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Animal Farm

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Karl Marx predicted, a German philosopher, developed the idewas that are known ... What is an Allegory? Any story that has multiple levels of meaning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Farm


1
Animal Farm
  • By George Orwell

2
Background of Russian Revolution of 1917
  • Karl Marx predicted, a German philosopher,
    developed the idewas that are known as the basis
    of communism. In The Communist Manifesto Marx
    imagined a society in which everyone shared
    equally in the wealth of the society, thus ending
    poverty.

3
Capitalism vs. Communism
  • Economic system characterized by
  • Private property ownership
  • Individuals and companies are allowed to compete
    for their own economic gain
  • A theory that eliminates private property
  • Goods are owned in common and are available to
    all as needed
  • Cooperation rather than competition

4
Definition of Propaganda
  • information that is spread for the purpose of
    promoting some cause
  • Word Reference.com

5
Examples of Propaganda
  • Testimonials
  • Get on the Bandwagon
  • Name Calling
  • Glittering Generalities
  • Pain Folks Appeal
  • Card Stacking
  • Loaded Language

6
Testimonials
  • Famous or influential people tell you why they
    use a certain product, are voting for a certain
    candidate, or are supporting a certain project or
    concept. For example, a person who is respected
    by teens is seen in an ad that tells about the
    dangers of smoking cigarettes or the value of
    joining a project to clean up the environment.
    Someone who is not known, but can be easily
    associated with a product or concept, tells an
    audience how a certain product made their hair
    thicker or helped them lose weight quickly. Or,
    a person easily recognized as a member of the
    clergy might be promoting a moral message.

7
Get on the Bandwagon
  • These messages tell you that everybody is doing
    it and you should join in. The technique is
    often used by organizations that are recruiting
    new members or participation in a specific
    activity. For example, you might be told that
    everybody is participating in a charity walk to
    raise money for a good cause, or to boycott a
    product to protest the abuse of workers. The
    message is often loud and repetitious.

8
Name Calling
  • Sometimes this negative technique is used to
    label a specific person and other times to
    generalize about a certain type of person or
    member of a certain group. A political candidate
    might say that his opponent is careless with
    public money or that everyone in his/her
    opponents political party is careless with
    public money. The tactic is commonly used to
    gain support for controversial foreign policy
    initiatives. This technique is often used to
    insult all people of a certain race, religion,
    ethnicity, or age. For example, teenagers today
    are irresponsible and weird. The technique is
    often used to suggest that people from a certain
    nation are all terrorists or pacifists.

9
Glittering Generalities
  • This technique uses slogans or simple phrases
    that sound good but provide little or no
    information. A politician might say, A vote for
    me is a vote for peace, without explaining how
    peace would be achieved. The technique might be
    used to sell a new miracle product using a
    slogan like, you will feel 10 years younger,
    but without explaining how it could make you feel
    younger. Catch phrases like family values or
    communists might be used to promote home,
    freedom, or patriotism without any information
    that tells you what the connection is between
    the catch phrase and the outcome that is promoted.

10
Plain Folks Appeal
  • This technique is used to build trust. People
    are expected to assume that someone in a simple
    setting can be trusted and should be listened to.
    For example, a simply dressed senior citizen

11
Card Stacking
  • This technique is used to show favoritism.
    Larger print, bigger or more attractive pictures,
    or a more attractive presentation of certain
    people or ideas are used to influence you.

12
Loaded Language
  • Depending on the agenda of the person providing
    the report, the same person, group, or event can
    be made to sound better or worse. An
    understanding of this technique enables us to see
    that some phrases that might appear to be neutral
    descriptions can actually imply a value
    judgement. For example, if you favor a group and
    their agenda, you might call them a public
    interest advocacy group. If you dont like them
    they can be called lobbyists. Or in
    international affairs, the same group could be
    described as fighting for independence or
    freedom fighter if you agree with their cause,
    or as a separatist movement if you dont

13
What is a Fable?
  • Usually short
  • Written in verse or prose
  • Conveys a clear moral or message
  • Date back to 6th Century Greece, B.C.E Aesop
    used animal characters to represent types.

14
What is an Allegory?
  • Any story that has multiple levels of meaning
  • Most fables have two levels of meaning

15
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • The farmer stands for the Russian Czar Nicolas II
    who was forced to abdicate after the successful
    February Revolution. In addition, Mr. Jones
    symbolizes the evils of capitalism, and the moral
    decline of men under this type of society.

16
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • The Humans stand for the capitalists who exploit
    the weak. The gradual transformation of the pigs
    into human-like creatures represents the process
    by which the revolutions leaders became
    corrupted. Whether capitalist or communist in
    name, the underlying reality of many political
    systems is tyranny.

17
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • Many believe Orwell made Old Major a symbol for
    Karl Marx, the father of the Communist belief
    system. Both Old Major and Karl Marx serve as
    the founders of a revolutionary creed, and both
    die before the revolutionary events they predict.

18
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • Snowball represents Leon Trotsky. Like Trotsky,
    Snowball is a smart, young speaker who dreams of
    making life better for all animals. One of the
    early readers of the October Revolution,
    Trotsky was banished from the Soviet Union.
    While abroad, he was repeatedly denounced as a
    traitor by his native country, and wild lies were
    invented to discredit him. Trotsky was
    eventually killed in Mexico by the Russian
    internal police.

19
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • Not as clever as Snowball, Napoleon is also
    cruel, selfish and corrupt. Napoleon is most
    clearly representative of Joseph Stalin, who,
    like Napoleon, ruled with an iron fist and killed
    all those who opposed him. On a deeper level, he
    represents the human weaknesses which eventually
    undermine even the best political intentions. In
    much the same way that Napoleon used the dogs-
    and Squealer- to control animals, Stalin used the
    KGB and cleverly worded lies (called propaganda)
    to control his people.

20
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • The pig is an extremely persuasive speaker.
    Squealer convinces all animals to follow the
    revolution he could turn black into white.
    Squealer is believed to represent Stalins
    propaganda machine. Many identify Squealer with
    Pravda, the Russian newspaper of the 1930s.

21
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • Orwell has chosen the pigs to represent the
    Communist Party loyalists. In the early years of
    the revolution they were concerned with the
    welfare of the common workers as time passed,
    however, they began to take advantage of their
    role as leaders. By films end, the ideals of
    the revolution have been sacrificed, and the pigs
    are indistinguishable from the farms original
    masters.

22
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • The dogs constitute the pigs private army the
    pigs used the dogs to maintain a climate of
    terror which silenced all opposition to their
    rule. The dogs remain completely loyal to
    Napoleon throughout the novel, much in the way
    that the KGB faithfully supported Lenin and
    Stalin.

23
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • These strong, hard-working horses live by the
    words I must work harder. Boxer and Clover
    represent the dedicated proletariat, Karl
    Marxs term for the unskilled labor class. They
    are drawn to the rebellion because they think
    they will benefit from its promises.

24
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • Moses represents Orwells view of the Church.
    Though Snowball and Napoleon oppose Moses ideas,
    he is allowed to remain on the farm because he
    encourages hard work and submissive behavior.

25
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • This songwhich becomes the official creed of the
    animals revolutionrepresents the Communist
    Internationale, a real song penned by supporters
    of communism in the early 1900s.

26
Symbolism/ Interpretation in George Orwells
Animal Farm
  • Farmer Jones
  • Humans
  • Old Major
  • Snowball
  • Napoleon
  • Squealer
  • Pigs
  • Dogs
  • Boxer and Clover
  • Moses
  • Beasts of England
  • Windmill
  • The windmill stands for Russian industry. Soviet
    leaders focused on making Russia industrially
    omodern after the Revolution of 1917.

27
Study Sites on the Internet
  • http//www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/anim
    alfarm/charlist.html
  • History/ Background (starting at time of
    publication)
  • Timeline of Select Events
  • References
  • Turner Learning. TNT Learning Animal Farm- An
    Educators Guide
  • http//www.esrnational.org/whatispropaganda.htm,
    accessed on the Internet on September 28, 2003

28
(Short) Important Character Listhttp//www.studyw
orld.com/studyworld_studynotes/complete/studynotes
/Titles/animalfarm/charlist.html
  • Major (pig) respected by all, realized need for
    change
  • Snowball (pig) great speaker, wanted best
    represents Trotsky
  • Napoleon (pig) conceited leader a metaphor for
    Stalin
  • Squealer (pig) persuasive, excited
  • Boxer (horse) hard worker, very gullible
    metaphor for the Boxer Rebellion in China
  • Clover (horse) loving, motherly
  • Benjamin (donkey) cantankerous, rude
  • Mollie (horse) frivolous, selfish disinterested
    in politics
  • Mr. Jones the master of the farm he represents
    the old government
  • Muriel (goat) knowledgeable represents the
    working class people
  • Pigeons symbolize Soviet propaganda to the
    outside world
  • Moses (Raven) a clever talker and a spy Mr.
    Jones' especial pet symbolizes organized religion

29
Point of View
  • The Novel In Orwell's novel, the point of view
    is quite limited. The narrator only tells us, the
    readers, what the animals themselves understand.
    We therefore identify with the animals--as they
    discover each new amendment to the farm's
    commandments we also discover it along with them.
    We are not treated to the pig's private
    conversations and therefore know very little
    about them except for their actions.

30
Irony
  • The political message of Orwell's story relies
    very heavily on the irony created by its limited
    point of view. Irony results when there is a
    contrast between what an audience would expect
    and what really happens. Orwell uses dramatic
    irony. He relies on the difference between what
    the animals understand and what we, the audience,
    can conclude about the situation at Animal Farm.
    We know just what the animals know, but we can
    see so much more of its significance than they.
    When the pigs have a drunken bash soon after
    Boxer is taken away, we know that the pigs have
    used the money they got by selling him to the
    horse slaughterer to buy whiskey. The conclusions
    we reach that the animals never quite get
    to--that the pigs are decadent, corrupt, and
    immoral--are all the more powerful because we
    arrive at them ourselves, without the narrator
    pointing these things out directly.

31
Satire
  • Orwell uses dramatic irony to create a
    particularly subtle satire. Satire stages a
    critique of an individual, group, or idea by
    exaggerating faults and revealing hypocrisies.
    The dramatic irony of Animal Farm achieves this
    aim indirectly. We see the hypocrisy that the
    animals don't and therefore understand in this
    backward fashion that the book is deeply critical
    of the pigs.
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