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Human Anatomy, First Edition McKinley

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1-1. Human Anatomy, First Edition. McKinley & O'Loughlin ... Deep = On the inside, underneath another structure. Superficial = On the outside. 1-36 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Anatomy, First Edition McKinley


1
Human Anatomy, First EditionMcKinley O'Loughlin
  • Chapter 1 Lecture Outline A First Look at
    Anatomy

2
A First Look at Anatomy
  • Anatomy is the study of structure.
  • The word anatomy is derived from Greek and means
    to cut up or to cut open.
  • Anatomists examine the relationships among parts
    of the body along with the structure of
    individual organs.

3
Introduction to Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • The scientific discipline that studies the
    function of body structures.
  • Structure and function cannot be completely
    separated.
  • Form is related to function.

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5
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
  • The simplest level of organization within the
    body is the chemical level, which is composed of
    atoms and molecules.
  • Atoms are the smallest units of matter.

6
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
  • Molecules
  • Two or more atoms combine to form a molecule,
    such as a protein, a water molecule, or a
    vitamin.
  • Macromolecules
  • Larger and more complex molecules such as DNA and
    proteins.

7
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
  • At the cellular level, specialized structural and
    functional units called organelles permit all
    living cells to share some common functions.

8
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
  • Large molecules join in specific ways to form
    cells, the basic units of structure and function
    in organisms.
  • The cell is the smallest structural unit that
    exhibits the characteristics of living things
    (organisms), and it is the smallest living
    portion of the human body.

9
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
  • Tissues
  • Groups of similar cells with a common function
    form tissue.
  • Tissues are precise organizations of similar
    cells that perform specialized functions.

10
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
  • Organs
  • Different tissue types that work together to
    perform specific, complex functions form an
    organ.
  • Organ Systems
  • The organ system level consists of related organs
    that work together to coordinate activities and
    achieve a common function.
  • There are 11 organ systems in the human body.

11
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
  • Organism
  • All body systems function interdependently in a
    single living human being, the organism.

12
The Four Types of Tissues in the Human Body
Are
  • Epithelial tissue covers exposed surfaces and
    lines body cavities.
  • Example The inner lining of the digestive
    system

13
The Four Types of Tissues
  • Connective tissue protects, supports, and
    interconnects body parts and organs.
  • Can be solid (such as bone), liquid (such as
    blood), or intermediate (such as cartilage).

14
The Four Types of Tissues
  • Muscle tissue produces movement.
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Smooth muscle
  • Cardiac muscle

15
The Four Types of Tissues
  • Nervous tissue conducts impulses for internal
    communication.
  • Brain, spinal cord, and nerves

16
Integumentary
  • Provides protection
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Site of cutaneous receptors
  • Synthesizes vitamin D
  • Prevents water loss

17
Skeletal
  • Provides support and protection
  • Site of hematopoeisis (blood cell production)
  • Stores calcium and phosphorus
  • Allows for body movement

18
Muscular
  • Produces body movement
  • Generates heat when muscles contract

19
Nervous
  • A regulatory system that controls body movement
  • Responds to sensory stimuli
  • Helps control all other systems of the body
  • Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence,
    memory

20
Endocrine
  • Consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete
    hormones, some of which regulate
  • body and cellular growth
  • chemical levels in the body
  • reproductive functions

21
Cardiovascular
  • Consists of a pump (the heart) that moves blood
    through blood vessels in order to distribute
    hormones, nutrients, gases, and pick up waste
    products

22
Lymphatic
  • Transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid)
  • Initiates an immune response when necessary

23
Respiratory
  • Responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and
    carbon dioxide) between blood and the air in the
    lungs

24
Digestive
  • Mechanically and chemically digests food
    materials
  • Absorbs nutrients
  • Expels waste products

25
Urinary
  • Filters the blood and removes waste products from
    the blood
  • Concentrates waste products in the form of urine,
    and expels urine from the body

26
Male Reproductive System
  • Produces male sex cells (sperm) and male hormones
    (e.g., testosterone)
  • Transfers sperm to the female

27
Female Reproductive System
  • Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female
    hormones (e.g., estrogen and progesterone)
  • Receives sperm from male
  • Site of fertilization of oocyte
  • Site of growth and development of embryo and
    fetus

28
AnatomicalTerminology
  • Anatomic position is a specific body position in
    which an individual stands upright with the feet
    parallel and flat on the floor.
  • The head is level, and the eyes look forward
    toward the observer.
  • The arms are at either side of the body with the
    palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away
    from the body.

29
Anatomical Terminology
  • A plane is an imaginary surface that slices the
    body into specific sections.
  • The three major anatomic planes of reference are
    the coronal, transverse, and sagittal planes.

30
Sectionsand Planes
  • A coronal plane, also called a frontal plane,
    is a vertical plane that divides the body into
    anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts.

31
Sectionsand Planes
  • A transverse plane, also called a cross-sectional
    plane or horizontal plane, cuts perpendicularly
    along the long axis of the body or organ
    separating it into both superior (upper) and
    inferior (lower) parts.

32
Sectionsand Planes
  • A sagittal plane or median plane, extends through
    the body or organ vertically and divides the
    structure into right and left halves.

33
Sections and Planes
  • A sagittal plane in the body midline is a
    midsagittal plane.
  • A plane that is parallel to the midsagittal
    plane, but either to the left or the right of it,
    is termed a parasagittal (or sagittal) plane.
  • A minor plane, called the oblique plane, passes
    through the specimen at an angle.

34
Directional Terms of the Body
  • Directional terms are precise and brief, and for
    most of them there is a correlative term that
    means just the opposite.

35
Relative and Directional Terms of the Body
  • Relative to front (belly side) or back (back
    side) of the body
  • Anterior In front of toward the front surface
  • Posterior In back of toward the back surface
  • Dorsal At the back side of the human body
  • Ventral At the belly side of the human body

36
Relative and Directional Terms of the Body
  • Relative to the head or tail of the body
  • Superior Toward the head or above
  • Inferior Toward feet not head
  • Caudal At the rear or tail end
  • Cranial At the head end

37
Relative and Directional Terms of the Body
  • Relative to the midline or center of the body
  • Medial Toward the midline of the body
  • Lateral Away from the midline of the body
  • Deep On the inside, underneath another
    structure
  • Superficial On the outside

38
Relative and Directional Terms of the Body
  • Relative to point of attachment of the appendage
  • Proximal Closest to point of attachment to
    trunk
  • Distal Furthest from point of attachment to
    trunk

39
Body Regions
  • The human body is partitioned into two main
    regions, called the axial and appendicular
    regions.
  • the axial region includes the head, neck, and
    trunk which comprise the main vertical axis of
    our body
  • our limbs, or appendages, attach to the bodys
    axis and make up the appendicular region

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43
Body Cavitiesand Membranes
  • The posterior aspect of the body has two enclosed
    cavities
  • A cranial cavity is formed by the cranium and
    houses the brain.
  • A vertebral canal is formed by the individual
    bones of the vertebral column and contains the
    spinal cord.

44
Body Cavities
  • Both the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are
    lined with thin serous membranes, which are
    composed of two layers
  • A parietal layer lines the internal surface of
    the body wall.
  • A visceral layer covers the external surface of
    organs (viscera) within the cavity.
  • Between the parietal and visceral layers of the
    serous membrane is a thin serous cavity,
    containing a lubricating film of serous fluid.

45
Body Cavities and Membranes
  • Constant movement of the organs causes friction.
  • The serous fluid reduces friction and helps the
    organs move smoothly against both one another and
    the body wall.

46
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47
Body Cavities and Membranes
  • The median space in the thoracic cavity is called
    the mediastinum.
  • It contains the heart, thymus, esophagus,
    trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to
    the heart.

48
Body Cavities and Membranes
  • Within the mediastinum, the heart is enclosed by
    a two-layered serous membrane called the
    pericardium.

49
Insert Fig 1.9d
50
The Thoracic Cavity
  • The right and left sides of the thoracic cavity
    contain the lungs they are lined by a
    two-layered serous membrane called the pleura.
  • The outer layer is the parietal pleura it lines
    the internal surface of the thoracic wall
  • The inner layer is the visceral pleura it covers
    the external surface of the lung
  • The narrow, moist, potential space between them
    is called the pleural cavity

51
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52
Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • The abdominopelvic cavity consists of an
    abdominal cavity and a pelvic cavity.

53
The Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • The peritoneum is a moist, two-layered serous
    membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity.

Insert figure 1.9d
.
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55
Abdominopelvic Regions
  • The abdominopelvic cavity is partitioned into 9
    smaller, imaginary compartments.
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