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Role of Government

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What is government, and why is it important? ... Thomas Hobbes: (Leviathan) The people create the state through a social contract. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Role of Government


1
Role of Government
CHAPTER 1
  • Section 1 Government and the Public Good
  • Section 2 Forms of Government
  • Section 3 Foundations of Democracy

2
Section 1 Government and the Public Good
  • Objectives
  • What is government, and why is it important?
  • How have some philosophers described the nature
    and purpose of the state?
  • What functions does government perform?
  • How does government promote the public good?

3
Section 1 Government and the Public Good
  • The meaning and importance of government
  • Government is an institution with the power to
    make and enforce rules for a group of people.
  • It is important because it creates and enforces
    laws to protect and promote the public good.

4
Origins of State
  • Evolutionary Theory gt The primitive family, where
    one person was the head of family. Then many
    other families joined to form clans, out of clans
    came tribes. Nomadic ways were dropped and
    settled into one designated territory.
  • Force Theory gt one person or small group took
    control of territory and forced inhabitants to
    adhere to rule.
  • Divine-Right Theory gt God created the state.
    Those of royal birth had divine right to rule.
    Their will was the will of God. To disobey was
    treason and also a mortal sin.
  • Social Contract Theory gt

5
Section 1Government and the Public Good
  • Descriptions of the nature and purpose of the
    state
  • Early philosophers
  • Rulers receive their authority to govern from
    God, called the divine right of Kings.
  • Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan)
  • The people create the state through a social
    contract.
  • The people surrender their individual sovereignty
    to the state in exchange for peace and order
    provided by the state. (Hussein)
  • John Locke (Two Treaties on Government)
  • The power of the government comes from the people
    governed.
  • Governments role is to protect peoples natural
    rights.
  • Concepts popular sovereignty, limited gov., and
    individual rights

6
Section 1Government and the Public Good
  • Functions of government
  • Maintaining order gt preserving life and
    protecting property
  • Promoting Public Good gt benefits and services
    that are available to everyone. (Education,
    sanitation, parks, housing)
  • Promote Equality gt government confronted by
    paradox of poverty among the plenty. (European
    countries pioneered programs for poor.
  • Cradle to the grave gt Guaranteed income,
    Health Care

7
Section 1 Government and the Public Good
  • How the government serves the public good
  • The government makes policies that address a wide
    range of interests.

8
Section 2 Forms of Government
  • Objectives
  • In what ways are monarchies, republics, and
    dictatorships different from one another?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of
    unitary, federal, and confederal systems?
  • What are the major advantages and disadvantages
    of presidential and parliamentary forms of
    government?

9
Section 2 Forms of Government
  • Differences among monarchies, republics, and
    dictatorships
  • monarchies power is based on inheritance
    (Constitutional,Absolute)
  • republicsrepresentatives are chosen by the
    people (Democracy)
  • dictatorshipscontrol is in the hands of a single
    person or small group

10
Section 2 Forms of Government
  • Types of government systems
  • unitaryall legal power is held by the central
    government
  • federallegal powers are shared among national,
    state, and local governments
  • confederalindependent states join together to
    accomplish common goals without a central
    government

11
Section 2 Forms of Government
  • Differences between presidential and
    parliamentary forms of government
  • Presidential
  • The legislative and executive branches remain
    separate and independent of each other.
  • The executive branch is headed by a president,
    who is chosen independently of the legislature
    and acts as head of state.
  • Parliamentary
  • The executive branch is headed by a prime
    minister, who is chosen by the legislature.
  • The chief executive and head of state are
    separate offices.

12
Section 3 Foundations of Democracy
  • Objectives
  • What are the major principles of democracy?
  • What is the difference between direct democracy
    and representative democracy?

13
Section 3 Foundations of Democracy
  • Principles of democracy
  • allowing choice (Education,Schools,Consumer
    Products, Representatives)
  • recognizing individual worth (Dem. Allows people
    to take responsibility for their success and
    failures )
  • promoting respect for the law (because of
    participation, people have a responsibility to
    protect the laws. )
  • protecting minority rights (Liberal Dem.
    Political Rights that cannot be abolished )
  • promoting the public good (Recognizing the above
    is key for this principle to happen. Policies
    that address a wide range of interests.)

14
Section 3 Foundations of Democracy
  • Difference between direct democracy and
    representative democracy
  • direct democracycitizens make and vote on laws
    (Town Meetings gt majority rules) Doesnt work
    very well with large populations
  • representative democracycitizens elect
    representatives to make laws and run the
    government

15
Chapter Wrap-Up
  • 1. How is government authority distributed in
    unitary, federal, and confederal systems?
  • 2. What is legitimacy and where does a government
    get it?
  • 3. What is the source of authority in a monarchy?
    in a democratic republic? in a dictatorship?

16
Chapter Wrap-Up
  • 4. How does feudalism differ from an absolute
    monarchy? from a constitutional monarchy?
  • 5. What is the difference between direct
    democracy and representative democracy?
  • 6. Why is it important that democracy gives
    people the opportunity to make choices? Does
    equality of opportunity mean the same thing as
    equality of results? Why or why not?
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