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Diagnostic Detectives: Medical Laboratory Professionals

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Title: Diagnostic Detectives: Medical Laboratory Professionals


1
Diagnostic Detectives Medical Laboratory
Professionals
  • A Closer Look at
  • Careers in
  • Clinical Laboratory Science
  • (Medical Technology)

2
When your doctor orders lab tests
do you know..
  • Who collects and processes your blood sample?
  • Phlebotomists / Lab Assistants
  • Who analyzes blood and body fluid samples in a
    variety of laboratories?
  • Clinical Laboratory Technicians (Medical
    Laboratory Technicians) Clinical Laboratory
    Scientists (Medical Technologists)

3
Medical Laboratory Facts
  • A behind-the-scenes, highly skilled team of
    pathologists, specialists, technologists, and
    technicians work together to provide valuable
    data needed to
  • determine the presence or absence of disease
  • evaluate the effectiveness of treatment
  • maintain health
  • Also called Clinical Pathology and Anatomic
    Pathology.

4
Medical Laboratory Facts
  • Clinical laboratory professionals generate data
    to assist physicians in the detection of cancer,
    heart disease, diabetes, infectious mono,
    bacterial and viral infections, and drugs of
    abuse.
  • 80 of all physician decisions are based on
    laboratory test results produced by the
    laboratory team.

5
Clinical Pathology
  • This laboratory performs testing on blood and
    body fluids.
  • Laboratory professionals use sophisticated
    biomedical instrumentation and technology,
    computers, as well as methods requiring manual
    dexterity, to
  • perform the thousands
  • of laboratory tests
  • currently available.

6
Careers in the Clinical Pathology Laboratory
  • Phlebotomist
  • Laboratory Assistant
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientist / Medical
    Technologist
  • Clinical Laboratory Technician / Medical
    Laboratory Technician
  • Supervisor/Manager/Educator
  • Technical Specialist (PhD)
  • Pathologist (MD or DO)

NOTE Educational requirements for professions
in blue will be discussed later.
7
Other Job Opportunities
  • Hospital laboratories
  • Reference laboratories
  • Physician office laboratories
  • State Department of Health
  • Fertility clinics
  • Pharmaceutical / Biotech industry
  • Veterinary laboratories
  • Forensic laboratories

8
Daily Routine
  • Phlebotomist
  • Specimen Collection
  • Laboratory Assistant
  • Specimen Processing and Pre-Analytic Functions
  • Clinical Laboratory Technician and Clinical
    Laboratory Scientist
  • Also known as Medical Laboratory Technician and
    Medical Technologist
  • May be a Generalist (working in all lab sections)
    or a Specialist (work in one lab)
  • Specimen Analysis (automated or manual)
  • Instrument Maintenance
  • Quality Control Procedures
  • Result Review

9
Typical Clinical Pathology Laboratory Sections
  • Hematology
  • Coagulation
  • Chemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Immunology
  • Transfusion Medicine (Blood Bank)
  • Histocompatibility Testing
  • Medical Microbiology
  • Molecular Pathology
  • Flow Cytometry

10
Photo Tour of a Clinical Pathology Laboratory
11
Phlebotomy
  • The phlebotomist collects blood samples from
    patients - young and old.

12
Specimen Processing
  • Laboratory assistants receive and prepare blood
    and body fluid specimens for testing.

13
Hematology Laboratory
  • Clinical Laboratory Technician (Medical
    Laboratory Technician) performing blood cell
    counts on computerized automation.

14
Hematology Laboratory
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientist (Medical
    Technologist) reviewing blood cell morphology
    under the microscope to detect the presence of
    certain anemias, leukemias, or lymphomas.

15
Hematology Laboratory
Normal Lymphocyte
Leukemic Blasts Lymphocyte
Atypical Lymphocyte
16
Coagulation Laboratory
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientist (Medical
    Technologist) performing tests that determine
    the presence of a bleeding or clotting disorder.

17
Chemistry Laboratory
  • Technicians and technologists analyze blood
    serum for hundreds of biochemical elements that
    reflect cardiac, liver, renal, endocrine and
    acid/base function.

Example tests include glucose, cholesterol,
triglycerides, heart and liver enzymes.
18
Chemistry Laboratory
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientists (Medical
    Technologists) monitor instrument quality
    control data and review patient results before
    releasing the information to the physician.

19
Toxicology Laboratory
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientists
    (Medical Technologists) utilize thin layer
    chromatography to analyze urine specimens for
    therapeutic drugs as well as drugs of abuse.

20
Urinalysis Laboratory
  • Medical Laboratory Technicians and Medical
    Technologists analyze urine for elements such as
    glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, pH,
    abnormal cells and chemical crystals.

21
Immunology Laboratory
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientists and Clinical
    Laboratory Technicians perform tests on serum to
    detect antibody production in response to various
    infections and disease such as rheumatoid
    arthritis, lupus, hepatitis, herpes, and
    allergies.

22
Transfusion Medicine Laboratory (Blood Bank)
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientists perform ABO and Rh
    typing, antibody screening, and crossmatching to
    determine safe donor blood for a transfusion of
    a patient.

23
Transfusion Medicine Laboratory (Blood Bank)
  • Medical Technologists check the paperwork for
    correct information before releasing the unit of
    blood to be transfused.

24
HistocompatibilityLaboratory
  • Medical Technologists perform serological typing
    of white blood cells for HLA antigens to
    determine
  • if a donor organ or bone marrow is a good match
    for transplantation into a recipient.
  • certain disease associations

25
Microbiology Laboratory
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientists use various
    culture techniques to determine which bacteria,
    virus or fungus might be causing illness.

26
Microbiology Laboratory
  • Medical Technologists perform antimicrobial
    susceptibility testing on bacterial isolates to
    determine what antibiotics will be effective in
    treating the infection.

27
Molecular Pathology Lab
  • Clinical Laboratory Scientists extract and
    amplify the DNA from various samples.

28
Molecular Pathology Lab
  • The DNA or RNA nucleic
  • acid sequences are
  • then studied for
  • unique sequences of various bacterial, fungal or
    viral organisms
  • defective genes found in inherited disease such
    as cystic fibrosis
  • mutations in certain cancer cells

29
Flow Cytometry Lab
  • Medical Technologists use a flow cytometer to
    detect
  • abnormal cell surface markers found in leukemia
    and lymphoma
  • lymphocyte subsets in HIV infection.

30
More Information
  • Education Training
  • Certification
  • Career Advancement
  • Wages and Job Outlook

31
Education, Training, and Certification
32
Phlebotomy Technician
  • High School diploma or GED
  • Good communication skills
  • Formal course in Phlebotomy preferred
  • Phlebotomy programs are available through
    community colleges, proprietary health occupation
    schools, or other academic institutions.
  • Clinical training required
  • Certification recommended (after one year work
    experience or formal clinical training in
    accredited program) Plb or PBT
  • Work in hospitals, physician offices, home health
    care, clinics, insurance companies

33
Lab Assistant
  • High School
  • Didactic courses in Lab Skills and Computer
    Applications also preferred
  • These can be taken in a high school
    technical/occupational health program or in a
    community college medical assisting curriculum.
  • On the job clinical training
  • Work in hospitals, commercial reference
    laboratories, research labs

34
Clinical Laboratory Technician / Medical
Laboratory Technician
  • Associate degree
  • 8 semester hours of both biology and chemistry
    (with labs)
  • Math and Computer Applications
  • Courses in Clinical Hematology/Hemostasis,
    Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Chemistry, and
    Immunohematology
  • Completion of a NAACLS accredited MLT/CLT program
  • National certification CLT or MLT

35
Clinical Laboratory Scientist /Medical
Technologist
  • Bachelors degree
  • 16 semester hours of both chemistry and biology
    (with labs)
  • Math (algebra) and computer applications
  • Courses in biochemistry, statistics, physics,
    genetics, general microbiology recommended
  • Courses in Clinical Hematology, Immunohematology,
    Immunology, Medical Microbiology, Clinical
    Chemistry
  • Completion of a NAACLS accredited MT/CLS program
  • National certification CLS or MT

36
Career Advancement
37
Supervisor/Manager
  • Senior technologists with an interest in
    management play an important role in coordinating
    laboratory operations, staffing, and finances.

38
Educator
  • Senior technologists with an interest in
    education train new employees and share their
    knowledge with the next generation of
    professionals.

Clinical Laboratory Educator and Students
39
Technical Specialist
  • Technical Specialists (PhDs) function as
  • laboratory section technical directors
  • researchers
  • consultants to a patients physician.

PhD Technical Specialist and a Supervisor
40
Pathologist
  • Pathologists (MDs or DOs) function as
    laboratory directors and consultants to patient
    physicians.

Pathologist and a Medical Technologist
41
Wages Job Outlook
Source ASCP Preliminary 2003 Wage Vacancy
Survey of Medical Laboratories, July, 2004,
www.ascp.org
42
Accredited Educational Programs
  • The National Accrediting Agency for Clinical
    Laboratory Science (NAACLS) has a comprehensive
    listing of accredited educational programs in
    clinical laboratory science.
  • National Accrediting Agency for Clinical
    Laboratory Sciences
  • 8410 W. Bryn Mawr Ave., Suite 670
  • Chicago, IL 60631-3415
  • 773-714-8880
  • www.naacls.org

43
Certifying Agencies
  • American Society for Clinical Pathology -
  • Board of Registry (ASCP-BOR)
  • Box 12277
  • Chicago, IL 60612-0277
  • www.ascp.org/bor
  • National Credentialing Agency for Laboratory
    Personnel, Inc. (NCA)
  • P.O. Box 15945-289
  • Lenexa, KS 66285-9173
  • www.nca-info.org

44
Certifying Agencies
  • American Board of Histocompatibility and
    Immunogenetics (ABHI)
  • P.O. Box 19173
  • Lenexa, KS 66285-9173
  • www.ashi-hla.org

45
Summary
  • If you...
  • are fascinated by science
  • like to solve puzzles and problems
  • enjoy mysteries
  • like challenge and responsibility
  • are accurate and reliable
  • work well under pressure
  • communicate well and
  • set high standards for yourself .

46
Summary
  • then
  • consider a career in
  • Clinical Laboratory Science !!

47
For More Information
  • http//www.ferris.edu/htmls/colleges/alliedhe/CLLS
    /
  • Barbara Ross, MS, MT(ASCP)
  • x2317 rossb_at_ferris.edu
  • VFS303
  • Daniel deRegnier, MS, MT(ASCP)
  • x2327 deregnid_at_ferris.edu
  • VFS418
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