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TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

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Title: TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT


1
TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT
2
MODERN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • 1893Thomas Wood"The great thought in physical
    education is not the education of the physical
    nature, but the relation of physical training to
    complete education, and then the effort to make
    the physical contribute its full share to the
    life of the individual, in environment, training,
    and culture."

3
LUTHER GULICK
4
LUTHER GULICK
  • YMCA Training School (1887-1900)
  • Director of Physical Training for New York City
    Public Schools (1903-1908)
  • 1903Public Schools Athletic League in New York
  • Class athleticstrack and field basketball
    baseball
  • Athletic badge testsdash broad jump pull-ups
  • Interschool athleticsMadison Square Garden

5
LUTHER GULICK
  • Jesse Bancroft served as Assistant Director for
    physical training in New York
  • Elizabeth Burchenal directed the Girls' Branch of
    the Public Schools Athletic League, which
    featured folk dancing
  • 1906Playground Association of America
  • 1913Campfire Girls
  • Play was the most important educational aspect

6
THOMAS WOOD
7
THOMAS WOOD
  • 1891-1901Stanfordphysical education and health
    undergraduate curricula established
  • 1901-1932Teachers Collegephysical education and
    health undergraduate and graduate curricula
    (1927moved into health education)
  • Emphasized educational goals through "natural
    activities"sports, games, dances, aquatics,
    arts, and recreation.
  • 1927The New Physical Education with Rosalind
    Cassady

8
CLARK HETHERINGTON
9
CLARK HETHERINGTON
  • Stanford under Wood (1893-1896student and
    instructor)
  • Clark University under G. Stanley
    Hallchild-study and developmentalism
  • 1900-1910Missouririd athletics of abuses
    (supported women's activities)
  • 1923-1929New York Universityphysical education
    curriculum
  • 1929-1938Stanford

10
CLARK HETHERINGTON
  • Play was a child's chief business in life
  • Stressed attainment of educational goals in
    physical activities
  • 1910Four phases of the educational process
  • Organic education
  • Psychomotor education
  • Character education
  • Intellectual education

11
JAY NASH
12
JAY NASH
  • New York University (1926-1953)
  • Influenced by Hetherington
  • Recreationpart of total life experiences for all
    ages
  • Emphasis on carry-over sports

13
JESSE WILLIAMS
14
JESSE WILLIAMS
  • Teachers College of Columbia University
    (1919-1941)
  • Expanded Wood's ideas of physical education as
    part of education, i.e., social education (John
    Dewey), unified whole, and living in a democratic
    society
  • "Education through the physical"
  • Physical development is a means to an end
    (educational objectives)

15
THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS
 
     
16
THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS
 
17
CHARLES MCCLOY
18
CHARLES MCCLOY
  • YMCA22 years of service at home and abroad
  • University of Iowa (1930-1954)
  • Organic unityphysical dimensionthe major aspect
    of the whole being
  • Education of the physical
  • Educational objectivessecondary to the
    development of the physical
  • Measurementto develop skill and strength

19
PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT
  • Colonial amusementsPuritan work ethic
  • First playgrounds in urban settings
  • 1880sBostonsand boxeslater in schools
  • 1890sNew York (Central Park), Boston, and
    Chicago provided green space for the upper class
    opened playgrounds for others
  • 1894ChicagoJane Addams' Hull Houseone of
    several settlement houses where play
    opportunities were provided for children

20
PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT
  • Commonalities of early playgrounds
  • Preadolescent children
  • Summer months initially
  • Outdoor equipment
  • In urban (populated) areas
  • Philanthropic support (donated land) later
    cities financed
  • Supervisors were mothers and police

21

PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT
  • South Park in Chicagofields, gymnasium, and
    other activity spaces
  • Sport was used as a means of social control for
    the assimilation of immigrants' cultures and the
    socialization of American youth
  • Began with playgrounds for children and
    transitioned into recreation for all
  • 1906Playground Association of America
  • 1906Boys' Clubs of America

22
PLAYGROUNDS TO RECREATION
  • 1910Boy Scouts of America
  • 1911Playground and Recreation Association of
    America
  • 1912Girl Scouts
  • 1913Campfire Girls of America
  • 1930National Recreation Association
  • 1965National Recreation and Park Association
  • Clark HetheringtonThe Normal Course in Playto
    train recreation workers

23
RECREATION MOVEMENT
  • Depressionincreased leisure timesoftball and
    bowling
  • Industrial Recreation1940s facilities and
    equipment provided for leisure time usage by
    workerssoftball, bowling, and basketball
  • 1950sbeginning of outdoor education
    movementhiking, camping, and backpacking

24
FITNESS
  • 1965Lifetime Sports Foundationcarry-over sports
    to play throughout life
  • Archery
  • Bowling
  • Badminton
  • Golf
  • Tennis
  • 1970sFitness boomjogging tennis racquetball
    aquatic sports

25
ORGANIZED YOUTH SPORTS
  • 1920sAmerican Legion baseball
  • 1930Pop Warner FootballJoe Tomlin
  • 1939Little League BaseballCarl Stoltz
  • 1950Biddy BasketballJoe Archer
  • 1950AAU age-group swimming later wrestling,
    skiing, and track and field
  • 1967AAU Junior Olympics

26
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1953Results of the Kraus-Weber Minimal Muscular
    Fitness Test 58 of U.S. youth failed one or
    more items, while 9 of the European youth failed
    (tested flexibility)
  • On stomachRaise legs (10 seconds each)
  • On stomachRaise upper body
  • On backRaise legs
  • Straight leg sit-up
  • Bent-knee sit-up
  • Touch toes

27
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1956President Eisenhower through an Executive
    Order established the President's Council on
    Youth Fitness as an outgrowth of the President's
    Conference on Physical Fitness
  • 1956AAHPER Fitness Conference
  • June 1 -7, 1958National Fitness Week

28
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1957AAHPER's National Research Council developed
    the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test
  • Pull-ups (boys)
  • Flexed-arm hang (girls)
  • Sit-ups
  • Shuttle run
  • Standing broad jump
  • 50-yard dash
  • 600-yard run-walk
  • Softball throw

29
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1958Operation Fitness sponsored by AAHPER to
    stimulate fitness nationally
  • 1958Results of the AAHPER Fitness Youth Test
    showed poor performance by youth (8500 boys and
    girls tested in grades 5-12)

30
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1961President's Council on Youth Fitness
    published the "Blue Book" with suggestions for a
    school-centered program
  • Identify the physically underdeveloped student
    and work to improve
  • Provide at least 15 minutes of vigorous activity
    daily for all
  • Use valid fitness tests to determine abilities
    and evaluate progress

31
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1963President Kennedy changed name to the
    President's Council on Physical Fitness
  • 1965Retesting of youth with AAHPER Youth Fitness
    Test showed improvement in students' fitness
    levels
  • 1968Aerobics (Kenneth Cooper)
  • male 30 points per week
  • female 24 points per week
  • 1974Retesting of youth with AAHPER Youth Fitness
    Test showed no overall improvement in fitness
    levels since 1965

32
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1981AAHPERD Lifetime Health-Related Physical
    Fitness Test
  • Body composition using skin-fold measures
  • Function of heart and circulatory system using a
    1.5 mile or 12-minute run
  • Strength using bent-knee sit-ups in 60 seconds
    (number done)
  • Flexibility using straight leg with arm extension

33
PHYSICAL FITNESS
  • 1994Physical Best (AAHPERD's educational
    materials) combined with the FITNESSGRAM
    developed by the Cooper Institute
  • Aerobic capacity in a one-mile walk/run or pacer
    for young children
  • Body composition
  • Muscular strength and endurance using curl-ups,
    push-ups, or alternatively pull-ups, modified
    pull-ups, or flexed-arm hand and trunk lift
  • Flexibility using sit-and-reach

34
ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION
  • Adapted physical education is for exceptional
    students who are so different in mental,
    physical, emotional, or behavioral
    characteristics that in the interest of quality
    of educational opportunity, special provisions
    must be made for their proper education.

35
CATEGORIES
  • Physical limitations
  • Deaf
  • Blind
  • Hard of hearing
  • Orthopedically impaired
  • Speech impaired
  • Visually handicapped
  • Injured
  • Low skilled

36
CATEGORIES
  • Mental limitations
  • Mentally challenged
  • Learning disabled
  • Behavioral limitations
  • Attention-deficit disorder
  • Emotionally disturbed
  • Interrelated (multiple handicaps)

37
HISTORICALLY
  • Excused
  • Corrective or remedial
  • Individualized
  • Mainstreaming
  • Inclusionintegration of children with special
    needs with students in regular classes
  • Least restrictive environment

38
REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973, SECTION
504INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES IN EDUCATION
  • No otherwise qualified handicapped person shall
    on the basis of handicap, be excluded from
    participation in, be denied the benefits of, or
    otherwise be subjected to discrimination under
    any program which receives or benefits from
    Federal financial assistance.

39
PUBLIC LAW 94-142
  • The Education of all Handicapped Children Act of
    1975
  • Required the development of an Individualized
    Education Program (IEP) for every child with
    special needs, including specifically for
    physical education

40
IDEA
  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    (IDEA) has fostered significant changes in the
    lives of children with disabilities and their
    families and in the roles of schools and teachers
    in the education of children with disabilities.
    The basic tenets of IDEA have remained intact
    since the original passage of the law in 1975.
    However, each set of amendments has strengthened
    the original law.

41
INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM
  • Statement of the childs current levels of
    educational performance
  • Statement of measurable annual goals, including
    short-term objectives or benchmarks
  • Statement of the specific special education and
    related services to be provided to the child
  • Statement of the extent (if any) to which the
    child will not participate with non-disabled
    children in regular class and other school
    activities
  • Statement of any individual modifications in the
    administration of statewide or district wide
    assessment of student achievement

42
INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM
  • Statement of when services will begin, how often
    they will be provided, where they will be
    provided, and how long they will last
  • Statement of transition services needs (beginning
    at age 14) and transition services needed to
    prepare for leaving school (beginning at age 16)
  • Statement of any rights that will transfer to the
    child at the age of majority (at least one year
    prior)
  • Statement of how the childs progress will be
    measured and how parents will be informed of the
    progress

43
MEN'S ATHLETICS
  • Socially elitehorse racing, dancing, gambling,
    cards, and yachting
  • Baseball (1744England not 1839 in America)
  • Cyclinglate 1800s
  • Tennis1874 from England
  • GolfScotland
  • Cricket and croquet clubslate 1800s
  • 1891BasketballJames Naismith at the
    YMCA Training School
  • 1896VolleyballWilliam Morgan at YMCA

44
AMATEUR SPORTS1850-1900s
  • Athletic clubs (especially the New York Athletic
    Club)provided sports opportunities for members
    (especially track and field)
  • 1879Amateur Athletic Union (1888)"check the
    evils of professionalism and promote amateur
    sport"
  • 1912538 athletic clubs and the AAU had 19,000
    members
  • Competition offered (and said to control) 40
    sports later 16 sportsespecially basketball,
    track and field, and boxing

45
MENS INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • Students promoted, financed, and controlled
    athleticsfaculty and administrators did not want
    to be involved (no standard rules or eligibility
    regulations)
  • Rowing1852Harvard over Yale
  • Baseball1859Amherst over Williams
  • Football1869 (actually rugby)Rutgers over
    Princeton

46
MENS INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • Social function
  • Winningfansmoneywinningfansmoney
  • Recruiting
  • Professional coaches
  • Newspaper coverage
  • Graduate managers
  • Walter Camp controlled the collegiate football
    rules committee (1879-1925)

47
MENS INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • Control established in colleges
  • Injuries property damage class absences rule
    confusion gambling drunkenness
    professionalism commercialism loss of values
  • Benefitsimproved health taught values such as
    fair play and teamwork diminished use of tobacco
    and alcohol reduced rowdyism improved
    discipline enhanced school spirit

48
  • Late 1800sstudents unified various rules of
    sports
  • Harvard faculty attempted to control class
    absences and to regulate athletic abuses
  • 1882Harvard model with three faculty
  • 1885added two students and one alumnus
  • 1888three faculty three students three alumni

49
MENS INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • 1895Midwestern colleges (Intercollegiate
    Conference of Faculty Representativestodays Big
    Ten)
  • Required to be students
  • Six months residence for transfers
  • Must remain eligible academically

50
  • Representatives from 13 colleges attended the
    initial meeting in December, 1905, called by
    President MacCracken of New York University to
    investigate the future of football due to deaths
    and injuries, dishonesty, gambling, and
    eligibility in January, 1906, a second meeting
    led to the establishment of the NCAA and the
    reform of football to prevent injuries and
    deaths legalized the forward pass
  • 1906National Collegiate Athletic Association was
    established by 28 colleges

51
AAU AND NCAA CONFLICTS
  • Olympic team selection (1920s to the 1970s)
  • National Amateur Athletic Federation1922
  • Sanctioning of events
  • Certification of records
  • 1978Amateur Sports Act

52
PROBLEMS IN MENS INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • 1929Savage study of college athletics found
    problems as reported in American College
    Athletics
  • Commercialism
  • Loss of educational values

53
SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • Faculty controlinstitutional or home rule
  • Conferencessave money fewer classes missed
    equal philosophy and size rivalry
  • No seasonal coachesin departments of physical
    education to gain faculty status
  • Rules of sports standardized and provide national
    tournaments (track and field1921)
  • Recruitment and scholarship policiesSanity Code
    (1948-1951)

54
ORGANIZATIONS IN MENS INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS
  • National Junior College Athletic Association1938
  • National Association of Intercollegiate
    Athletics1940 (only basketball until 1952)

55
INTRAMURALS
  • Activities among participants within the walls
    of an institution
  • Begun in 1913 at the University of Michigan under
    Elmer D. Mitchell
  • Initially organized and funded by athletics
  • Later, administered through departments of
    physical education
  • Today, comprehensive campus recreation
    opportunities are provided within student affairs

56
PURPOSES OF INTRAMURALS
  • Constructive use of leisure time
  • Opportunity to experience success
  • Physical fitness
  • Mental and emotional health
  • Social interaction and contacts
  • Esprit de corps
  • Promote permanent participant interest
  • Practice skills learned in physical education
    classes
  • Training ground for future varsity athletes

57
INTRAMURALS TO CAMPUS RECREATION
  • Traditional intramuralscompetitions in
    traditional team and individual sports usually a
    fairly narrow offering of activities league
    competition is well structured and organized
    requires a solid commitment from participants
  • Campus recreation includes non-athletic
    activities (games, crafts, dances, movies, etc.),
    special programs and workshops, open recreation,
    club sports, free play, faculty-staff programs,
    and co-recreation

58
CLUB SPORTS AND FUNDING
  • Club sportsgroups of students, faculty, and
    staff who get together to share a mutual interest
    in a particular sport or activity European
    concept that spread to this country, clubs are
    self-organized, administered, funded, coached,
    and otherwise maintained
  • Funding
  • State appropriations (within physical
    education)
  • Student fees

59
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • Colonial period
  • Horseback riding dancing fox hunting
  • Next 100 years
  • Riding walking dancing calisthenics
  • Late 1800s
  • Croquet cycling hiking (with clothing
    restrictions)
  • Tennis1874
  • Gymnastics in bloomers

60
BASKETBALL
  • 1892Smith College (Senda Berenson)
  • 1896Stanford defeated California in the first
    intercollegiate game
  • 1899Standardized rules
  • No snatching the ball
  • Could hold ball only three seconds
  • Could bounce ball only three times
  • Divided court into three areas to limit exertion

61
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • Basketball
  • 1936two-division game
  • 1949rover game in AAU 1962 in colleges
  • 1970full court game in colleges
  • Collegestrack and field field hockey archery
    rowing golf

62
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • Preferred events by physical education teachers
  • Field Dayinterclass play within a school
  • Play Daymixed teams competed with a social
    emphasis
  • Sports Daywithin own team, competition with a
    social emphasis
  • Telegraphic Meetsend scores to a central location

63
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • Philosophical justifications for the opposition
    of women in competitive sports
  • Competition might be physically and emotionally
    harmful
  • Undesirable examples from men's programs
  • Philosophy of mass participation
  • Societal belief of women as homemakers, not
    athletes

64
  • Participation rather than competition in
    1909about half of the colleges had
    intercollegiate competition, especially in the
    West and Midwest
  • Allowed if these conditions met
  • Women officials and coaches
  • Audience by invitation only
  • College-financed only
  • No "win-at-all costs attitudefor fun and social
    interaction
  • Outside schoolsAmateur Athletic Union sponsored
    leagues and tournaments

65
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • High schools followed the collegesbut problems
    arose
  • Males coached
  • Used boys' rules
  • Spectators allowed
  • Newspaper covered games
  • Competition was intense
  • All the above meant pressure to win

66
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • 1917APEA Committee on Women's Athleticsset
    standards and rules of sports
  • 1917Athletic Conference of American College
    Women
  • Opposed intercollegiate competition
  • Emphasis on participation by all
  • Aligned with physical education departments and
    teachers

67
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • 1923Women's Division of the National Amateur
    Athletic Federation
  • Opposed international competition
  • Favored play days for girls and women
  • A sport for every girl, and every girl in a
    sport"National Section on Women's Athletics

68
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • 1941National Tournament in golfopposed by the
    National Section on Womens Athletics
  • Industrial recreation and All-American Girls
    Professional Baseball League

69
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • Increased Competition
  • Olympic development thrust after defeat by
    Russians in 1956 and 1960 Olympic Games
  • U. S. Olympic Development Committee in 1961"to
    broaden the base of participation for girls and
    women in Olympic sports and to provide better
    experiences for the skilled athlete"
  • 1963-1969National Institutes on Girls' Sportsto
    train teachers and coaches

70
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • 1966-1967Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics
    for Womenset up by the Division of Girls and
    Women in Sport
  • Encourage and govern intercollegiate competition
    for women at all levels
  • Sanction intercollegiate events
  • Hold national tournamentsfirst national
    tournaments in track and field and in gymnastics

71
HISTORY OF WOMENS SPORTS
  • 1969Association for Intercollegiate Athletics
    for Women
  • Members were colleges
  • Educational goals and purposes
  • Set standards and policies for women's athletics
  • NAGWS game rules
  • Separated from NAGWS in 1979
  • 39 championships in 17 sports
  • Ended June, 1982

72
TITLE IX OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS OF 1972
  • "No person shall on the basis of sex, be excluded
    from participation in, be denied the benefits of,
    be treated differently from another person or
    otherwise be discriminated against in any
    interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or
    intramural athletics offered by a recipient, or
    no recipient shall provide athletics separately
    on such basis."

73
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 1975Federal government published guidelines for
    Title IX
  • 1976Schools and 1978 (colleges) required to be
    in full compliance with Title IX
  • 1979Congress adopted its policy interpretation
    of Title IX
  • 1984United States Supreme Court ruled in Grove
    City College v. Bell that Title IX was applicable
    only to educational programs that directly
    received federal funding

74
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 1988Congress passed (over presidential veto) the
    Civil Rights Restoration Act, which stated that
    Title IX applied on an institution-wide basis,
    including athletics
  • 1992United States Supreme Court ruled in
    Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools that
    plaintiffs could sue for compensatory and
    punitive damages in cases alleging intentional
    discrimination

75
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 1993NCAA released the report of its Gender
    Equity Task Force report that showed that women
    comprised 35 of the varsity athletes received
    30 of the athletic grant-in-aid dollars were
    allocated 17 of the recruiting dollars received
    23 of the operating budget dollars had access
    to 37 of the athletic opportunities for
    participation

76
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 1996Females comprised 42 of the United States
    Olympic team competing in Atlanta they won 38
    of the medals awarded to athletes from the United
    States
  • 1997United States Supreme Court refused to grant
    certiorari and hear the appeal of Cohen v. Brown
    University, thus affirming that schools and
    colleges must provide varsity athletic positions
    for males and females matching the overall
    percentage of the student body

77
TITLE IX TIMELINE
  • 2003Upheld the use of proportionality in the
    three-part test for access to participation
    opportunities
  • 2005Permitted the use of a web survey to
    determine if there was sufficient interest to
    support an additional varsity team for the
    underrepresented sex creates a presumption of
    compliance with part three of the three-part test
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