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IWO NORTHERN IRELAND AREA SEMINAR

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Title: IWO NORTHERN IRELAND AREA SEMINAR


1
IWO NORTHERN IRELAND AREA SEMINAR
  • Strategic Risk Management Approach to Water
    Treatment and Supply
  • David Mc Bratney
  • Operations Director RPS-CE

2
Risk Management Approach to Water Treatment and
Supply
  • 1,700 Ml/d Public Water Consumption (and is
    increasing by 5 per annum)
  • Sources of Water Supply
  • 84 of Population served by Surface Water Systems
  • 16 of Population served by Groundwater and
    Springs
  • EPA Report 2005
  • 97.6 Compliance with Standards Overall in 2005
  • 98.9 Compliance of Public Water Supplies in 2005

3
Risk Management Approach to Water Treatment and
Supply
Presentation Overview Primary Quality
Objectives Threats to Delivering Clean
Water Recent Technology Advances Project Risk
Management Barriers to Successful Implementation
4
Primary Water Quality Objectives
  • CLEAN WATER is the First Plank of Public
    Health Strategy
  • Guideline Regulation Overview
  • World Health Organisation Guidelines
  • EU Directive
  • Irish Legislation
  • UK Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulation
  • US EPA Regulations (Safe Drinking Water Act)

5
Primary Water Quality Objectives
6
Primary Water Quality Objectives
7
Primary Water Quality Objectives
Typical Bio Problems
Typical Bio Groups
SERVICE PROVIDER
Supply Stages
Algal Blooms Scums Midge Swarms Hydraulic
Capacity Losses Excessive /Unwanted
Sediments Filter Blocking/Binding Colour/Turbidity
Breakthrough Chlorine By products Taste
Odour Ingress Proliferation of animals Loss
of Disinfectant Growth of Bacteria Discoloured
/Turbid Water Dirty Water Presence of
Bacteria Presence of Biology
Abstraction Storage Transfer
Blue-green Algae Chironomid midges Sponges
pipe mosses Mussels Algae Algal spores
(Anabaeona/Microsystus) Water Fleas
(Cyclops/Daphinia) Attached Algae Midge Larvae
(Aselius) Shrimps (Gammarus) Chironomids Various
Animals Asellus Gammarus Chironomid
Larvae Worms Round Worms Water Fleas Snails
1
Treatment Storage
2
Service Transfer Storage
3
Distribution System
4
SERVICE CONSUMER
WRC Fig adapted
8
Primary Water Quality Objectives
EPA Report Findings 2003 to 2005
Quality of water to 83 of Pop by LA Public WS
was Satisfactory Quality of Water to lt 7 of
Pop by Private WS was Unsatisfactory Remaining
10 of Pop supplied by private wells was
unmonitored
9
Threats to Delivering Clean Water
  • Source Difficulties
  • Abstraction Constraints
  • Deteriorating Water Quality
  • Risk Assessment Security of Supply
  • Climate Catchment Change
  • Applicability of Treatment Technology
  • Security of Service
  • De-manning Cost Control
  • Setting and Maintaining Level of Service
  • Development Planning (Stakeholder inclusion)
  • Asset Management Planning
  • Technology applied to Service Delivery

10
Threats to Delivering Clean Water
  • Illegal Actions
  • Pollution
  • Malicious Damage
  • Terrorism
  • Service Protection
  • Illegal Connections
  • Unregulated use
  • Quality of Networks
  • Old tuberculated pipes
  • Lead Services AC Pipes
  • Suitable Materials
  • Non Corrosivity

11
Threats to Delivering Clean Water
Some Major Waterborne Epidemics in Europe in 19th
20th Centuries
First recorded outbreak in UK associated
with finding oocysts in water supply
12
Threats to Delivering Clean Water
Some Notable Recent Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks
13
Threats to Delivering Clean Water
Cryptosporidium Oocyst Single cell parasite group
with hard outer shell (giving long
survivability). Multiplies in intestine to
produce cysts, which are passed in stool causing
dysenteric reaction infection through
faecal/oral route in infected water or food.
Giardia Oocyst Single cell parasite group with
hard outer shell (giving long survivability).
Multiplies in intestine and passed in stool
causing dysenteric reaction infection through
faecal/oral route in infected water or food.
Known as Beaver Fever. (Single largest cause of
diarrhoea in USA/Canada).
Shigella Bacteria Cell Non motive rod shaped
bacteria group penetrates intestinal mucous
cells and multiplies intracellularly destroying
tissue and causing bleeding diarrhoea Infection
through faecal/oral route in infected water or
food - HIGHLY INFECTOUS (major cause of dysentery
World Wide 500,000 cases per annum in USA)
14
Some Recent Technological Advances
  • Process Applications becoming more prevalent
  • High Flow Rapid Gravity Filters (V 10 m/hr)
  • Membrane Filtration (single step - colour, turb,
    bact removal)
  • Carbon Multimedia Filters (taste, odour THM
    removal)
  • Aquaflow Sedimentation (V 60 m/hr, Log 2 Bact
    removal)
  • Ultra Violet Disinfection (Log 4 Bact removal)
  • Operational Management Advances
  • SCADA EMIS
  • Asset Management Planning (CIS GIS Telemetry)
  • USEPA Coagulation Rules (Log 4 Bact removal)
  • WSNTG EPA Aids to Operators (Efficient
    Management)

15
Some Recent Technological Advances
Benefit of First Flushing to Waste over Slow
Start in Filter Backwashing
Slow Start Without First Flush To Waste
Slow Start With First Flush To Waste
Turbidity Difference At Peak 370 particles per
ml
16
Some Recent Technological Advances
  • Some Older Technology
  • Slow Sand Filtration
  • Well Proven in Major Urban Rural Applications
  • London 2,500 Ml/d, Amsterdam 1,750 Ml/d, Hamburg
  • Advantages
  • Simple Sustainable Technology
  • Slow easily controlled process, (V 0.3 m/hr)
  • No Wastes, Low Environmental Impact
  • Up to Log 4 removal of Oocysts (Crypto Giardia
    etc)
  • Disadvantages
  • Space Requirement
  • Pre-Treatment for high Colours Sand Washing

17
Project Risk Management
18
Project Risk Management
  • Climate Change
  • Tools needed to assess possible impacts (models)
  • 1.50 Dry Year Design may need review, (1.100 DY
    ?)
  • Sustainability
  • Technology Choices
  • Environmental Impacts
  • Wastes Disposal and Licensing, (Re-use ?)
  • Efficient Use
  • Energy (Cost Increase)
  • Chemicals (Cost, Environmental Constraints)
  • Management (EMIS SCADA, GIS, CIS IT Web
    Linked)

19
Project Risk Management
  • Powers to Deal With Risk
  • Risk Allocated to Party Best Suited to Manage
  • Risk Management System, (Life Cycle of Risk)
  • Prioritisation
  • Full Stakeholder Involvement through Cycle

COST. TIME. QUALITY. CONSEQUENCES OF
FAILURE
20
WS DB0 - Packaging Risk Payment
costs risks that vary little with volume of
service
costs risks that vary directly with volume of
service
RISK
80
20
  • VARIABLE PAYMENT MECHANISM
  • risks
  • Rates related to volume of service
  • added personnel operating costs related to
    plant expansions
  • variable payments for high risk items
  • risks
  • Meeting demand
  • Cost sensitive items
  • Disposal of environmentally sensitive wastes
  • Size and timing of expansions
  • FIXED PAYMENT MECHANISM
  • risks
  • contractors long term
  • commitments to the project
  • fixed payments for high risk items
  • risks
  • Take-over existing plant
  • Latent defects
  • TUPE
  • Development of expansions
  • Hand-back of plant
  • Residual Value

limited ability to modify
lenient modification keyed to risk
21
WS DBO - Expansion Risk Packaging
normal contracting risk
demand risk and future cost risk
Manage the development of the expansion
Know the size and cost of expansion needed
Contractor Risks
  • Risks
  • what - size expansion needed
  • when - expansion needed
  • how - future construction market
  • Future Technology
  • Risks
  • time effort to manage
  • operation during expansion
  • operability of expansion
  • general inflation

Employer Risks
22
Barriers to Successful Implementation
Concerns Objectives
23
Barriers to Successful Implementation
WHO
IS RESPONSIBLE
FOR WHAT
24
Barriers to Successful Implementation
Time
Time
Employer Contractor Consumer
Project
Quality
Employer Consumer Contractor
Central Gov Employer Consumer Contractor (p)
Cost
Cost
Quality
25
Barriers to Successful Implementation
  • Partnership versus Adversarial Contract Approach
  • Openness
  • Information (Knowledge, Skill, Experience)
  • Cost Cost Needs
  • Transparency
  • Shared Systems (Technical, Financial)
  • Stakeholder Inclusive
  • Public, Locality
  • Other Bodies (Public Private)
  • Rulebook in the Pocket
  • GCC Standard Conditions of Engagement for
    Construction Consultants 2007
  • .Contract to have purposeful meaning for
    efficiency and public benefit

26
IWO NORTHERN IRELAND AREA SEMINAR
  • Strategic Risk Management Approach to Water
    Treatment and Supply
  • David Mc Bratney
  • Operations Director RPS-CE
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