Behavior Based Safety - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 103
About This Presentation
Title:

Behavior Based Safety

Description:

A company's readiness for behavior-based safety. ... Honesty and Integrity. Ask for help without taking responsibility. Recognition. 21. 21 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:40521
Avg rating:5.0/5.0
Slides: 104
Provided by: garype2
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Behavior Based Safety


1
Behavior Based Safety
  • Gary Peacock
  • Safety Consultant
  • Ohio BWC

2
Objectives
  • The benefits of behavior-based systems.
  • The basic principles of how to motivate safe
    behavior.
  • A companys readiness for behavior-based safety.
  • Compare and contrast the different behavior-based
    systems on the market today.

3
Why Safety Programs Do Not Work
  • Safety is a priority, not a value!
  • Safety is not managed in the same manner as
    production, quality, and cost issues!
  • Safety is not driven through continuous
    improvement!

4
Fallacies or Realities in Safety Fables?
  • Conditions cause accidents!
  • Enforcing rules improves safety!
  • Safety professionals can keep workers safe!
  • Low accident rates indicate safety programs are
    working well!
  • Investigating to find the root cause of accidents
    will improve safety!
  • Awareness training improves safety!
  • Rewards improve safety!

5
Core Elements in Successful Safety Programs
  • A culture that says safety is important around
    here!
  • A tight accountability system!

6
Behavior Based Safety What Is It?
  • An excellent tool for collecting data on the
    quality of a companys safety management system
  • A scientific way to understand why people behave
    the way they do when it comes to safety
  • Properly applied, an effective next step towards
    creating a truly pro-active safety culture where
    loss prevention is a core value
  • Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to
    implement and sustain

7
Behavior Based Safety What It Is Not!
  • Only about observation and feedback
  • Concerned only about the behaviors of line
    employees
  • A substitution for traditional risk management
    techniques
  • About cheating manipulating people aversive
    control
  • A focus on incident rates without a focus on
    behavior
  • A process that does not need employee involvement

8
Obstacles To Success
  • Poorly Maintained Facilities
  • Top-down Management Practices
  • Poor Planning/Execution
  • Inadequate Training

9
Keys to Success
  • Meaningful Employee Empowerment
  • Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS
    Process
  • Managing BBS Process with Integrity

10
Turn Talk
  • What kinds of injuries and accidents are common
    at your workplace?

11
What percentage of these accidents are a result
of
  • Unsafe conditions, OSHA violations, dangerous
    equipment? _____
  • Unsafe actions, at-risk behaviors, poor
    decisions? _____

12
What percentage of these accidents are a result
of
  • Unsafe conditions, OSHA violations, dangerous
    equipment? 6
  • Unsafe actions, at-risk behaviors, poor
    decisions? 94

13
Therefore, compliance is necessary but not
sufficient for great safety.Safety is about
people, and behavior is the challenge.

14
Fatality
Major
Minor Injury
Property Damage
Near Miss (hit)
At-risk Behaviors
15
Traditional Safety
Safety Training
Slogans
Regulations
Policies
Reprimands
Fewer Accidents
Contests Awards
Safety Meetings
Committees Councils
16
Behavior Based Safety
Fewer at-risk Behaviors
17
What Behavior-based is...
Safe People vs Safe Places
Injuries Equal Management Errors
Behavior Management
Measure Behaviors vs Results
Observation Feedback
Positive Reinforcement
18
Organizational Performance Model
Systems
Behaviors
Great Performance
Climate
19
Systems
  • Accountability
  • Communication
  • Decision Making
  • Measurement
  • Orientation
  • Training
  • Employment
  • Auditing

20
Behaviors
  • Honesty and Integrity
  • Ask for help without taking responsibility
  • Recognition
  • Observation and feedback
  • Trust
  • Listen with empathy

21
Climate Variables
  • Confidence/trust
  • Interest in people
  • Understanding problems
  • Training/helping
  • Teaching to solve problems
  • Much information
  • Approachability
  • Recognition

- Rensis Likert
22
Turn Talk
  • What is the primary purpose of a supervisor?
  • What is the most effective way to motivate people?

23
Human Behavior is a function of
ð Activators (what needs to be done)
ð Competencies (how it needs to be done)
ð Consequences (what happens if it is done)

24
Human behavior is both
  • ð Observable
  • ð Measurable

therefore Behavior can be managed !
25
Attitudes Are inside a persons head
-therefore they are not observable or measurable

however
  • Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors

26
ABC Model
  • Antecedents
  • (trigger behavior)
  • Behavior
  • (human performance)
  • Consequences
  • (either reinforce or punish behavior)

27
Definitions
  • Activators A person, place, thing or event
    that happens before a behavior takes place that
    encourages you to perform that behavior.
  • Activators only set the stage for behavior or
    performance - they dont control it.

28
Some examples of activators
29
Definitions
Behavior Any directly measurable thing that
a person does, including speaking, acting, and
performing physical functions.
30
Some examples of behavior
31
Definitions Consequences Events that follow
behaviors. Consequences increase or decrease the
probability that the behaviors will occur again
in the future.
If you dont send in that payment well take you
to court
Oh please let it be Bob!
32
Behavioral Model
B f (c)
Antecedents
Behaviors
Consequences
33
Some example of Consequences
34
Consequences - How would you view them?
Sunbathing
Aggressive Drivers
35
Only 4 Types of Consequences
  • Positive Reinforcement (R)
  • ("Do this you'll be rewarded")
  • Negative Reinforcement (R-)
  • ("Do this or else you'll be penalized")
  • Punishment (P)
  • ("If you do this, you'll be penalized")
  • Extinction (E)
  • ("Ignore it and it'll go away")

Behavior
36
Consequences Influence Behaviors Based Upon
Individual Perceptions of
Magnitude - large or small
  • Significance - positive or negative

Impact - personal or other
  • Timing - immediate or future
  • Consistency - certain or uncertain

37
Consequences need to be ...
Soon vs Delayed
Certain vs Uncertain
Personal vs Organizational
Positive vs Negative
38
Both Positive (R) Negative (R-) Reinforcement
Can Increase Behavior
  • R any consequence that follows a behavior and
    increases the probability that the behavior will
    occur more often in the future - You get
    something you want
  • R- a consequence that strengthens any behavior
    that reduces or terminates the behavior - You
    escape or avoid something you dont want

39
Good safety suggestion Joe! Keep bringing em up!
R
One more report like this and youre outa here!!
R-
40
R
Performance
The effects of positive reinforcement
Time
41
P
Performance
The effects of punishment
Time
42
Why is one sign often ignored, the other one
often followed?
43
The Behavior Based Safety Challenge
To create conditions that encourage people to
collaborate because they want to not because
they have to
Lets do it!!
44
Motivation Model
  • Ability

Performance
Motivation
45
Motivation Model
Selection - Can they do it
Training - Do they know how
  • Ability

Performance
Motivation
46
Motivation Model
Selection - Can they do it
Job Climate - Boss Peer relationships, Work
environment
Training - Do they know how
  • Ability

Performance
Motivation
47
Motivation Model
Selection - Can they do it
Job Climate - Boss Peer relationships, Work
environment
Training - Do they know how
  • Ability

The Job Itself - Any fun, challenge
Job Motivational Factors Achievement, Promotion,
Recognition, Responsibility
Performance
Motivation
48
Motivation Model
Selection - Can they do it
Job Climate - Boss Peer relationships, Work
environment
Training - Do they know how
  • Ability

The Job Itself - Any fun, challenge
Job Motivational Factors Achievement, Promotion,
Recognition, Responsibility
Performance
Motivation
Peer Groups - Norms, Pressures
Union - Norms, Pressures
49
Accident Causation
  • DOTS Model

50
D
O
T
S
Causation Model

Logical decision in his/her situation
Decision to err
Perceived low probability
Acc or incidt
Injury or loss
Human Error
Overload or mismatch
Capacity with Load in a State
Incompble displays/ Controls or job design
Systems Failure
Traps
Workstatn design
51
Causation Model
D
O
T
S
S
Logical decision in his/her situation
Peer pressure Measures of the boss Perceived
priorities of mgt
Decision to Err
Of the incident occurring Of a loss resulting
Perceived low probability
52
O
Causation Model
D
T
S
Natural endowment Physical capability Knowledge
skill Drugs / alcohol Information
processing Environment Worry / stress
Fatigue LCUs
Capacity with Load in a State
Overload or a Mismatch
53
T
Causation Model
D
O
S
Size, force, feel, repetition reach
Workstation or Job design
Traps
Stereotypes, Human capabilities,
Expectations, Inconsistencies
Incompatible displays or controls
54
S
Causation Model
D
O
T
Systems Causes
  • Lack of Policy / Guidelines / Practices
  • Poorly defined responsibility
  • No authority to act
  • Little accountability or measurement
  • No analysis of incidents
  • No orientation of new / transferred staff
  • Lack of clear SOPs / Standards

55
Causation Model
D
O
T
S

Decision to Err
Human Error
Acc or incidt
Overload or mismatch
Injury or loss
Systems Failure
Traps
56
BenefitsofBehavior-based Approaches
57
Average Reduction of Injury Frequency
  • Implementation of BBS
  • After 1 year 34
  • After 2 years 44
  • After 3 years 61
  • After 4 years 71

58
Safety Intervention Strategies(By NSC)
  • Approach of Studies of Subjects
    Reduction
  • Behavior Based 7 2,444 59.6
  • Ergonomics 3 n/a
    51.6
  • Engineering Change 4 n/a 29.0
  • Problem Solving 1 76
    20.0
  • Govt Action 2 2
    18.3
  • Mgt. Audits 4 n/a
    17.0
  • Stress Management 2 1,300 15.0
  • Poster Campaign 2 6,100 14.0
  • Personnel Selection 26 19,177
    3.7
  • Near-miss Reports 2 n/a
    0

59
Why Implement BBS?
  • Safety is about people.
  • Compliance is not sufficient.
  • Consequences drive behavior.
  • Motivating
  • Performance Feedback

60
Why Implement BBS?
  • Truly proactive
  • Broad awareness
  • Deep Involvement
  • Proven effective
  • Transcends workplace safety

61
Three Essential Questions
  • What behaviors are being observed?
  • Why are those behaviors present?
  • Now What will be done to correct the system
    deficiencies?

62
BBS FeaturesStrengths / Weaknesses
  • Peer to peer observation
  • Supervisory observation
  • Behavior audit
  • Snapshot
  • Software support
  • Customized behavior inventories
  • General behavior inventories
  • Emphasis on skilled coaching and feedback

63
Roles and Responsibilities
  • Workers
  • Observers / Supervisors
  • Safety Staff
  • Managers
  • Safety Involvement Team

64
Are You ReadyforBehavior-Based Safety?
65
Safety Culture Wheel
66
Rate Each Statement on a Scale from 0 to 3
  • 0 Weakness
  • 1Some aspects covered
  • 2Could be improved
  • 3Strength

67
Leadership
  • Leadership commitment to safety is active,
    visible, and lively
  • A clear and inspiring vision has been established
    for safe performance
  • Safety is viewed and treated as a line management
    responsibility
  • Safety is clearly perceived as an organizational
    value on the same level with productivity and
    quality

68
Systems Processes
  • Supervisors and workers partner to find and
    correct systems causes of incidents
  • Communication systems are abundant, effective and
    flow well in all directions
  • Training systems deliberately and systematically
    create competency for the right people at the
    right time
  • Safe operating procedures and policies are
    clearly defined and communicated

69
Involvement
  • Workers are skilled at problem solving and
    decision making
  • Labor and management work together to address
    safety systems issues
  • Team orientation achieves involvement and
    cooperation
  • Innovation, participation and suggestions are
    encouraged at all levels

70
Organizational Style
  • Trust and openness are the norm
  • Positive reinforcement is used regularly
  • Bureaucratic obstacles are removed
  • There is formal and informal recognition for
    great performance at all levels

71
Measurement and Accountability
  • All levels of the organization have safety goals
    and process responsibilities clearly defined
  • The process of achieving results is a key safety
    measure
  • Performance reviews include accountability for
    safe performance at all levels
  • Supervision is accountable to perform safety
    observations and feedback

72
How Do You Deal with Safety?
  • Leader
  • culture that strongly values supports EHS
  • continuous improvement
  • Follower
  • compliance minded
  • view safety as a legal responsibility with little
    or no value
  • Gambler
  • lack knowledge, resources, will to even achieve
    compliance
  • manage safety with eyes closed and fingers crossed

73
How Is Your Organization Managed?
  • Safety must be in harmony with the way the
    organization is managed
  • Do we want production and safety?
  • Do we want production with safety?
  • Do we want safe production?
  • Goal Efficient production which maximizes
    profit
  • Integrated or artificially introduced program?
  • How we do business - a state of mind that must
    become an integral part of each and every
    procedure in the company

74
Behavior Based Safety
  • Three major sub-systems to deal with
  • The physical, the managerial, the behavioral
  • Identifying critical at-risk behaviors and the
    systems that support them
  • At-Risk Behavior
  • normal human behavior
  • people reacting to their environment
  • Deal with the causes of the at-risk behavior, not
    the behavior
  • change the environment that leads to the at-risk
    behavior

75
  • There is no one right way to achieve safe
    production in an organization. For a safety
    system to be effective it must fit the
    organizations culture and it must
  • Force supervisory performance
  • Involve middle management
  • Have top mgt. visibly showing their commitment
  • Have employee participation
  • Be flexible
  • Be perceived as positive
  • Dan
    Petersen

76
Are You Ready?
  • LEADERSHIP
  • Organization needs to be fundamentally prepared
    for it
  • Success taking on and resolving central
    organizational issues
  • Major change initiative for most companies
  • Change
  • not easy
  • often resisted w/ vigor and ingenuity
  • failed change efforts create skepticism, cynicism
    and apathy
  • Whether in production, quality, or safety the
    ultimate responsibility rests with leadership.

77
Are You Ready?
  • SYSTEMS
  • Basic systems must be in place
  • Safety - AI, hazard recognition, recordkeeping,
    etc
  • Management - decision-making, inventory,
    budgeting, etc
  • Facilities/Equipment - design, maintenance, etc
  • If BBS is not integrated as a system it is likely
    to burn-out

78
Are You Ready?
  • INVOLVEMENT
  • Engaging and sustaining employee involvement is
    the driving mechanism
  • When employee involvement is not adequately
    engaged, BBS becomes just another program
  • Management involvement is crucial
  • often subvert implementation by not understanding
    BBS principles

79
Are You Ready?
  • ORGANIZATIONAL STYLE
  • Must be functioning at a high level of
    effectiveness or be willing to address obstacles
    to high level functioning
  • Effective organizational functioning includes
  • Communication
  • Trust and credibility between management and
    workers
  • Respect
  • Vision

80
Are You Ready?
  • MEASUREMENT ACCOUNTABILITY
  • What gets measured gets done
  • Clearly defined roles and responsibilities at
    every level
  • Accountability v Responsibility
  • Performance v Results
  • Safety Director - a lot of responsibility, very
    little authority
  • Not everyone is responsible for safety until they
    are held accountable

81
AssessmentProcess
82
SampleSurvey
83
Survey Results
84
Safety Observation Process
  • Step 1 PLAN where and when to make observations
    and recall what to look for
  • Step 2 OBSERVE worker behavior for safe and
    at-risk performance
  • Step 3 COACH for improved performance by
    positively reinforcing or redirecting
  • Step 4 RECORD what was observed, why it
    occurred, and now what will be done

85
Step 1 PLAN
  • Determine a time and place to observe
  • Review the Observation Memory Jog-R (Tab 6)
  • Review Feedback and Coaching Tips (Tab 7)

86
Step 2 OBSERVE
  • Snapshots of behavior
  • Allow no distractions
  • Observe people and surroundings
  • Stop any at-risk behavior immediately
  • Stop observing after 30 seconds or at-risk
    behavior is observed, which ever comes first

87
Step 3 COACH
  • Provide positive reinforcement (R) if
    safe
  • Coach by shaping behavior
    if at-risk
  • Ignore what you saw
  • Discipline

88
Step 4 RECORD
  • Anonymous, specific, timely
  • Safe and At-Risk behaviors on Memory Jog-R
  • What, Why, Now What
  • Take Action

89
Observation Exercises
90
Continuous Improvement
  • Data Compilation
  • Safety Involvement Team
  • Problem solving
  • Implement solutions
  • Successful?

91
Ohio BWCBBS Software Demo
92
OBSERVATION
  • Reactive Behavior
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Specific Job Risks
  • Tools and Equipment
  • Safe Work Practices
  • Ergonomics

93
Reactive Behavior
  • Adjusting PPE
  • Changing position / Turning away
  • Stopping work / Attaching safe guards
  • Rearranging job

94
Personal Protective Equipment
  • Head gear
  • Eye protection and face shielding
  • Hearing protection
  • Respiratory protection
  • Arm and hand covering
  • Foot and leg protection

95
Specific Job Risks
  • Strike against or caught
  • Line of fire
  • Fall, slip hazard
  • Contact hot, chemical or electric
  • Inhale or swallow hazardous substance

96
Tools and Equipment
  • Wrong for the job
  • Used incorrectly
  • In need of repair or maintenance
  • Clutter poor housekeeping

97
Safe Work Practices
  • Not defined
  • Not known or understood
  • Ignored or done poorly
  • Not compatible with task

98
Ergonomics
  • Forceful exertions
  • Awkward postures
  • High repetition
  • Long duration w/o rest

99
Coaching and Feedbackfor the skilled observer
100
Positive Reinforcement
  • Give praise
  • Explain why this behavior is right and/or safe
  • Encourage continued behavior

101
Shaping Behavior
  • Communicate the behavior you saw
  • Check for understanding of the job
  • Coach for improved performance
  • Contract for safe behavior

102
Coaching Tips
  • Use I vs. You language
  • Appeal to others interests and goals
  • Reflect feelings or emotions that go beyond the
    words
  • Set limits to clarify expectations
  • Talk about the behavior, not the person

103
Coaching Tips Continued
  • Keep calm
  • Dont personalize emotion of others
  • Move to problem solving
  • Focus on interests rather than position
  • Find common ground
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com