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HOME AUTOMATION

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Your security system knows all about your occupancy of the house. ... Operating television, hot water heater, kettle, toaster etc. ready for your use. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HOME AUTOMATION


1
HOME AUTOMATION CONTROL
  • John Errington

2
WHY HOME AUTOMATION?
  • Your security system knows all about your
    occupancy of the house. With a little more
    development it can build an intelligent expert
    system to predict your usage, and for example
    turn the alarm on if you forget.
  • Your central heating programmer knows the
    standards of comfort you expect but doesnt
    know which rooms are in use.
  • By linking just these two you could achieve a
    reduction in fuel costs and a better match to
    your requirements.

3
APPLICATIONS
  • The applications are limited only by your
    imagination
  • Turning lights down / off at night.
  • Operating outside lights
  • Turning lights or radio on / off when someone
    approaches the house, simulating occupancy
  • Operating television, hot water heater, kettle,
    toaster etc. ready for your use.
  • Optimizing use of low cost electricity (economy
    7)
  • Working with intelligent electrical white goods
    e.g. washing machine, fridge, microwave etc.

4
WHAT IS HOME AUTOMATION?
  • Home automation deals with providing a network in
    the house which links
  • computers peripheral equipment,
  • smart chip bearing household appliances (white
    goods) e.g. dish washers, washing machines,
    microwaves etc., and
  • sub-systems like Heating, Ventilation,
    Air-conditioning (HVAC), and security systems.

5
Showing some applications of X-10 and European
Home System (EHS) for home automation
6
ADVANTAGES OF HOME AUTOMATION
  • Flexibility Convenience
  • Security
  • Cost Saving
  • Security
  • Remote Control

7
EXAMPLE OF APPLICATIONS FOR HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEM
8
HISTORY EARLY DEVELOPMENTS
  • Earliest home control systems were proposed by
    Hitachi Matsushita in 1978.
  • First home automation blue prints and
    demonstrations held by Japanese Electrical
    Appliance manufacturers like Sanyo, Sony, Toshiba
    etc.
  • Honeywells first demonstration house started in
    1978.
  • American X 10 system appeared in 1979.
  • Two rival programs CEBus and Smart House started
    in the early 1980s in the US.
  • GE reported their multimedia home bus signaling
    protocol Homenet in 1983.
  • Total Home system launched in 1992.
  • GIS, Home Automation Ltd. MK Electric took the
    initiative in Europe.

9
THE NEED FOR PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDISATION
  • A definite set of rules were needed for products
    to communicate with each other and some sort of
    control unit was needed to control these various
    products.
  • Resolving Contention
  • Integrating various transmission media.
  • System Architecture two alternatives
  • Centralized Control
  • Distributed Control

10
HOME AUTOMATION AROUND THE WORLD
11
TYPES OF HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
  • PC-based system Requires a PC to be running at
    all times.
  • Dedicated PC
  • Shared PC
  • Standalone system Runs without a PC, although
    may use a PC for programming
  • Hybrid system Runs without a PC, but uses PC to
    add more functions.

12
STANDARDS
  • BatiBUS Club International (BCI)
  • Bluetooth
  • CEBus (Consumer Electronic Bus)
  • EIA-776
  • EIB (European Installation Bus)
  • EHS (European Home System)
  • ETI (Extend the Internet Alliance)
  • HAVI (Home Audio Visual Interoperability)
  • HBS (Home Bus System)
  • HES (Home Electronic System)
  • Home API
  • Home Plug Play

13
STANDARDS - CONTINUED
  • Home Plug Alliance
  • Home PNA (Home Phoneline and network Alliance)
  • Home RF (Home Radia Frequency working Group)
  • JINI (The Jini Community)
  • LonMark Interoperability Association
  • OSGI (Open Service Gateway Initiative)
  • Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance
  • Upnp (Universal Plug and Play)
  • VESA (Video Electronics Standards Assoc.)
  • PROPRIETARY SPECIFICATIONS
  • HomeConnex-Peracom Networks , No New Wires-
    Intellon Corp, Lonworks-Echelon Corp.,
    Sharewave-Sharewave Inc. , X-10-X10 Inc.

14
X-10 THE FATHER OF POWERLINE HOME AUTOMATION
PROTOCOLS
  • X-10 is a communications protocol for remote
    control of electrical devices. Consists of X-10
    transmitters and receivers which communicate over
    the existing standard household wiring.
  • X-10 is a trademark of X-10 USA and of X-10 Home
    Controls Incorporated (Canada).
  • X-10 PLC technology was initially developed
    between 1976 and 1978 by engineers at Pico
    Electronics Ltd. in Scotland. A merger with BSR
    International established X-10 Ltd. in 1978.

15
X-10 SPECIFICATIONS
  • Transmitters and receivers plug into standard
    electrical outlets or are hardwired into
    electrical boxes.
  • They have three main functions(turn on, turn off
    and dim)
  • Simplest Transmitter A small control box with
    buttons to select the unit to be controlled and
    to select the control command to be sent.
  • Programmable units having on board timers to
    select times at which control signals are sent.
    Programming is done with on board buttons or
    through PC.
  • Special purpose X10 transmitters respond to
    motion, light or DTMF (telephone) tones
  • Simplest Receiver A small module plugged into an
    electrical outlet provides controlled power to
    the controlled device. It has two dials to set
    the unit ID code on it.
  • A relay inside switches on and off in response to
    X-10 commands directed to it. A lamp module has
    a triac instead of a relay.

16
Examples of X-10 devices
17
X-10 LIMITING RANGE OF TRANSMISSION
  • The next slide shows how X10 uses bursts of
    120kHz signal superimposed onto the house mains
    supply, shown as one of the three supply phases.
  • This means interference can only occur with one
    in three neighbouring houses.
  • X10 also uses a house code (A P) that can be
    adjusted to be different to the remaining
    neighbours.

18
X-10 Signals are sent at the zero crossing for
each phase of the electricity supply ensuring
successful communication
19
X-10 SPECIFICATIONS CONTINUED
  • X-10 specifies a total of 256 different
    addresses.
  • Each transmitter is selectable by a unique house
    code out of a total of 16 house codes (A-P).
  • Each transmitter can further handle a total of 16
    receiving units corresponding to 16 different
    unit codes (1-16)

20
X-10 INTERFACE WITH A COMPUTER
  • The PC can control the X-10 modules via the CP290
    Home Control Interface.
  • Other X10 modules to interface computers directly
    to the power line are
  • PL513 (send only)
  • W523 (send receive) and
  • PLIX (Power Line interface to X-10)

21
X-10 TRANSMISSION DETAILS
  • Each ONE bit in a legitimate X 10 transmission is
    a 1 millisecond(ms) pulse code modulated burst of
    120KHz on the AC line and each ZERO is the
    absence of such a burst. The burst is sent three
    times for each bit once at each AC zero crossing(
    accounting for zero crossing in 3-phase).
  • Each bit is sent both true and complemented and
    each code sequence is sent twice to overcome the
    noise over the line.
  • Bit sequence for a typical X10 transmission

1 1 1 0 H8 /H8 H4 /H4 H2 /H2 H1 /H1 D8 /D8 D4
/D4 D2 /D2 D1 /D1 F /F (start) (House
code) (Unit/Function code)
22
X-10 Example of transmitted signal
  • House and unit codes
  • A 1 0000 I 9 1000
  • B 2 0001 J 10 1001
  • C 3 0010 K 11 1010
  • D 4 0011 L 12 1011
  • E 5 0100 M 13 1100
  • F 6 0101 N 14 1101
  • G 7 0110 O 15 1110
  • H 8 0111 P 16 1111
  • Leader 1110
  • House code (A P) D 0011
  • Unit code (1 16) 13 1100
  • Function (1 on or 0 off)on 1

Transmitted signal 1110 01011010 10100101 10
23
CEBus COMMUNICATIONS PROTOCOL
  • A United States standard developed by the
    Electronics Industry Association (EIA).
  • Resulted from the standardization of infrared
    signaling used for remote control of appliances
    to avoid incompatible or interfering formats.
  • CEBus (Consumer Electronic Bus) became an interim
    standard in 1992 and voting to make it a national
    standard commenced in 1995.
  • Huge participation and interest in the CEBus
    protocol. Committee meetings were attended by
    more than 400 companies.

24
FEATURES OF CEBus WHICH ALLOW FLEXIBILITY AND
COST CONTROL.
  • Provide home automation for retrofit into
    existing houses.
  • Encourages development of low cost interface
    units embedded in appliances for operation on
    CEBus media
  • Accommodate a variety of data transmission media.
    Most aspects of device communications do not vary
    by medium.
  • Supports the distribution of wide band audio and
    video services in a variety of analog and digital
    formats.
  • Use of a distributed communications strategy for
    CEBus so no central controller is required for
    communications among appliances.
  • Permit Plug and Play.
  • Prioritize device access.

25
NETWORK ARCHITECTURE IN THE CEBus PROTOCOL
  • The CEBus standard accommodates the following
    transmission media
  • Electric power line
  • Twisted-pair wires
  • Coaxial cable
  • Infrared signaling
  • Radio frequency signaling
  • Fiber optics
  • Audio-video bus

26
ADVANTAGES OF CEBus
  • Home automation can be installed without
    additional wiring
  • Power line is used for data exchange and infrared
    or radio frequency used for remote control of
    devices.

27
AEI EasyLife Home Control Pack
  • Simple to install. Just plug in the adaptors and
    operate from the remote control
  • Additionally you can control the adaptors from
    your PC
  • Simple to program - Just insert the CD and follow
    the simple instructions
  • Simple to control - just point and click on the
    icons with your mouse
  • Transmits code through walls and ceilings
  • Expandable using up to 60 Remote Automation
    adaptors including mains adaptors, bayonet
    fittings and wire in modules

28
CONTROL CHANNEL SPECIFICATIONS
  • All media carry the CEBus control channel and
    data transmission rate is common at 8000 bits per
    second.
  • They can also carry data channels with high
    bandwidths.
  • CEBus specifies a dual coaxial system.
  • The format for CEBus control messages is
    independent of the communications medium used.

29
CEBus Devices and Topology
  • Supports flexible topology
  • Offers broadcasting facility
  • Uses Distributed Control.

30
CEBus network showing three communication media
interconnected by routers.
31
Block diagram of CEBus installation in home
32
HOME ELECTRONIC SYSTEM (HES)
  • Standard under development by a formal working
    Group sanctioned by the ISO and the
    IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) of
    Geneva, Switzerland.
  • GOAL
  • To specify hardware and software so a
    manufacturer might offer one version of a product
    that could operate on a variety of home
    automation networks.
  • Following components specified to accomplish the
    above goal
  • Universal Interface
  • Command Language
  • HomeGate

33
HES APPLICATION MODELS AND FUNCTIONAL SAFETY
  • For devices to be interoperable choice of
    observability and controllability must be
    consistent among various devices.
  • An application model describes the engineering
    aspects of a device that can be read, written, or
    executed via a home automation network.
  • All safety critical messages sent over the
    network must be confirmed.
  • IEC defines functional safety as the ability of a
    home control system to carry out the actions
    necessary to achieve and maintain an appropriate
    level of safety both under normal conditions and
    in case of a fault or hazard.

34
HES SYSTEM COMPONENTS
  • UNIVERSAL INTERFACE
  • To achieve the goal of compatibility of any
    device with any other network the appliance has a
    universal interface that includes a standard
    data plug.

35
HES COMPONENTS CONTD.
  • HES Application Language
  • The HES language must accommodate a superset of
    commands for the likely networks. It may not
    optimize operation on any one home automation
    system but it lowers costs when selling into a
    diverse market.
  • Homegate
  • The function of a gateway is primarily to
    translate between a wide area network (WAN)
    protocol and a local area network (LAN)

36
HOME PLUG PLAY (HPnP)
  • Seamless integration and interoperation of
    devices irrespective of the physical protocol.
  • Use of CAL
  • HPnP and protocols like CEBus provide a consumer
    with the convenience of buying a device and just
    plugging it in. The device just announces itself
    on the network and no other or minimal further
    programming is needed to make it work.
  • Advantages
  • Allows a consumer to control his home from home,
    work or from on the road. Coupled with CEBus
    protocol provides a connectivity unparalleled by
    any other methodology.
  • Effort is being made to integrate CAL and IP.

37
SWAP HomeRF Working Group
  • The HRFWG was formed to provide the foundation
    for a broad range of interoperable consumer
    devices by establishing an open industry
    specification for wireless digital communication
    between PCs and consumer electronic devices
    anywhere in and around the home.
  • For this they developed a protocol called the
    SWAP (Shared Wireless Access Protocol)
  • This protocol gives the standard interoperability
    between many different consumer electronics
    devices as well as the flexibility and mobility
    of a wireless solution.
  • Since its inception in March 1998 the membership
    now exceeds 90 companies.

38
SHARED WIRELESS ACCESS PROTOCOL
  • Allows PCs, peripherals, phones, and consumer
    electronics to communicate with one another
    without having to interconnect them with wires.
  • SWAP operates in 2.4 GHz ISM band. Protocol
    architecture closely resembles the IEEE 802.11
    wireless LAN standards in the physical layer.
  • In the MAC layer it adds a subset of DECT
    standards to provide voice services. As a result
    it can support both data and voice services.

39
BENEFITS OF SWAP
  • Allows shared access of Internet connections from
    anywhere in the house.
  • Automatic intelligent routing of incoming
    telephone calls to one or more cordless handsets,
    FAX machines or voice mailboxes of individual
    family members.
  • Cordless handset access to an integrated message
    system to review stored voice mail, FAXes and
    e-mail.
  • Personal intelligent agents running on the PC for
    each family member, accessed by speaking into
    cordless handsets.
  • Wireless LANs allowing users to share files and
    peripherals between one or more PCs.
  • Spontaneous control of home security systems,
    heating and air conditioning systems from
    anywhere around the home.

40
TECHNICAL SUMMARY OF THE SWAP SPEC
  • HomeRF SWAP system is designed to carry both
    voice and data traffic and to interoperate with
    PSTN
  • Supports both TDMA and CSMA/CA

41
SWAP SYSTEM PARAMETERS
  • Frequency hopping network - 50 hops per second
  • Frequency range - 2400 MHz ISM band
  • Transmission power - 100mW
  • Data Rate 1 to 2 Mbps depending on type of
    modulation
  • Range - covers typical home and yard
  • Supported Stations Up to 127 devices per
    network
  • Voice Connections Up to 6 full duplex
    conversations
  • Data compression, Data security and 48 bit
    network ID

42
SWAP NETWORK TOPOLOGY
  • SWAP system can operate either as an ad-hoc
    network or as a managed network.
  • The network can accommodate a maximum of 127
    nodes. These nodes can be a mixture of 4 basic
    types
  • Connection Point
  • Voice terminal
  • Data node
  • Voice and Data node.

43
OTHER STANDARDS
  • BatiBus
  • A de facto European standard.
  • BatiBUS is a single bus enabling
    intercommunications between all the modules
    (CPUs, sensors and actuators) in building control
    systems such as heating, air conditioning,
    lighting and closure functions. Medium is usually
    a twisted pair.
  • User friendly protocol based on CSMA/CA
  • HomePlug
  • Another Powerline Alliance which uses Powerline
    as a communication medium.

44
Resources
  • www.x-10europe.com/ supplier of X-10 modules
  • www.x-10.co.uk/
  • www.kevinboone.com/home-automation.html
  • www.easylife.co.uk/
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