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Malaria is especially a serious problem in Africa, where one in every five (20 ... severe anaemia. jaundice. acute respiratory distress syndrome. spontaneous bleeding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Facts and statistics of malaria
  • About 40 of the worlds population, are at risk
    of malaria.
  • Of these 2.5 billion people at risk, more than
    500 million become severely ill with malaria
    every year 1 million die from the effects of the
  • Malaria is especially a serious problem in
    Africa, where one in every five (20) childhood
    deaths is due to the effects of the disease.
  • Every 30 seconds a child dies from maleria.
  • Malaria has infected humans for over 50,000
    years, and may have been a human pathogen for the
    entire history of the species.

  • .

  • Malaria is caused by a parasite called
  • It is transmitted via the bites of infected
  • Only four types of the plasmodium parasite can
    infect humans
  • Plasmodium falciparum, P.vivax, P.malariae, and

A Plasmodium sporozoite traverses the
cytoplasm of a mosquito midgut epithelial cell
How does an infection occur ?
  • people get malaria by being bitten by an
    infective female Anopheles mosquito.The
    parasites then multiply in the liver, and infect
    red blood cells.
  • Only the female Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit
    malaria, and they must have been infected through
    a previous blood meal taken from an infected
  • When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small
    amount of blood is taken, which contains
    microscopic malaria parasites.
  • About one week later, when the mosquito takes its
    next human blood meal, these parasites mix with
    the mosquito's saliva and are injected into the
    person being bitten.
  • In the human body, the parasites multiply in the
    liver, and then infect red blood cells.
  • The parasites multiply within red blood cells,
    causing symptoms

  • Maleria develops in two phases exoerythrocytic
    and an erythrocytic phase
  • Exoerythrocytic phase infects the liver and the
    erythrocytic phase infects RBCs
  • When an infected mosquito pierces a person's skin
    to take a blood meal, sporozoites in the
    mosquito's saliva enter the bloodstream and
    migrate to the liver.
  • Within 30 mins, the sporozoits infect hepatocytes
    multiplying asexually and asymptomatically for a
    period of 615 days.
  • Later this yeilds thousands of merozoites, which,
    following rupture of their host cells, escape
    into the blood and infect red blood cells,
  • The parasite escapes from the liver undetected by
    wrapping itself in the cell membrane of the
    infected host liver cell
  • Within the red blood cells, the parasites
    multiply further, again asexually, periodically
    breaking out of their hosts to invade fresh red
    blood cells.
  • The parasite is relatively protected from attack
    by the body's immune system because for most of
    its human life cycle it resides within the liver
    and blood cells and is relatively invisible to
    immune surveillance.
  • Infected blood cells are destroyed by the spleen.
  • To avoid this fate, the P. falciparum parasite
    displays adhesive proteins on the surface of the
    infected blood cells, causing the blood cells to
    stick to the walls of small blood vessels.
  • This "stickiness" can cause coma in cerebral
    maleria, due to the breach of the BBB.

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  • The first symptoms of malaria are like having the
  • However a day or so later symptoms worsen
    temperature rises to 40 C, shivers, headaches,
    vomiting, and diarrhoea can be experienced.
  • If you get infected with P. falciparum your
    malaria can progress to a more severe form (also
    called complicated malaria) causing symptoms such
  • severe anaemia jaundice acute respiratory
    distress syndrome spontaneous bleeding fits
    (convulsions) paralysis coma

Prevention and Treatment
  • Medicines can be prescribed for prevention of
    malaria however these can be very expensive.
  • For standard treatment
  • Doxycycline - used for most adults. Clindamycin
    - used for pregnant women and children.
    Sulphadoxine with pyrimethamine - only used in
    certain circumstances because resistance to this
    treatment is high.
  • For prevention of mosquito bites themselves
  • mosquito nets and mosquito sprays can be used.

And now, the most important slide.
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