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Chapter One: The Criminology and Controversy of Terrorism

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Howard terrorism is an emergency situation best handled by intelligence and law ... Stern's View on Group Cohesion: 'Us against them' mentality against common enemy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter One: The Criminology and Controversy of Terrorism


1
Chapter OneThe Criminology and
Controversy of Terrorism
2
Why Definitions are Important
3
Why Definitions are Important
  • Why do people argue about the meaning of
    terrorism?
  • Meaning changes
  • It is a concept
  • Means different things at different times

4
Why Definitions are Important
  • Pejorative Connotation of Terrorism
  • Political and social degradation when labeled a
    terrorist
  • Routine crimes assume greater importance when
    described as terrorism
  • Political movement can be hampered when followers
    believed to be terrorists

5
Why Definitions are Important
  • Definitions of Terrorism from Various Interest
    Groups
  • Law Enforcement
  • Governments
  • Advocating for redistribution of wealth
  • Pro-life/Pro-choice

6
Definitions of Terrorism
7
Definitions of Terrorism
  • Jenkins Threat or use of force for political
    change
  • Laqueur Use of force to achieve political
    objective targets innocent people
  • Crenshaw Cannot be defined without analysis of
    act, target, and possibility of success

8
Definitions of Terrorism
  • Herman Defined in terms of state repression
  • Schmid Meaning is derived from targets and
    victims of terrorists
  • Barnett Terrorists do not have vested interest
    in maintaining political/economic structures
    because they do not benefit from them

9
The Meaning of the War on Terrorism
10
The Meaning of the War on Terrorism
  • Arguments accepting the war with terrorism
  • Friedman
  • Blank
  • Cohen
  • Hill

11
The Meaning of the War on Terrorism
  • Argument that does not accept the war on
    terrorism
  • Howardterrorism is an emergency situation best
    handled by intelligence and law enforcement
    services

12
The Tactics of Terrorism
13
The Tactics of Terrorism
  • Jenkins six tactics of terrorism
  • Bombing (most common)
  • Hijacking
  • Arson
  • Assault
  • Kidnapping
  • Hostage Taking
  • Weapons of mass destruction?

14
Tactics of Terrorism
  • Four Force Multipliers
  • Technology
  • Transnational support networks
  • Media coverage
  • Religious fanaticism

15
How Terrorists Groups Justify Behavior
16
How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior
  • Justification for violence
  • Consumed with the cause
  • Reasons potential terrorists join groups
  • Sympathy for the cause
  • Social misfits

17
How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior
  • Posts Motivational Theories
  • No single terrorist personality
  • Social outcasts who fall in with like-minded
    individuals
  • Us against them mentality
  • Antisocial behavior rewarded and reinforced
    within this group
  • Rejection of external authority acceptance of
    internal authority

18
How Terrorists Groups Justify Behavior
  • Sterns View on Group Cohesion
  • Us against them mentality against common enemy
  • Group must have a story/mythology to inspire and
    guide members
  • Group needs own language or symbolic words to
    demonize enemy

19
How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior
  • Berlet and Lyons
  • Groups look for conspiracies and then scapegoat a
    group for the conspiracy
  • Demonize scapegoats as primary cause of injustice
  • Leaders inspire members to action and search to
    demonize more enemies

20
Warrior Dreams
21
Warrior Dreams
  • Warrior Culture
  • Warriors social outcasts whose lives center on
    violence lone wolf
  • Identity crisis of extreme conservatives
    following Vietnam War
  • Culture values guns and violent confrontations
  • Paramilitary culture/lifestyle war games,
    paramilitary religion, war films/books,
    extremists

22
Warrior Dreams
  • Targets of the warrior
  • Enemy lacks all standards of human decency whose
    goal is to destroy American society and culture
  • Communist
  • Dope dealer
  • Mafioso
  • Academic
  • Liberal

23
Warrior Dreams
  • Lone warrior
  • SWAT, commando units reflect organized military
    values, so warrior rejects them
  • At war with status quo
  • Justifies actions of militias, New Order,
    neo-Nazis
  • Provides formula for justifying terrorism

24
Terrorist Profiles Three Views
25
Terrorist Profiles Three Views
  • Hacker one of first criminal profilers
  • Hackers three types of terrorists
  • Criminals
  • Join terrorist groups for payoff or vengeance
  • Crazies
  • Join terrorist groups for thrills of lifestyle
  • Crusaders
  • People who believe deeply in a cause

26
Terrorist Profiles Three Views
  • Laqueurs Views of Terrorist Profiling
  • No terrorist profile possible due to different
    types of terrorism
  • Terrorism fluctuates over time
  • Some group characteristics can be determined
    through type of terrorist movement
  • Impossible to profile terrorist personality
    because terrorism is a political activity rather
    than a subject of criminology

27
Terrorist Profiles Three Views
  • Ross alternative view Social/psychological
    processes rather than profiles
  • Joining the group
  • Forming the activity
  • Remaining in the campaign
  • Leading the organization
  • Engaging in acts of terrorism
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