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Title: ERP%20and%20E-Business-%20An%20Overview


1
ERP and E-Business- An Overview
Based on the book Enterprise Resource Planning
Solutions and Management by Flona Fui-Hoon Nah,
Idea Group Publishing 2001
2
Contents
  • What is ERP?
  • The Evolution of ERP SystemsA Historical
    Perspective
  • ERP System Architecture
  • Extended ERP
  • Towards an ERP Life-Cycle Costs Model
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of ERP Systems
  • ERP From E-BUSINESS Perspective
  • Are You Ready for ERP?
  • E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge
  • Common ERP? E-Business Platform (Oracle SAP)
  • Web Services and XML

3
Topic 1 What Is ERP?
  • ERP Enterprise Resource Planning
  • A software solution that addresses
    enterprise needs taking the process view
    of an organization to meet the
    organization goals.
  • -- It integrates all the departments and
    functions across
  • a company into a single computer system
    that can serve all those different
    departments particular needs.

4
What Is ERP?
  • An ERP system is analogous to the internal
    technological hub of a company. When fully
    implemented as an integrated suite, it can be
    thought of as a company's central repository. The
    five major processes in a typical ERP system are
    finance, logistics, manufacturing, human
    resources and sales/marketing (refer to Figure
    next slide). The focus of ERP systems is on the
    efficiency and effectiveness of the internal
    process. It offers a way to streamline and align
    business processes, increase operational
    efficiencies and bring order out of chaos.

5
ERP Systems Concept
6
What Is ERP?
  • ERP Combines various department systems into a
    single, integrated software program that runs off
    a single database so that the various departments
    can more easily share information and communicate
    with each other.
  • The best part of ERP is the way in which it
    improves the order fulfillment process that is
    taking the customer order and process it into an
    invoice and revenue.
  • It doesnt handle the front-end that is handled
    by CRM (Customer Relationship Management).

7
What Is ERP?
  • When a customer service representative enters a
    customer order into an ERP system, he has all the
    information necessary to complete the order such
    as customers credit rating and order history
    from the finance module, the companys inventory
    levels from the warehouse module and the shipping
    docks trucking schedule from the logistics
    module.
  • How its being done It integrates the financial
    information and customer order information . It
    does so by integrating the following
  • Database
  • Application
  • Interfaces
  • Tools
  • BPR

8
What Is ERP?
  • It standardizes and speeds up the manufacturing
    process. This saves time, increases productivity
    and reduces head count.
  • It reduces the inventory. Due to the information
    available about all the orders it helps to
    maintain the right level of stock and smoothes
    the manufacturing process.

9
Topic 2 The Evolution of ERP SystemsA
Historical Perspective
  • The phenomenal growth of computing power and the
    Internet is bringing ever more challenges for the
    ERP vendors and the customers to redesign ERP
    products breaking the barrier of proprietorship
    and customization, and embracing the
    collaborative business over the Intranet,
    Extranet and the Internet in a seamless manner.
    The vendors already promise many "add-on"
    modules, some of which are already in the market
    as a sign of acceptance of these challenges by
    the ERP vendors. It is a never-ending process of
    reengineering and development bringing new
    products and solutions to the ERP market. ERP
    vendors and customers have recognized the need
    for packages that follow open architecture,
    provide interchangeable modules and allow easy
    customization and user interfacing.

10
ERP Applications Take Hold
  • The 1990s saw, for the first time, many companies
    embrace product offerings from companies such as
    SAP AG, Peoplesoft, and Oracle that provided (or
    at least intended to provide) a single integrated
    package framework upon which most or all of a
    company's core business processes could be
    implemented, deployed, and used throughout the
    enterprise.

11
ERP Applications Take Hold
  • For example, supply chain automation applications
    began appearing, and business-to-business (B2B)
  • e-commerce applications such as electronic
    procurement (e-procurement) and buyer-to-seller
    electronic marketplaces are directly descended
    from these first-generation cross-enterprise
    supply chain applications, which in turn owe a
    large portion of their growth to the tenacity of
    ERP proponents who persevered throughout the
    decade and made successful large-scale, complex
    distributed computing systems a reality.

12
Topic 3 ERP Systems Architecture
  • An ERP system is required to have the following
    characteristics
  • Modular design comprising many distinct business
    modules such as financial, manufacturing,
    accounting, distribution etc.
  • Use centralized common database management system
    (DBMS)
  • The modules are integrated and provide seamless
    dataflow among the modules increasing operational
    transparency through standard interfaces.
  • They are generally complex systems involving high
    cost
  • They are flexible and offer best business
    practices
  • They require time-consuming tailoring and
    configuration setups for integrating with the
    company's business functions
  • The modules work in real-time with on-line and
    batch processing capabilities
  • They are or soon they will be Internet-enabled

13
ERP Systems Architecture
  • The modules of an ERP system can either work as
    stand-alone units or several modules can be
    combined together to form an integrated system.
    The systems are usually designed to operate under
    several operating platforms such as UNIX, MS
    Windows NT, Windows 2000, IBM AIX, HP UX systems.
    SAP AG, the largest ERP vendor provides a number
    of modules shown in the next slide with its
    famous R/3 ERP system. New modules are introduced
    by SAP and other vendors in response to the
    market and technological demand such as the
    Internet technology.

14
SAP's Platform for ERP/e-Business
15
Three-Tier ERP Systems Architecture
16
Topic 4 Extended ERP
  • The proliferation of the Internet has shown
    tremendous impact on every aspect of the IT
    sector including the ERP systems becoming more
    and more Internet-enabled (Lawton, 2000). This
    environment of accessing systems resources from
    anywhere anytime has helped ERP vendors extend
    their legacy ERP systems to integrate with newer
    external business modules such as supply-chain
    management, customer-relationship management,
    sales force automation (SFA), advanced planning
    and scheduling (APS), business intelligence (BI),
    and e-business capabilities. In fact ERP is
    becoming E-business backbone for organizations
    doing on-line business transactions over the
    Internet. Internet-based solutions are destined
    to improve customer satisfaction, increase
    marketing and sales opportunities, expand
    distribution channels, provide more
    cost-effective billing and payment methods. The
    extension to SCM and CRM enables effective
    tri-party business relationships between the
    organization, suppliers and the customers. A
    supply chain management has sub-modules for
    procurement of materials, transformation of the
    materials into products and distribution of
    products to customers.

17
Extended ERP
  • E-commerce is the conduct of business
    transactions among organizations with the support
    of networked information and communication
    technologies, especially utilizing Internet
    applications such as the Web and e-mail
    effectively reaching the global customers.
    Adoption of e-commerce and e-business solutions,
    especially business-to-business (B2B) solutions,
    are seen by many as the wave of current and
    future extensions of traditional ERP systems of
    most small, medium and large vendors. The
    front-end web-based Internet-business
    applications are integrated with the back-office
    ERP-based applications enabling business
    transactions such as order placement, purchasing,
    inventory updates, employee benefits etc. to take
    place between the customers, suppliers and the
    enterprise based on reliable, relevant data and
    applications instantly in a border-less domain.

18
Extended ERP
  • The legacy ERP systems designed to integrate
    enterprise functions within the four walls of the
    enterprise have introduced software solutions
    with Web-interface essentially extending to
    Internet enabled CRM, SCM and other
    Internet-business models. Examples of such
    extended ERPs are available from most of the ERP
    vendors. Thus SAP's Internet-enabled integrated
    ERP system called http//mySAP.COM (SAP, 2001) is
    a suite of ERP, CRM and other products that can
    be linked together using Internet portals. The
    concept of the Internet-enabled extended ERP
    system is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2(next two
    slides).

19
Extended ERP
                                               
Figure 1 Web-enabled extended ERP system
20
Extended ERP
Customer
ERP
Supplier
CRM
SCM
Data Warehouse
21
Figure 2 Developments in e-ERP and Business
Practice for Doing e-Business
22
Topic 5 Towards an ERP Life-Cycle Costs Model
  • To define the life-cycle model we use a
    simplified version of the model proposed by
    Esteves and Pastor (1999a, 1999b). This model is
    structured in phases and dimensions. Here, we
    only make reference to the phases as the
    different stages of the life-cycle of an ERP
    system in an organization. Next, we describe each
    phase, i.e., adoption, acquisition,
    implementation, usage and maintenance, evolution
    and retirement.
  • Adoption decision phase
  • Acquisition phase
  • Implementation phase
  • Use and maintenance phase
  • Evolution phase
  • Retirement phase

23
Adoption Decision Phase
  • During this phase managers examine the need for a
    new ERP system while selecting the general
    information system approach that will best
    address the critical business challenges and
    improve the organizational strategy. This
    decision phase includes the definition of system
    requirements, its goals and benefits, and an
    analysis of the impact of adoption at a business
    and organizational level.

24
Acquisition Phase
  • This phase consists on the selection of a ERP
    product that best fits the requirements of the
    organization, thus minimizing the need for
    customization. A consulting company is also
    selected to help in the next phases of the ERP
    life-cycle especially in the implementation
    phase. Factors such as price, training and
    maintenance services are analyzed and, the
    contractual agreement is defined. In this phase,
    it is also important to make an analysis of the
    return on investment of the selected product.

25
Implementation Phase
  • This phase include the customization or
    parameterization and adaptation of the ERP
    package to the needs of the organization. Usually
    this task is made with the help of consultants
    who provide implementation methodologies,
    know-how and training.

26
Use and Maintenance Phase
  • This phase covers the personal of time where the
    ERP product is selected in a way that returns
    benefits and minimizes disruption. During this
    phase, one must be aware of the aspects related
    to functionality, usability and adequacy to the
    organizational and business processes. Once a
    system is implemented, it must be maintained,
    because malfunctions have to be corrected,
    special optimization requests have to be met, and
    general systems improvements have to be made.

27
Evolution Phase
  • This phase corresponds to the integration of more
    capabilities into the ERP system, providing new
    benefits, such as advanced planning and
    scheduling, supply-chain management, customer
    relationship management, workflow, and expanding
    the frontiers to external collaboration with
    other partners.

28
Retirement Phase
  • This phase corresponds to the stage when, with
    the appearance of new technologies or the
    inadequacy of the ERP system or approach to the
    business needs, managers decide if they will
    substitute the ERP software with other
    information system approach more adequate to the
    organizational needs of the moment.

29
Topic 6 Advantage of ERP Systems
  • What benefit
  • Reliable information access
  • Avoid data and operations redundancy
  • Delivery and Cycle time reduction
  • Cost reduction
  • Easy adaptability
  • How
  • Common DBMS, Consistent and accurate data,
    improved reports.
  • Modules access same data from the central
    database, avoids multiple data input and update
    operations.
  • Minimizes retrieving and reporting delays
  • Time savings, improved control by enterprise-wide
    analysis of organizational decisions.
  • Changes in business processes easy to adapt and
    restructure.

30
Advantage of ERP Systems
  • Improved scalability
  • Improved maintenance
  • Global Outreach
  • E-Commerce, E-Business
  • Structured and modular design with "add-ons"
  • Vendor supported long term contract as part of
    the system procurement.
  • Extended modules such as CRM and SCM
  • Internet Commerce, Collaborative culture.

31
Disadvantages of ERP Systems
How to overcome
Disadvantages
  • Time consuming
  • Expensive
  • Conformity of the modules
  • Vendor dependence
  • Minimize sensitive issues, internal politics and
    raise general consensus.
  • Cost may vary from thousands of dollars to
    millions. Business process re-engineering cost
    may be extremely high.
  • The architecture and components of the selected
    system should conform to the business processes,
    culture and strategic goals of the organization.
  • Single vendor vs multi-vendor consideration,
    options for "best of breeds", long term committed
    support.

32
Disadvantages of ERP Systems
How to overcome
Disadvantages
  • Feature and complexity
  • Scalability and global outreach
  • Extended ERP capability
  • ERP system may have too many features and modules
    that the user needs to consider carefully and
    implement the needful only.
  • Look for vendor investment in RD, long term
    commitment to product and services, consider
    Internet-enabled systems.
  • Consider middle-ware "add-on" facilities and
    extended modules such as CRM and SCM.

33
ERP Benefits
  • IBM has used ERP to reduce the processing time
    for updating pricing data from 80 days to five
    minutes.
  • Chevron has used ERP to decrease its annual
    purchasing cost by 15.

34
Topic 7 ERP From E-BUSINESS Perspective
  • E-business stands for "electronic business,"
    which involves communications and doing business
    electronically through the Internet. E-business
    is defined as "the use of electronically enabled
    communication networks that allow business
    enterprises to transmit and receive information"
    (Fellenstein and Wood, 2000).

35
ERP and E-BUSINESS
  • It can significantly improve business performance
    by strengthening the linkages in the value chain
    between businesses (B2B) and consumers (B2C).
    Besides increasing efficiency in selling,
    marketing and purchasing, e-business achieves
    effectiveness through improved customer service,
    reduced costs and streamlined business processes.
    Furthermore, e-business creates a strategic,
    customer-focused business environment for shared
    business improvements, mutual benefits and joint
    rewards.

36
Complete E-Business Suite
Marketing
Sales
Financials
One Database
Order Mgt
Procurement
Human Resources
SUPPLY Chain
Web Services
MFG
37
ERP And E-BUSINESS
  • Nantucket Nectars, a juice manufacturer with
    40 growth and 70 million in annual sales
    revenue, sells its organic juices through 150
    distributors nationwide as well as general stores
    and juice bars in Nantucket. By using Oracle's
    ERP system and e-business platform, the
    salespersons can track sales and promotions
    through the Internet, and are provided assistance
    and suggestions to enhance their performance. The
    salespersons and distributors have access to
    commission reports, and they can track and adjust
    sales orders. Through consolidating its
    financial, compensation, sales and depletion data
    into a single report, Nantucket prevents
    out-of-stock and partial shipments. The
    forecasted need for 50 more labor force to
    handle customer service issues in the past was
    eradicated by integrating ERP system with
    e-business (Oracle, 2000).

38
ERP And E-BUSINESS
  • By definitions and by their respective functions,
    traditional ERP systems take care of internal
    value chain (i.e., within a company) whereas
    e-businesses establish the value chain across the
    market and the industries. More and more
    companies construct their systems' architectures
    by integrating ERP systems with e-business. They
    use Web-based interface (corporate portals) with
    outside entities plus add-on modules such as CRM,
    SCM, etc. in the integration.

39
Topic 8 Are You Ready For ERP?
  • A good management
  • Enough financial funds
  • Core project team members from all functional
    areas in place
  • Get the approval from the management
  • Get feedback from employees for the plan

40
Metrics You Can Use to Gauge your ERP Readiness
  • Check the hardware configuration details
  • Analyze the existing process
  • Fine turn the process to be inline with those of
    ERD defined
  • Prototype it and present it
  • Refine the prototype and freeze the
    specifications

41
ERP Selection
  • Check whether all functional aspects of the
    business are duly covered.
  • Check whether all the business functions and
    procedures are fully integrated.
  • Check whether all latest IT tends are covered.
  • Check whether the vendor has customizing and
    implementing capabilities.
  • Calculate ROI.

42
Topic 9 E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge
  • In a traditional business process, after a
    customer order is received, the order information
    flows from department to department through order
    entry, manufacturing, warehousing, distribution
    and finance until the product is delivered to the
    customer and the payment is received. The key
    elements of the value chain have been controlled
    by separate and disparate information systems
    that could not communicate with one another. Not
    only did the companies not take an integrated
    view of their own business processes, but they
    also had an equally vague understanding of how
    their systems relate to the systems of their
    suppliers, competitors, business partners,
    distributors and customers. Hence, these
    transactions are typically carried out with
    minimal or no shared business processes.

43
E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge
  • In recent years, there has been a revolution in
    systems planning and design. Management takes an
    integrated company-wide view of its IT
    investments and choices, and implements an ERP
    system that integrates the core business
    processes of an entire company into a single
    software and hardware system. Customers,
    suppliers and business partners are consciously
    included in the business process, systems
    operation and systems development.

44
E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge
  • An ERP system is analogous to the internal
    technological hub of a company. When fully
    implemented as an integrated suite, it can be
    thought of as a company's central repository. The
    five major processes in a typical ERP system are
    finance, logistics, manufacturing, human
    resources and sales/marketing (refer to Figure 1
    next slide). The focus of ERP systems is on the
    efficiency and effectiveness of the internal
    process. It offers a way to streamline and align
    business processes, increase operational
    efficiencies and bring order out of chaos.

45
E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge Figure
1
46
E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge
  • You can't improve what you don't measure.
    Performance measurement is
  • vital for the long-term success of any endeavor.
    In our complex world,
  • everyone has multiple goals and mechanisms for
    reaching them. For
  • example, in addition to financial performance
    goals, many firms place
  • great importance on employee satisfaction and
    community contribution.
  • Good performance measures are
  • Relevant-- Related to the strategic and tactical
    goals of the company
  • Balanced-- Balanced between short-term and
    long-term goals
  • Understandable-- Easily comprehended by those it
    affects
  • Objective-- Measurable without significant bias
  • Consistent-- Used on a regular basis
  • Actionable-- Affected by actions of employees

47
E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge
  • E-business is focused on efficiency and
    effectiveness of external, cross-enterprise
    processes. While ERP technology supports business
    strategy, e-business opens the door to new
    strategic opportunities, which forces ERP to take
    one step furtherto move from the single ERP
    system model to the extended ERP system model
    (refer to Figure 2). The Web technology provides
    the bridge between companies and their business
    partners to make e-business possible, while
    e-business makes the ERP system more transparent
    and outward. Instead of thinking about ERP within
    a company, we may view the ERP system along the
    value chain of companies in the same industry, or
    across industries.

48
E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge Figure 2
49
E-BUSINESS Pushes ERP To The Network Edge
  • When e-business is integrated with ERP, the whole
    extended system provides a vision of business
    processes that span multiple businesses and
    enterprises. In the most ideal case, companies
    should be able to connect disparate platforms,
    applications and data formats across the value
    chain, including not only suppliers, but also
    customers as well. Furthermore, companies should
    retain the flexibility to change and add
    functions to applications as business needs
    evolve. Companies need to be able to adapt their
    ERP systems to the emerging world of e-business.

50
Developments in e-ERP and Business Practice for
Doing e-Business
51
Topic 10 Common ERP/E-BUSINESS Platform (ORACLE
SAP)
  • Today, customers expect more than ever before. To
    meet these expectations, companies need to reach
    out and bring customers closer to their
    information systems and have them engage in
    product configuration, selection and Internet
    self-service (Economist, 1999, p.32). Also, it is
    essential for the vendors to set up a compatible
    e-business platform for system integration. Some
    major ERP vendors launched their Web-enabled ERP
    in the early part of the year 2000 to create the
    B2B and B2C solutions. Both Oracle and SAP set up
    Internet portal (hub) and use eXtensible Markup
    Language (XML) to manipulate data from internal
    ERP and push information flow across the value
    chain (refer to Figure 3).

52
Extending ERP Along the Value Chain Figure 3
53
SAP (SAP, 2000)
  • Established in Germany in 1972, SAP possesses 33
    market share worldwide. With more than 20,000
    employees and an increase in revenue of 60 per
    year, SAP is another major ERP provider in the
    world. SAP uses the front-office market with a
    number of new Web-based applications covering B2B
    procurement, B2C selling and B2B sellingall
    designed to integrate with its market-leading R/3
    suite. SAP believes this will be the key to
    extending its franchise into e-business.
  • R/3 is a client/server architecture product that
    uses the "best" enterprise business practices and
    supports immediate response to change throughout
    the organization on a global scale. R/3 currently
    contains modules for more than 1,000 business
    processes that may be selected from the SAP
    library and included within installed SAP
    applications, tailoring the application solution
    to the customer.

54
SAP Contains the Following Functions
  • End-to-end Web business processes
  • The XML has been used to allow the exchange of
    structured business documents over the Internet
    to provide a common standard for different
    applications and IT systems to communicate and
    exchange business data. XML provides the bridge
    between different systems, companies and users.
    It provides an easy way to put flexible
    end-to-end business processes in place.

55
SAP Contains the Following Functions
  • Open business document exchange over the Internet
  • The SAP Business Connector is based on open
    Internet communication standards. It uses the
    widely available hypertext transfer protocol
    (HTTP) to exchange XML-based business documents
    over the Internet. XML defines common business
    semantics to business documents such as orders,
    invoices, etc. With XML, the lingua franca of the
    Internet, business documents exchange across
    applications and systems are easily available.

56
SAP Contains the Following Functions
  • XML-enabled SAP solution
  • The SAP Business Connector makes all SAP
    solutions accessible via XML-based business
    documents. It supports all major existing
    interfaces provided by SAP and empowers SAP
    customers to instantly benefit from SAP
    functionality over the Internet. This makes SAP
    solutions an integral part of their e-business
    solution. With the availability of Business
    Applications Programming Interfaces (BAPIs),
    customers can jump-start into the Internet age
    with their individual solutions by using R/3 with
    more than 1,000 BAPIs. The SAP's Application Link
    Enabling (ALE) capabilities are supported. Fully
    cooperative business solutions now require only a
    widely available and cost-effective Internet
    connection.

57
SAP Contains the Following Functions
  • Web automation
  • The SAP Business Connector makes it easy to
    leverage the information and processes available
    at a company's Web site. For example, companies
    can use the SAP Business Connector to retrieve
    catalog information from a supplier's Web site
    and integrate the information with internal
    applications automatically and in real time.

58
Topic 11 Web Services and XML
  • Web services
  • are units of application logic that provide data
    and services to other applications
  • represent black box functionality that can be
    reused without worrying about how the service is
    implemented
  • The online store example
  • Authentication
  • Personalization
  • Credit card processing
  • Sales tax calculation
  • Package tracking from shipping companies
  • In house catalog connected to an internal
    inventory application

59
Web Services Generic Architecture
Web Service
Service Request
Service Response
Listener
Data
Data Access
Business Logic
Business Facade
60
Why Use Web Services?
  • Web services are powerful
  • Provide a simple, flexible, standards-based model
    that takes advantage of existing infrastructure
    and applications
  • Easily assembled components with locally
    developed services and existing services,
    regardless of the platform or the development
    language
  • Facilitate communication and integration between
    intra- and inter-company applications

61
Example
lt?xml version1.0 encodingUTF-8?gt lt!DOCTYPE
catalog SYSTEM catalog.dtdgt lt?xml-stylesheet
typetext/xsl hrefshow_book.xsl?gt lt!catalog
last updated 2000-11-01--gt
ltcatalog xmlnshttp//www.example.com/catalog/gt lt
book idbk101gt ltauthorgt Martin
Fowlerlt/authorgt lttitlegtRefactoringlt/titlegt ltge
nregtComputerlt/genregt ltpricegt44.95lt/pricegt lt/boo
kgt lt/cataloggt
62
XML-RPC Example - Request
lt?xml version1.0?gt ltmethodCallgt ltmethodNamegtGe
tLastTradePricelt/methodNamegt ltparamsgt ltparamgt
ltvaluegt ltstringgtINTClt/stringgt lt/valuegt
lt/paramgt lt/paramsgt lt/methodCallgt
63
XML-RPC Example - Response
lt?xml version1.0?gt ltmethodResponsegt ltparamsgt
ltparamgt ltvaluegt ltstructgt ltmembergt
ltnamegtcompanylt/namegt ltvaluegtltstringgtIntel
Corp.lt/stringgtlt/valuegt lt/membergt ltmembe
rgt ltnamegtpricelt/namegt ltvaluegtltdoublegt2
7.34lt/doublegtlt/valuegt lt/membergt lt/structgt
lt/valuegt lt/paramgt lt/paramsgt lt/methodRespons
egt
64
Pros/Cons for XML-RPC
  • Pro
  • Simple
  • Loosely coupled components
  • Uses standard communications protocols HTTP,
    XML
  • Older protocol, well known
  • Cons
  • Unnatural syntax
  • Verbose, especially for structures/objects
  • High network bandwidth

65
SOAP Example - Request
lt?xml version1.0?gt ltSOAPEnvelope
xmlnsSOAPurnschemas-xmlsoap-orgsoap.v1gt
ltSOAPBodygt ltmGetLastTradePrice
xmlnsmurnexample-tradesgt
ltmsymbolgtINTClt/msymbolgt
lt/mGetLastTradePricegt lt/SOAPBodygt lt/SOAPEnve
lopegt
66
SOAP Example - Response
lt?xml version1.0?gt ltSOAPEnvelope
xmlnsSOAPurnschemas-xmlsoap-orgsoap.v1gt ltSO
APBodygt ltmGetLastTradePriceResponse
xmlnsmurnexample-tradesgt ltmquotegt ltm
companygtIntel Corp.lt/mcompanygt ltmpricegt27.20
0lt/mpricegt lt/mquotegt lt/mGetLastTradePriceR
esponsegt lt/SOAPBodygt lt/SOAPEnvelopegt
67
Pros/Cons for SOAP
  • Pro
  • Strong typing with automatic validation
  • More natural XML syntax
  • Less verbose than XML-RPC
  • Con
  • Newer protocol, not as widely used
  • More complex syntax because of the use of
    namespaces and schemas

68
Summary
  • XML can be used for calling remote methods.
  • Plain-text format, so it is free of charge.
  • Platform and language agnostic.
  • XML remoting does not require additional open
    ports beyond those required for HTTP.
  • Using SOAP, XML remote procedure calls can be
    strongly-typed and self-describing.

69
EAI
  • Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) software
    helps to integrate applications by packaging
    together the commonly used functionalitiescombini
    ng popular enterprise packages and legacy
    applications in a predefined way. Therefore, EAI
    will make ERP/e-business integration and
    componentization simpler and more practical. In
    addition to the above issues, other issues remain
    in implementing ERP, integrating the systems and
    outsourcing ERP/e-business.

70
Why use XSLT?
  • XSLT is an incredibly powerful and flexible tool
    for e-commerce.
  • Enables business systems to exchange data
  • Map one companys XML data structure to another.

71
Order
Books.com lt?xml version1.0?gt ltbookgt
lttitlegtXSLT For Dummieslt/titlegt ltauthorgtIam
Agurult/authorgt ltISBNgt1-861002-41-2lt/ISBNgt
ltcostgt ltregulargt24.95lt/regulargt
ltwholesalegt18.95lt/wholesalegt ltcurrencygtUS
Dollarslt/currencygt lt/costgt lt/bookgt
XSLT Style sheet A
XSLT Style sheet B
Supplier A lt?xml version1.0?gt ltbookgt
ltISBNgt1-861002-41-2lt/ISBNgt ltlanguagegtEnglishlt/l
anguagegt ltpricegt18.95lt/pricegt lt/bookgt
Supplier B lt?xml version1.0?gt ltbookgt
ltnamegtXSLT For Dummieslt/namegt
ltISBNgt1-861002-41-2lt/ISBNgt ltlanguagegtEnglishlt/l
anguagegt ltpricegt24.95lt/pricegt lt/bookgt
72
Why use XSLT?, cont.
  • Enables presentation of customer targeted
    information.
  • Determine what to display based on the status of
    your user.
  • Enables data to be rendered in many different
    formats.
  • Take one set of data and dynamically transform it
    into many different formats.

73
Database
Books.com lt?xml version1.0?gt ltbookgt
lttitlegtXSLT For Dummieslt/titlegt ltauthorgtIam
Agurult/authorgt ltISBNgt1-861002-41-2lt/ISBNgt
ltcostgt ltregulargt24.95lt/regulargt
ltwholesalegt18.95lt/wholesalegt ltcurrencygtUS
Dollarslt/currencygt lt/costgt lt/bookgt
XSLT Style sheet A
XSLT Style sheet B
HTML Format lthtmlgt ltbodygt ltpgt Book Title
1-861002-41-2 Cost 18.95 lt/pgt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt
WML Format ltwmlgt ltcard idbook1"gt ltpgt Book
Title 1-861002-41-2 Cost 24.95 lt/pgt
lt/cardgt lt/wmlgt
74
What would I need to do this?
XSLT Style sheet
XML Document
XSL Processor
Output
75
How do XSLT style sheets work?
  • A style sheet is composed of one or more
    templates.

XSLT Style sheet
Template 1
Template 2
76
Tell me more about templates!
  • A template defines where to start looking in the
    source XML
  • ltxsltemplate match"/"gt start looking
    at the root element
  • A template specifies a mixture of the following
    for output
  • Text
  • Patterns to look for in the source XML tree,
    their values will be determined at runtime

77
Template example...
lt?xml version1.0?gt ltxslstylesheet
version1.0gt ltxsloutput methodxml
indentyesgt ltxsltemplate match/gt lthtmlgt ltbod
ygt ltpgt Book Titleltxslvalue-of
select/book/titlegt ISBN ltxslvalue-of
select/book/ISBNgt lt/pgt lt/bodygt lt/htmlgt lt/xslte
mplategt lt/xslstylesheetgt
  • Specified text will be sent to the output file as
    is
  • Anything beginning with "xsl" will be evaluated
    at run time, the resulting value inserted into
    the output file

78
lt?xmlstylesheet type"text/xsl"
href"Transform.xsl"?gt ltbookstoregt ltbookgt
lttitlegtXSLT For Dummieslt/titlegt ltauthorgtIam
Agurult/authorgt ltISBNgt1-861002-41-2lt/ISBNgt
ltcostgt ltregulargt24.95lt/regulargt
ltwholesalegt18.95lt/wholesalegt ltcurrencygtUS
Dollarslt/currencygt lt/costgt lt/bookgt
ltbookgt lttitlegtYour Friend, XSLTlt/titlegt
ltauthorgtYuccan Beagurutoolt/authorgt
ltISBNgt1-344002-41-2lt/ISBNgt ltcostgt
ltregulargt45.55lt/regulargt ltwholesalegt39.95lt/w
holesalegt ltcurrencygtUS Dollarslt/currencygt
lt/costgt lt/bookgt lt/bookstoregt
Transform.xsl
79
Conclusion
  • Web Services allow different applications to
    communicate across the web
  • XML makes this communication possible
  • XML is simple, self-describing, and
    self-validating
  • XML remote procedure calls enable cross-platform,
    cross-language communications
  • XSLT can map disparate XML data schemas and
    dynamically format them for presentation

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Where can I find more information?
  • Web Services
  • http//msdn.microsoft.com/webservices/default.asp
  • XML
  • http//www.w3.org/Style/XSL/
  • XSLT
  • http//www.w3.org/Style/XSL/
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