Hamer et al. (1993)
  • They continued the investigation and found that
    most of the homosexual men had a region in the X
    chromosome that was similar suggesting a genetic
    basis…
  • But not for all suggesting another reason
  • Important implication to all this
  • It may be possible for non-homosexual women to
    pass on this gene

27
LeVay (1991)
  • Examined hypothalamic tissue from
  • 19 gay men, all of whom died of AIDS
  • 16 heterosexual men, six of whom had died of AIDS
  • 6 women of unknown sexual orientation

28
LeVay (1991)
  • Found neuroanatomic differences between
    homosexual and heterosexual men…
  • INAH3 was two to three times larger in
    heterosexual men than in gay men

29
LeVay (1991)
  • As the first suggestion that there was a
    neuroanatomic difference between gay and
    heterosexual men, LeVay's finding garnered a
    great deal of public attention, and a great deal
    of controversy about both its scientific and its
    social implications

30
Other reasons???
  • Investigators have assessed every possible
    psychological cause of sexual orientation that
    you could think of…
  • The findings when looking at the backgrounds of
    those that are heterosexual, homosexual, or
    bisexual are?

31
Chapter 3 Heredity and Environment

32
What is a gene made out of?
  • Genes are made from chromosomes. People have 23
    pairs of chromosomes.
  • DNA consists of a double helix, whose parallel
    strands consist of both pairs held together by
    hydrogen bonds.
  • Each chromosome in the DNA contains instructions
    for stringing together amino acids.
  • These instructions are used in different
    combinations with the chemicals adenine (A),
    thiamine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).

33
Conception
  • Once the sperm penetrates the egg, the two nuclei
    fuse to become one, with 23 chromosomes from the
    father and 23 chromosome from the mother.
  • A zygote is the single cell formed from the
    fusing of the sperm and ovum.
  • After four days there are about 100 cells and it
    is now called a blastocyst.
  • The organisms genetic inheritance is set for
    life once the chromosomes pair up.

Fertilized egg with two pronuclei
Within 72 hours its divided into 8 cells
34
Is it a boy or a girl?
  • Different factors can determine the sex of the
    embryo such as when
  • A man carries a gene that causes his X or Y gene
    to be immobile.
  • The alkaline or acidity levels of a womans
    uterus can help either the X or Y gene.
  • Stress can cause an XY embryo to be expelled.
  • In the 23rd pair of chromosomes women are XX and
    men are XY
  • Every ovum that the woman produces is XX
  • Men will produce half Y sperm and half X sperm
    because his 23rd pair contain both

35
Lets split!
  • A zygote may split in the early stages of
    development, which creates separate identical
    zygotes
  • Monozygotic twins are identical because they
    originate from the same zygote
  • Dizygotic twins are formed when two separate ova
    are fertilized by two separate sperm. They share
    half their genes, similar to siblings.
  • Factors that can increase the chances of twins
    are
  • A womans age
  • A womans ethnic group
  • Medical intervention
  • A family history of having twins

Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen
36
What else do genes do?
  • Once the zygote reaches its eight-cell stage,
    cells begin to specialize to become different
    parts of the body.
  • Genes code protein so that they can give
    instructions to other genes to shut on and off at
    different stages of life. For instance, to absorb
    nourishment, to multiply and to die.
  • Phenotype is a persons actual appearance and
    behavior, which are the results of both genetic
    and environmental influences

37
How do genes interact?
  • Additive genes interact additively so that there
    are fairly equal contributions from all the genes
    involved. They affect traits such as skin color
    and height.
  • A dominant gene is the member of an interacting
    pair of alleles whose influence is more evident
    in the phenotype.
  • A recessive gene is the member of an interacting
    pair of alleles whose influence is less evident
    in the phenotype
  • X-linked genes are genes located on the X
    chromosome.

38
Genotype vs. Phenotype
  • Genotype is an organisms entire genetic
    inheritance, or genetic potential. For instance,
    you might have inherited the genes that could
    lead you to become a great mathematician. Another
    example is that you may have inherited blue eyes.
  • Phenotype is a persons actual appearance and
    behavior, which are the result of both genetic
    and environmental influences. For instance, you
    might have the genes to become a great
    mathematician, but without the right environment,
    your talent may never be recognized.

39
What is behavior genetics?
  • Behavior genetics is the study of the genetic
    origins of psychological characteristics, such as
    personality patterns, psychological disorders and
    intellectual abilities.

Sadness is one personality trait that is studied
in behavior genetics.
40
Alzheimers Disease
  • Alzheimers is only purely genetic when it occurs
    before the age of 50
  • European Americans are at the highest risk of
    Alzheimers as theyre more likely to carry the
    gene
  • The ApoE4 gene carrys Alzheimers
  • At age 85 the risk of senility levels off
  • Non-genetic influences, such as lifestyle, play a
    big role in Alzheimers
  • By being physically active and mentally alert,
    you reduce the risk of developing Alzheimers
    disease

41
Schizophrenia
  • Approximately 1 percent of the population is
    diagnosed with schizophrenia.
  • Schizophrenia is a genetic trait that is that
    also appears to be strongly influenced by the
    environment.
  • Physical elements, such as injury to the head,
    can also bring on schizophrenia.

Roses are red, violets are blue, Im a
schizophrenic and so am I. Bill Murray, What
About Bob?
42
Alcoholism
  • Inherited biochemistry makes some people highly
    susceptible to alcohol addiction
  • addictive pull can be overpowering, or weak, or
    something in the middle
  • may explain ethnic variations

43
Alcoholism
  • Not simply a biochemical reactionit is
    psychological and physical, and biological thus
    alcoholism is polygenetic, with alcoholics
    inheriting a combination of biochemistry-affecting
    and temperament-affecting genes
  • Culture counts too (whether alcohol is present in
    environment)

44
Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities
  • Here we notice disruptions of normal development
  • origins of genetic and chromosomal abnormalities
  • misinformation and prejudice add to problems of
    people with these abnormalities

45
Genetic and Chromosomal Abnormalities
  • A chromosomal abnormality occurs when there or
    more or less than 23 chromosomes in a gamete
  • Genetic abnormalities arise when proteins do not
    code properly
  • Most abnormal zygotes simply never begin to
    develop. The majority of the rest are not carried
    to term as they are spontaneously aborted
    (miscarried).

Muscular Dystrophy Association Summer Camp
Brandon, Florida
46
Down Syndrome
  • The most common extra chromosome condition is
    Down syndrome.
  • It affects people in varying degrees
  • Young children with Down syndrome are likely to
    have a nice disposition
  • At age 30, people with Down syndrome begin to age
    rapidly
  • Life expectancy rate is low

Some people with down syndrome are quite capable
of doing things themselves, like this woman who
does her own grocery shopping.
47
Genetic Abnormalities
Huntingtons Disease
  • Most dominant disorders are not disabling,
    however Huntingtons disease is one of the few
    that is.
  • It doesnt appear until a person is between 35
    and 45. By that time the person may have
    children, who have a 50/50 chance of inheriting
    it
  • Testing can be done to see if a person carries
    the gene
  • There is no cure for Huntingtons disease
  • The first signs of Huntingtons disease are
    clumsiness, forgetfulness and involuntary
    movements
  • As the disease progresses, the ability to think
    and control movements becomes harder and harder
  • Eventually, the individual is unable to do
    anything

48
Genetic Abnormalities
Tourette Syndrome
  • Tourette syndrome is a dominant disorder that can
    cause uncontrollable tics and outburst.
  • It is 3 to 4 times more likely to occur in boys
  • 30 of people with Tourette syndrome have
    uncontrollable tics and outbursts
  • The other 70 have just an occasional twitch and
    other slight problems

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was thought to have had
Tourette Syndrome.
49
Genetic Counseling and Testing
  • Genetic counseling is a process of consultation
    and testing that enables individuals to learn
    about their genetic heritage, including
    conditions that might harm any children they may
    have.
  • People who should have genetic counseling are
    those with
  • Close relatives with a severe genetic condition
  • Histories of miscarriages
  • Women over age 35 and men over age 40
  • Couples from the same ethnic group or close
    relative
  • Some people prefer not to be genetically tested
    if it might reveal an incurable genetic disorder,
    but they are more likely to consider it when they
    are deciding whether or not to have children.
  • Genetic counselors are often able to give couples
    odds on whether or not their children could
    inherit their genetic disorders
  • Scientists and genetic counselors advice high
    risk couples to use prenatal testing to determine
    any health problems the baby may have

50
Conclusion
  • Which plays a bigger role in human development,
    heredity or environment?

Is Kate Hudsons ability as an actor influenced
by her environment or genes? Do you think her
environment or her genes influenced her career
choice?
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