C N P Fluxes in the Coastal Zone - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – C N P Fluxes in the Coastal Zone PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 14c6c3-NzlmO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

C N P Fluxes in the Coastal Zone

Description:

IGBP is the 'International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme.' http://www.igbp.kva.se ... International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:99
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 47
Provided by: stephen223
Learn more at: http://nest.su.se
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: C N P Fluxes in the Coastal Zone


1
(No Transcript)
2
C N P Fluxes in the Coastal Zone
The LOICZ Approach to Budgeting and Global
Extrapolation S. V. Smith U. Hawaii March 2000

3
What is the role of the coastal ocean in global
CNP cycles?
  • Easier to quantify globally than locally
  • Via global loading budgets
  • Little understanding of distribution or controls.
  • Function of biota and inorganic reactions
  • Function of environmental conditions
  • F(land inputs, oceanic exchanges)
  • F(human pressures)
  • F(regional, global environmental change).
  • An environmentally important question that can be
    approached via geochemical reasoning.

4
General Background
5
Global Elevation
Only a small portion lies in the LOICZ domain.
6
Coastal Zone (200 to 200 m)
This domain is nominally 200 m to -200 meters,
orabout 18 of global area.
7
Coastal Ocean (0 to 200 m)
The coastal ocean, being budgeted by LOICZ, is
about 5 of global area.
8
The Global Coastal Ocean A Narrow, Uneven,
Chemically Reactive Ribbon
This ribbon is 500,000 km long and averages
about 50 km in width.
Most materials entering the ocean from land pass
through this ribbon.
Most net biogeochemical reaction is thought to
occur in the landward, estuarine, portion of the
ribbon.
9
LOICZ and IGBP
  • IGBP is the International Geosphere-Biosphere
    Programme.
  • http//www.igbp.kva.se/
  • Part of ICSU, the International Council of
    Scientific Unions
  • LOICZ is Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal
    Zone.
  • http//kellia.nioz.nl/loicz
  • A key project element of IGBP

10
IGBPInternational Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
  • IGBP aim --To describe and understand the
    interactive physical, chemical and biological
    processes that regulate the Earth System, the
    environment provided for life, the changes
    occurring in the system, and the influences of
    human actions.
  • LOICZ aim -- About the same as IGBP aim for the
    coastal zone.

11
Alphabet Soup of the IGBP
  • JGOFS Joint Global Ocean Flux Studies
  • IGAC International Global Atmospheric Chemistry
  • GCTE Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems
  • BAHC Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle
  • PAGES Past Global Change
  • LOICZ Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone
  • LUCC Land Use and Cover Change
  • GLOBEC Global Ocean Ecosystem
    Dynamics_________________________________________
    _________
  • GAIM Global Analysis, Integration and Modelling
  • START System for Analysis, Research, and Training
  • DIS Data and Information System

12
LOICZBudgeting Background
13
Develop a Globally Applicable Method of Flux
Estimation
  • Ability to work with secondary data
  • Minimal data requirements
  • Widely applicable, uniform methodology
  • Robust
  • Informative about processes of CNP flux.

14
LOICZ Budgeting Procedure
  • Conservation of mass is one of the most
    fundamental concepts of ecology and geochemistry.

15
Water, Salt, and Stoichiometrically Linked
Nutrient Budgets
  • Water and salt budgets are used to estimate water
    exchange in coastal systems.
  • Departure of nutrient budgets from conservative
    behavior measures system biogeochemical fluxes.
  • Nonconservative DIP flux is assumed proportional
    to (primary production respiration).
  • Mismatch from Redfield expectations for DIP and
    DIN flux is assumed proportional to (nitrogen
    fixation denitrification).

16
Water and Salt Budgets
  • Water budget
  • Freshwater flows known.
  • System residual flow (VR) conserves volume.
  • Salt budget
  • Net flows known.
  • Mixing (VX) conserves salt content.

17
Nutrient Budgets
  • Nutrient (Y) budgets
  • Internal dissolved nutrient net source or sink
    (?Y) to conserve Y.
  • Calculations based on simple system stoichiometry
  • Assume Redfield CNP ratio (106161)
  • (production - respiration) -106 x ??DIP
  • (Nitrogen fixation - denitrification) ??DINobs
    - 16 x ?DIP

18
LOICZ Strategy
  • Develop a global inventory of these budgets.
  • Guidelines, a tutorial, and individual site
    budgets at http//data.ecology.su.se/MNODE/
  • Under direction of S. V. Smith, F. Wulff
  • Major emphasis of this presentation.
  • Use typology (classification) techniques to
    extrapolate from budgeted sites to global coastal
    zone.
  • Under direction of R. W. Buddemeier
  • Tools and examples available athttp//www.palanti
    r.swarthmore.edu/maxwell/loicz/(B. Maxwell)

19
LOICZ Budgeting Research
  • New, or primary, data collection is not a
    primary aim of LOICZ budgeting research.
  • There is heavy reliance on available secondary
    data to insure widespread (global) coverage.
  • Workshops and information sharing via the World
    Wide Web are the major tools for adding
    information to the LOICZ budgeting data base.
  • Funding for workshops has come from UNEP/GEF,
    LOICZ, WOTRO, local sponsorship.
  • Develop analytical tools to assist in budgeting.

20
LOICZ budget workshops to date
  • September 1995Guidelines Development
  • (Halifax, Canada)
  • December 1995Introduce guidelines to SWOL
  • (Penang, Malaysia)
  • October 1996LOICZ/JGOFS Continental Margins
  • (Lagos, Nigeria)
  • June 1997Mexico lagoons
  • (Ensenada, Mexico)
  • October 1997LOICZ/JGOFS Continental Margins
  • (Texel, The Netherlands)

21
LOICZ budget workshops, cont.
  • October 1998Australasia estuaries
  • (Canberra, Australia)
  • January 1999Mexico, C. America lagoons II
  • (Merida, Mexico)
  • July 1999South China Sea estuaries
  • (Manila, Philippines)
  • November 1999South America estuaries
  • (Bahia Blanca, Argentina)
  • February 2000South Asia estuaries
  • (Goa, India)

22
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) of the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has
funded LOICZ to conduct a series of local budget,
regional typology and global synthesis workshops.
23
LOICZ-UNEP/GEF Tentative Workshop Schedule
  • July 1999 Budget--South China SeaNovember
    1999 Budget--South AmericaFebruary
    2000 Budget--South AsiaJune 2000 Budget--East
    AsiaSeptember 2000 BudgetAfrica.
  • November 2000 RegionalAsiaMarch
    2001 RegionalAmericasMay 2001 RegionalAfri
    ca/Europe.
  • November 2001 Global Synthesis.
  • One more, as needed.

24
LOICZ Biogeochemical Modelling Web Page
25
(No Transcript)
26
http//data.ecology.su.se/MNODE/
27
Preliminary Budgeting Results
28
LOICZ Budget Sites to Date
gt100 sites so far gt 200 sites desired.
29
Latitude, Longitude of Budget Sites
  • Present site distribution
  • Poor cover at high latitudes (N S).
  • Poor cover from 10?N to 15?S.
  • Poor cover in Africa.
  • S. Asia sites not yet posted.

30
Nutrient Load v Latitude
  • Load variation most obvious with DIP.
  • High loads near 15?N are in SE Asia.
  • High loads near 30?S are in Australia

31
Internal Nutrient Flux v Latitude
  • ?DIP response to load may differ in the N and S
    hemispheres.
  • ??DIN response to load seems weaker than DDIP.

32
?DIP, DDIN v DIP Load
  • ??DIP and DDIN both increase ( or -) at high DIP
    loads.
  • Responses more prominent for DIP than for DIN.

33
?DIP, DDIN v DIN Load
  • No clear effect of DIN load on DDIP.
  • ?DIN appears to become negative at high DIN load.

34
Net Ecosystem Metabolism(production
respiration)
  • Remember Rates are apparent, based on
    stoichiometric assumptions.
  • No clear overall trend most values cluster near
    0.
  • Extreme values (beyond ? 10) are questionable.

35
(Nitrogen Fixation Denitrification)
  • Although values cluster near 0, clear dominance
    of apparent denitrification.
  • Apparent N fixation gt5 seems too high.

36
Some Cautionary Notes
  • Individual budgets may suffer from data quality
    or other analytical problems.
  • Stoichiometry is apparent, and not always
    reliable.
  • Simple averaging of budgets is not a legitimate
    estimate of global average performance the
    coastal zone is too heterogeneous and sampling is
    too biased for such averaging.
  • Also, system size, or relative geographic
    importance, not accounted for in simple
    averaging.
  • Upscaling must take these factors into account.

37
Introduction to Typology
DEFINITION
Typology The study of types, as in systematic
classification.
38
e. g., N. American Budget Sites and River Flow
There are many considerations in developing a
coastal zone typology.
  • It is important to relate sites to
    characteristics of freshwater inflow.
  • Most of coastline characterized by small coastal
    watersheds.

39
Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on Fluxes to
the Ocean
What is carried in river inflow, and why?
  • Other Factors
  • Population density
  • Economic drivers
  • Fertilizer use
  • Atmospheric deposition
  • Et cetera.

Land use, vegetation type, and budget sites
40
Statistical Clustering of Types in the Global
Coastal Zone
41
Example of newly developed statistical
clustering techniquesAustralasia10 Clusters
Distinguish separate clusters
Emphasize similar clusters
OR
42
What is the link between typology and the budgets?
How do budget characteristics conform with
clusters?
and compare with
Budget Sites
We tune the
with
Expert typology
Similar clusters
43
Conclusions and Commentsabout Budgeting and
Typology
  • We are accumulating coverage of global CNP fluxes
    in much of the coastal zone.
  • Some trends are beginning to emerge.
  • Extrapolating from individual budget sites to the
    global coastal zone remains a challenge.
  • This extrapolation is being approached via a
    global typology.
  • Natural influences and human dimension must be
    addressed by both budgets and typology.

44
Need help or advice about biogeochemical
budgeting or setting up a budgeting workshop?
  • Stephen Smith
    svsmith_at_soest.hawaii.edu 
  • Fred Wulff
    fred_at_system.ecology.su.se
  • Vilma Dupra
    vdupra_at_soest.hawaii.edu
  • Dennis Swaney
    dennis_at_system.ecology.su.se
  • Victor Camacho
    vcamacho_at_bahia.ens.uabc.mx
  •  Malou McGlone mcglonem_at_msi01.cs.upd.e
    du.ph
  •  Laura David
    ldavid_at_msi01.cs.upd.edu.ph
  • LOICZ International Project Office
    loicz_at_nioz.nl
  •  Biogeochemical Modeling Web Page
    http//data.ecology.su.se/MNODE/

45
Thank you!
46
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com