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Protestant Reformation

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Church had become powerful and wealthy which led to corruption. Pope and Vatican involved in all the ... Spanish Inquisition. Wars of Religion in France ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Protestant Reformation


1
Protestant Reformation
  • A Whirlwind Tour

2
Roman Catholic Church in 1500s
  • Church had become powerful and wealthy which led
    to corruption.
  • Pope and Vatican involved in all the political
    affairs of Europe.
  • Ordinary people felt the church not meeting their
    needs.
  • Beginnings of what many saw as abuses.

3
List of Abuses
  • Selling of indulgences
  • Nepotism
  • Immorality among the priesthood
  • Excessive veneration of the saints
  • Relic worship (whats a relic?)

4
The altar of St. Francis Xavier in the Church of
the Gesu in Rome.
5
Martin Luther
  • German monk and professor at the University of
    Wittenberg.
  • Studied the Bible intensely
  • Came to the conclusion that only faith was
    required for salvation Catholics emphasized
    faith and good works.
  • Believed that Bible was sole authority on
    religion and Christianity.

6
Martin Luther, cont.
  • Only wanted to reform the church, not start a new
    one.
  • In 1517, issued Ninety-Five Theses.
  • Thousands copies printed.
  • Began move toward break by 1520.

7
Martin Luther, cont.
  • Luther refuses to renounce his beliefs.
  • Luthers reform movement became a religious
    revolution.
  • Lutheran church resulted in most of Germany.
  • Bible reading, preaching, hymn singing.
  • Called on German princes to overthrow Catholic
    Church and set up German church.
  • Excommunicated January 1521.
  • Summoned to appear before Charles V, Holy Roman
    Emperor.

8
John Calvin and Calvinism
  • Moved to Geneva, Switzerland in 1536.
  • Became a Protestant city ruled by church.
  • Developed doctrine known as Calvinism.
  • Stressed predestination.
  • Doctrine spread into France

9
Reformation in England
  • Rooted in politics not religion.
  • Henry VIII had no male heir, blamed his wives.
  • First married to Catharine of Aragon of Spain, a
    Catholic.
  • Has daughter, Mary.
  • Wanted a divorce, which the Pope would not grant.

10
Henry VIII
  • Wanted to marry Anne Boleyn.
  • Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer agrees to
    annul marriage with Catharine.
  • Henry VIII breaks ties with Rome.
  • Declares Church of England with king at top.
  • Anne bares him no boys, just Elizabeth, a
    Protestant.
  • Next wife, Jane Seymour, gives him a sickly son,
    Edward.

11
Wives of Henry VIII
Catherine of Aragon
Anne Boleyn
Jane Seymour
Catherine Howard
Anne of Cleves
Catherine Parr
12
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13
Counter Reformation, or Catholic Reformation
  • Catholics decided there really must be a problem
    since so many are discontent.
  • Creation of the Society of Jesus, Jesuits,
    founded by Ignatius of Loyola.
  • Reformed papacy. No more dealings with finances
    and Italian military and political affairs.
  • Council of Trent.

14
Council of Trent
  • Held March 1545 by the order of Pope Paul III at
    city of Trent.
  • Met in three major sessions from 1545-1563.
  • Reaffirmed Catholic beliefs.
  • Scripture and tradition held equal authority.
  • Only the church could interpret Scripture.
  • Faith and good works OK purgatory a real place
    and indulgences OK too, just cant sell them.

15
Catholic Reformation basically too little, too
late.
16
Consequences of Protestant Reformation
  • Catholic Reformation
  • Spanish Inquisition
  • Wars of Religion in France
  • Fighting between Catholics and Protestants in
    England
  • Hostilities between Spain and England
  • Civil War in England
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