Orbital Payload Delivery Using Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon Fuelled Scramjet Engines - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Orbital Payload Delivery Using Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon Fuelled Scramjet Engines

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Compare the performance to current rocket powered systems. Current Launch Systems ... Cranked wing concept with aerodynamics taken from a NASA study ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Orbital Payload Delivery Using Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon Fuelled Scramjet Engines


1
Orbital Payload Delivery Using Hydrogen and
Hydrocarbon Fuelled Scramjet Engines
  • M. R. Tetlow and C.J. Doolan
  • School on Mechanical Engineering
  • The University of Adelaide

2
Overview
  • Current launch systems
  • Scramjet background
  • Mission profile and vehicle description
  • Software operation
  • Trajectory outputs
  • Analysis of results
  • Conclusions

3
Aim
  • Design a mission using a hydrocarbon powered
    (JetA) and a hydrogen powered scramjet stage to
    reach a 200km circular orbit
  • Compare the mission profiles and performance of
    the two launch systems
  • Compare the performance to current rocket powered
    systems

4
Current Launch Systems
  • 1 at 200km is indicative of the performance of
    this class of vehicle Isakowitz - 1995

5
Scramjets
  • Supersonic combustion ramjet
  • Geometry dependent on operating conditions
  • Hydrogen fuelled
  • High energy, low storage density
  • Operating range Mach 5 to 15
  • Isp 3000s
  • Hydrocarbon fuelled
  • Lower energy, high storage density
  • Operating range Mach 5 to 10
  • Isp 1200s
  • Minimum dynamic pressure 10kPa

6
Waveriders
7
Waveriders
  • Blended wing vehicle with integrated propulsion
    system
  • Ride the shock wave
  • Aerodynamics are Mach No. dependent
  • Fuel mass fractions
  • e0.58 for hydrogen fuelled vehicle
  • e0.7 for hydrocarbon fuelled vehicle
  • e0.9 for rockets

8
Quasi-1D Scramjet Propulsion Model
Flow From Inlet
Displacement Thickness Growth
Combustion
Area Change
Shear Stress
Ignition Delay
Heat Transfer
Injector
9
Quasi-1D Scramjet Propulsion Model
  • Set of ODEs used to describe scramjet
    propulsion.
  • 2-step chemistry model.
  • Skin friction and wall heat transfer included.
  • H2 and Jet A fuel options.
  • Idealised hypersonic inlet (with losses) used to
    supply combustor.
  • Lawrence Livermore ODEPACK Solver used for ODE
    solution.

10
T4 Experiment
Parallel Combustor
  • Scramjet model validated against shock tunnel
    data (T4, University of Queensland, Boyce et al.,
    2000).
  • Parallel and diverging combustor data used for
    validation study.
  • Good agreement obtained using an 88 combustion
    efficiency.
  • A conservative 50 combustion efficiency was
    used for trajectory modelling (for combustor
    losses).

Diverging Combustor
11
Common Design Parameters
  • GLOW 9300kg
  • 2 stage solid rocket booster
  • Stage 1 2420kg start mass, 1980kg propellant
  • Stage 2 4880kg start mass, 4000kg propellant
  • Cranked wing concept with aerodynamics taken from
    a NASA study
  • Rocket powered upper stage with performance based
    on the H2 upper stage

12
Software Models
  • Simulation environment
  • 3DOF dynamics model, rotating spheroidal earth
    model, 4th order gravitation model, MSISE 93
    atmosphere model
  • Target/constraints
  • Velocity stopping condition
  • Altitude and flight path angle targets for
    scramjet burn only
  • Parameterised vertical acceleration profile

13
Common Mission Parameters
  • Booster 1 burn
  • 10s burn, Alt 9.5km, Vel 550m/s
  • Coast
  • 45.4s, Alt 15.9km, Vel 295m/s
  • Booster 2 burn
  • 25s burn, Alt 19.6km, Vel 2411m/s
  • Coast
  • 44.6s, Alt 25.3km, Vel 2000m/s
  • --------------
  • Orbital stage
  • Two burns, Alt 200km, Vel 7784m/s

14
Mission ProfilesforHydrogen Fuelled Vehicle
15
Hydrogen Case - Altitude Profile
16
Hydrogen Case - Velocity Profile
17
Mission ProfilesforHydrocarbon Fuelled Vehicle
18
Hydrocarbon Case - Altitude Profile
19
Hydrocarbon Case - Velocity Profile
20
Payload Estimation
  • Mass and state at end of the scramjet burn
  • Scramjet mass fractions
  • Hydrogen fuelled waverider epropellant 0.58
  • Hydrocarbon fuelled waverider epropellant 0.7
  • Orbital stage
  • upper stage estructure 0.15
  • ?V requirement based on Hohmann transfer

21
Mass Breakdown
  • Hydrogen fuelled case
  • Initial mass 2000kg
  • Fuel mass 316kg
  • Structure mass 1000kg
  • Orbital stage mass 684kg
  • Payload to 200km circular 108.5kg
  • Payload mass fraction 1.16
  • Hydrocarbon fuelled case
  • Initial mass 2000kg
  • Fuel mass 258.8kg
  • Structure mass 918.3kg
  • Orbital stage mass 822.9kg
  • Payload to 200km circular 36kg
  • Payload mass fraction 0.38

22
Discussion
  • Payload mass fractions similar to rockets even
    though much higher Isp?
  • Considerably lower fuel mass fractions
  • i.e. more of stage mass is structure, compared to
    rockets
  • Structure is more expensive than fuel.
  • These systems need to be reusable to be
    financially viable

23
Discussion
  • Lighter scramjet stage for the hydrocarbon
    fuelled system
  • Hydrogen fuelled vehicle considerably higher
    payload capability than hydrocarbon fuelled case
  • Longer duration burn at higher Isp for H2 case
  • Better packing efficiency does not help the
    hydrocarbon vehicle as a large aerodynamic area
    is needed to maintain lift at high altitude so
    the vehicle cannot be made smaller.

24
Conclusions
  • Similar payload mass fractions to rockets
  • Therefore need to be reusable
  • Hydrocarbon fuelled case has lighter structure
    than hydrogen fuelled case
  • Better packing efficiency
  • Better packing efficiency cannot be utilised due
    to aerodynamic requirements

25
Questions?
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