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PHOENICIANS and the HEBREWS

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Phoenicians lived in the northern part of Canaan ... The Bible states, Yahweh parted the Red Sea to allow the Hebrews to cross and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PHOENICIANS and the HEBREWS


1
PHOENICIANS and the HEBREWS
  • PCMS
  • Ancient Civilization
  • Tiffany Anderson

2
GEOGRAPHY
  • The bridge that connected Egypt and Mesopotamia
    in Ancient Times was known as Canaan
  • Located at the Eastern end of the Mediterranean
    Sea
  • Today, it is part of Lebanon and Israel

3
BACKGROUND
  • The soldiers, shepherds, and merchants who
    carried new ideas and goods between Egypt and
    Mesopotamia began to settle there and form small
    kingdoms
  • Two groups, the Phoenicians and Hebrews, began to
    form

4
PHOENICIANS
  • Phoenicians lived in the northern part of Canaan
  • The information we have has been gathered from
    the Bible, writings of other ancient people and
    ruins of their cities and ships
  • Civilization developed in 1830 B.C.
  • Phoenicians were composed of two groups
  • Canaanities- came from the desert in the south
    and east, herders who were nomadic
  • Philistines- came from the Eastern Mediterranean
    near Greece, traders and ship builders

5
PHOENICIANS AND TRADE
  • Built cities between the mountains and the sea
  • Not enough land to produce enough food for all
    the people so many people became fisherman
  • Built strong ships from cedar
  • Eventually became merchant shippers who
    controlled the trade of the Mediterranean
  • Merchants also had workshops aboard their ships
  • Plotted their courses by the sun and stars
  • Business deals taught the Phoenicians how to make
    arrangements
  • From this, they began to make peace treaties,
    agreements, between states or countries that
    promised to supply free shipments of goods in
    exchange for independence

6
PHOENICIAN CITIES (1 OF 3)
  • Never became a united country because the
    mountains separated one group from another
  • Remained a collection of independent city-states
  • Tyre, Bablos, Beirut, and Sidon were the largest
    cities
  • They all spoke the same language, practiced the
    same religion, but did not always get along

7
PHOENICIAN CITIES (2 OF 3)
  • The want for more profit and trade led to
    jealousy and quarrels
  • They called themselves by the name of their
    city-state, others called them all Phoenicians
  • Were ruled by a king but in time councils began
    telling the kings what to do
  • Stone walls surrounded the cities for protection
  • Cities consisted of family owned shops
  • They were very crowded with narrow streets and
    buildings that were close together

8
PHOENICIAN CITIES (3 OF 3)
  • Buildings were made of stone or brick with narrow
    doors, windows and columns, roofs that were tiled
    or had gardens on them
  • The port was the center of activity and was
    located outside the wall
  • Here, ships docked to load and unload goods
  • Goods were stored in warehouses until they went
    to market or were shipped
  • Phoenicians made an expensive purple dye that was
    of high demand
  • Phoenician actually means, of purple merchants
  • Purple die was made from a shellfish called, murex

9
PHOENICIAN RELIGION
  • Believed in many gods
  • Worshipped gods on hills and under trees at first
    and then later built temples
  • Temples had an entrance hall, main hall, ad a
    holy of holies, sacred chamber where an image or
    sacred stone of the god was kept
  • Sacrifices of wine, perfume, animals, and humans
    strengthen the power of the gods and kept them
    friendly
  • Believed in life after death
  • At first, they buried the dead in clay urns,
    ornamental vases
  • Later, they began embalming the bodies and
    placing them in stone coffins in hillside
    cemeteries

10
CARTHAGE
  • Began setting up trading post and building
    colonies, permanent settlements, in areas along
    the coast of North Africa
  • Most famous city was Carthage, known today as
    Tunisia
  • Soon became a Mediterranean power
  • A great trading city

11
PHOENCIAN ALPHABET
  • Most important gift was the idea of an alphabet
  • Did not invent it but passed it on to other
    cultures
  • Began by using a system of picture writing but
    was hard to keep trade records this way
  • Borrowed a simple version of Egypt hieroglyphs
    from the people of the Canaanite towns that lay
    to the south. By the time it reached Phoenicia,
    it became an alphabet
  • Canaanite system had 22 symbols or letters
  • Easy to use. They carried it to Europe were
    Greeks made a few changes.
  • The Romans later borrowed it and most alphabets
    today are based on the Roman alphabet

12
HEBREWS
  • Hebrews, Israelites, had a great influence on the
    worlds civilizations because of their religion
  • Religion still exist today and is known as,
    Judaism
  • Most early Hebrews were nomadic, wandering
    herders or traveling merchants
  • Used a trade route from the city of Ur to the
    Euphrates River carrying their goods on donkeys
    from trading post to trading post

13
THE GOD OF ABRAHAM
  • Story of the Hebrews and their God is written in
    the Bible
  • Abraham and Yahweh, God, made an agreement.
    Abraham and his followers were to leave Ur and go
    to Canaan. There, they would worship and obey one
    true god, Yahweh
  • In return, Yahweh promised they and their
    descendants, offspring, could always live in
    Canaan
  • Abraham and members of his household settled in
    Canaan around 1800 B.C.
  • Abrahams grandson, Jacob, had 12 sons and each
    led a separate family group. These groups later
    formed 12 Hebrew tribes
  • Remained in Canaan for about 100 years
  • After a drought, they went to Egypt in search of
    food

14
MOSES THE TEN COMMANDMENTS (1 OF 2)
  • Became enslaved after they settled in Egypt
  • 600 years later, Moses appeared before the
    pharaoh and told him to end the enslavement and
    let the Hebrews leave Egypt
  • Pharaoh first refused and then later agreed
  • As Moses led the Hebrews from Egypt, the pharaoh
    changed his mind and led his army in pursuit
  • The Bible states, Yahweh parted the Red Sea to
    allow the Hebrews to cross and they escaped into
    the Sinai Desert
  • The Escape was called, Exodus

15
MOSES THE TEN COMMANDMENTS (2 OF 2)
  • Desert life was hard and Moses told the Hebrews
    not to give up. He led them to Mount Sinai
  • He received a message from God on this mountain
    top. God told Moses he would protect the Hebrews
    and lead them back to Canaan. In return, the
    Hebrews had to renew the covenant, agreement.
  • They were to obey certain laws. The most
    important became the Ten Commandments
  • The Ten Commandments stated that the Hebrews were
    to give their loyalty only to Yahweh
  • Also, they were taught that it was wrong to lie,
    steal, or murder and to respect ones property
  • Believed in social justice, everyone had the
    right to be treated fairly

16
THE PROMISED LAND
  • Moses died before the Hebrews reached the Canaan
  • Joshua, a general brought the people into the
    promised land without conflict
  • The Hebrews became farmers and shepherds when
    they settled
  • They used the Canaanites alphabet and copied
    their tools
  • Most of them lived in one room homes. The room
    was divided with one section being higher than
    the other
  • The lower level was used for cooking and chores
    during the day. At night eh people slept in the
    upper level and their animals bedded in the lower
    level

17
KINGS (1 of 2)
  • When Joshua died the 12 Hebrew tribes split
    apart. Each tribe was ran by a council of elders
  • During crisis, a temporary leader called a judge
    settled disputes and led troops to battle
  • Later, they decided they needed a king to unite
    them
  • Saul, a warrior-farmer became the first king
  • Saul later died in battle and David became the
    new king
  • David reunited the Hebrews and conquered the
    Canaanites
  • He captured a fortress and established the Hebrew
    capital, Jerusalem
  • Davis wrote many psalms, songs, that are found in
    the Bible
  • When David died, his son Solomon became king
    Solomon brought peace and made the Hebrew kingdom
    more powerful through trade and treaties

18
KINGS (2 of 2)
  • Solomons wealth and wisdom became well known
    throughout the Middle East
  • Some people did not like paying his high taxes or
    working on his building projects
  • When Solomon died, the Hebrews in the northern
    part of the country set up their own separate
    kingdom called Israel
  • The southern kingdom became known as Judah
  • The two fought each other for almost 200 years
  • Eventually, they both became weak enough for
    others to conquer

19
THE PROPHETS (1 of 2)
  • Prophets, people claiming to have messages from
    God, appeared in the Hebrew kingdom
  • They were teachers, farmers, and shepherds
  • They criticized the Hebrew life
  • Government officials were accepting bribes and
    the rich were mistreating the poor
  • They reminded the Hebrews of their promise to God
  • They taught the Hebrews that the God they
    worshipped was not only their God but everyones
    God
  • The people refused to listen to the prophets and
    powerful neighbors took over the Hebrew kingdom

20
THE PROPHETS (2 of 2)
  • The Israelites later disappeared by 722 B.C. and
    the Judeans who survived were forced to move to
    Babylonia
  • While in Babylonia they became to worship
    differently
  • They began meeting in small groups on the
    Sabbath, day of rest
  • They would pray and talk about their religion and
    history
  • The Jews spent 70 years in Babylonia and then
    returned to their homeland
  • They rebuilt Jerusalem and their temple
  • Under the scribe, Ezra, they wrote down their
    laws of Moses in five books called the Torah
  • Other writing were later added to make the Old
    Testament of the Bible

21
MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS
  • First to believe in one God
  • First to believe in a just God
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