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If games is spelled games, why is it a fourletter word

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4 Cs: Conflict, Control, Closure, Contrivance (and Curriculum) ... the game and then test the player on this information with a series of levels or missions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: If games is spelled games, why is it a fourletter word


1
If games is spelled g-a-m-e-s,why is it a
four-letter word?
  • Michael M. Grant
  • Clif Mims
  • Workforce E-learning Resource Network
  • September 29, 2006

2
What are Games? Simulations?
  • Games
  • Competitive exercises
  • Beginning, middle end goal winners rules
  • Preset steps, procedures
  • Fun, engaging
  • Simulations
  • Ill-defined problem, decisions determine how the
    simulation evolves, constraints/boundaries
  • Take on a role, real life consequences, attempts
    to represent reality
  • Many interacting variables, HOTS/Problem solving
  • Fidelity

3
What are the structures/components of games?
4
What are the structures/components of games?
  • Competition, conflict, strategy
  • 4 Cs Conflict, Control, Closure, Contrivance
    (and Curriculum)
  • Rules and winners
  • Directions, Procedures
  • Reinforcement
  • Engagement, fun, entertainment
  • Strategy and luck/chance
  • Has an end
  • Cheating is possible and beneficial
  • Goal
  • Equipment
  • Prior knowledge

5
What are the structures/components of simulations?
6
What are the structures/components of
simulations?
  • Model of real-world situation
  • Interacting variables, based on rich database
  • Fidelity
  • Participants have defined roles
  • Ill defined problem or discrepant event
  • Evolving situation
  • No right or wrong
  • Experiential
  • May not have a specific end point
  • Reinforcement
  • Educational or instructional goal/purpose
  • Variables increases choice and engagement

7
Game Genres
  • Edutainment
  • FPS
  • Action
  • Adventure
  • Role-Plays and RPGs
  • Strategy
  • Simulation and Simulation Games
  • Microworlds
  • Persistent Universes
  • MMOG

8
Continuum of Development for DGBL
Educational Games (targeted to skills)
Game Engine-based development
COTS
Role Plays
PPT Games
Interactive Multimedia (Flash)
COTS
Inhouse
Outsource
9
What are some of the ways you anticipate or have
used games and simulations?
10
Assessment in Games
11
In Entertainment Games
  • Tutorials
  • present the player with the basics of how to
    control and interact with the game and then test
    the player on this information with a series of
    levels or missions
  • Scoring
  • Efforts, performance or decisions are reinforced
    (positive, negative, punishment)
  • No score all indicates that the action is
    probably unimportant

12
Challenges for DGBL
  • Assessment of learning from traditional methods
    may not equal learning from serious games
  • Open-ended simulations can support myriad
    possible solutions. Why one is more correct?
  • When teaching soft skills such as leadership,
    teamwork management, how do you measure
    learning and/or improvements?
  • What is cheating in the context of serious
    games?

13
as with All Assessments
  • How do you show that the students are learning
    what you claim they are learning?
  • How do you know that what you are measuring is
    what you think you are measuring?

14
Meeting the Challenges
  • Endogenous Assessment
  • Completion Assessment
  • In-process Assessment
  • Exogenous Assessment
  • Teacher/Trainer Evaluation
  • Transfer
  • Constructionist
  • Mixed Model Assessment

15
Completion Assessment
  • Did the student complete the serious game?
  • Useful as a first indicator that learner
    sufficiently understands the content.
  • Limitations
  • Cheating, exploiting flaws
  • Unable to determine if student learned content or
    how to beat the game

Endogenous
16
In-process Assessment
  • Similar to teacher observations
  • Makes decision-making transparent
  • Emphasizes process with product
  • Logging tracking features to instant replay
    performance
  • Examples completion time (efficiency), number of
    mistakes number of self-corrections
    (effectivenessself-regulation)

Endogenous
17
Trainer Assessment
  • Combination of completion assessment in-process
    assessment
  • May include debrief or after action review (AAR)
    to deconstruct performance and decision-making
  • Games may include tools akin to course management
    systems or LMS (e.g., homework and assignment
    controls, grade tracking, logging/tracking, etc.)
  • Requires performance assessments (e.g., rubrics,
    checklists, portfolios) the more data available,
    though, the less subjective

Endogenous
18
Transfer
  • Follows Kirkpatricks Level 3 evaluation
  • Follows the learner back to the actual
    performance environment
  • May not always be possible
  • Example some simulations are used for unusual or
    uncommon, unsafe experiences
  • Limitations
  • Cost time

Exogenous
19
Constructionist
  • Game development as the assessment method
  • The only way a designer can make an effective
    game that simulates a particular phenomenon or
    teaches particular information is if the designer
    already understands the content
  • Limitations
  • Time/cost, approachable tools

Exogenous
20
Mixed Model
  • Combines endogenous and exogenous assessments
    (e.g., completion, in-process, teacher
    evaluation)
  • May include elements of traditional assessments
  • May include observer mode for teacher/trainer
    to review performance
  • May include debrief or AAR
  • Allows the assessment to start pre-game,
    intra-game and post-game

21
Questions
22
Games from this Summer
23
Games from this Summer
24
Games from this Summer
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