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Mental Health in Schools: Becoming an Integrated Part of the School Improvement Agenda

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Title: Mental Health in Schools: Becoming an Integrated Part of the School Improvement Agenda


1
Mental Health in SchoolsBecoming an
Integrated Part of the School Improvement Agenda
Improving Schools, Engaging Students Leadership
Institute
  • The national Center for Mental Health in Schools
    at UCLA is co-directed by Howard Adelman and
    Linda Taylor and operates under the auspice of
    the School Mental Health Project in UCLAs Dept.
    of Psychology.
  • Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563
  • (310) 825-3634 Fax (310) 206-8716 E-mail
    smhp_at_ucla.edu
  • Website http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/
  • Support comes in part from the Office of
    Adolescent Health, Maternal and Child Health
    Bureau (Title V,
  • Social Security Act), Health Resources and
    Services Administration (Project U45 MC 00175),
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

2
  • The material in this power point presentation is
    drawn from the Center resource entitled
  • Mental Health in School School
  • Improvement Current Status,
  • Concerns, and New Directions
  • http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/mhbook/mhbooktoc
    .htm
  • References to support the points made
  • are available in that resource

3
  • Topics Covered
  • I Why Mental Health in Schools?
  • II Whats the Current Status of Mental Health
    in Schools?
  • III About Mental Health in Schools School
  • Improvement Policy and Practice
  • IV Becoming an Integrated Part of
  • School Improvement

4
  • Part IV
  • Becoming an Integrated Part
  • of School Improvement
  • gtJoining the Process for Developing a
  • Comprehensive System of Learning Supports
  • gtFundamental, Interrelated Concerns
  • gtgtIntervention Framework
  • gtgtInfrastructure Framework
  • gtgtPolicy Framework
  • gtNotes About Moving Forward

5
Joining the Process for Developing a
Comprehensive System of Learning Supports
  • As noted in Session III
  • gtSchools are not in the mental health or social
  • services business.
  • gtTheir mandate is to educate.
  • gtThus, they tend to view any activity not
    directly
  • related to instruction as a side show.

6
  • To counter all this and end the marginalization
    of mental health in schools, those interested in
    enhancing the role schools play in addressing
    mental health concerns must join with others in
    pursuing
  • (1) all MH and psychosocial interventions
    under an umbrella concept
  • (2) new directions that lead to development of
    a comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesion
    system for learning supports that is fully
    integrated into school improvement policy and
    practice.

7
  • Such a system focuses on
  • gtall students (not just some students)
  • gtaddressing barriers to learning and
  • teaching (not just safety and health
  • a comprehensive focus on addressing
  • barriers to student learning creates
  • safe and healthy schools and students)
  • gtre-engaging students in classroom
  • learning (not just minimizing behavior
  • problems)

8
  • Developing such a system requires weaving
    together the resources of the school and
    community (including the home) to establish an
    enabling or learning supports component that at
    all schools.

9
  • In the process, all narrow-band and clinical
    approaches are embedded within broad frameworks
    that expand current thinking about policy,
    research, and practice.
  • This session highlights three such frameworks
    that are shaping efforts to move in new
    directions.

10
  • Developing a System to Address Barriers to
    Learning and Teaching and Re-engage Students in
    Classroom Instruction
  • Four Fundamental and Interrelated Concerns

Policy Revision
Framing Interventions to Address Barriers to
Learning and Teaching into a Comprehensive
System of Interventions
Rethinking Organizational and Operational
Infrastructure
Developing Systemic Change Mechanisms for
Effective Implementation, Sustainability, and
Replication to Scale
11
  • It should be noted at the outset that developing
    a
  • Comprehensive system for addressing barriers to
  • Learning and teaching requires
  • more than outreach to link with community
    resources (and certainly more than adopting a
    school-linked services model)
  • more than coordination of school-owned services
  • more than coordination of school and community
    services
  • more than Family Resource Centers and Full
    Service School.

12
  • Intervention Framework
  • A Sequential Approach
  • Defining Learning Supports
  • Framing a Comprehensive System of Learning
    Supports
  • Major Examples of Intervention Activity in
    Content Arenas
  • Combined Continuum and Content Arenas

13
Meeting the needs of all students requires
gtpromoting assets gtpreventing problems
gtdealing with problems And doing so in
keeping with the principle of providing what is
needed in the least disruptive and restrictive
manner
14
  • This translates into a sequential
  • approach that at its foundation
  • involves enhancing the focus on
  • promoting healthy development
  • and preventing problems.

15
Promoting learning
Healthy Development plus Prevention of
Problems (System of Prevention)
as necessary
Intervening as early after onset of problems as
is feasible (System of Early Intervention)
as necessary
Specialized assistance for those with
severe, pervasive, or chronic problems (System of
Care)
16
  • Defining learning supports
  • To accomplish the essential public education goal
    of enabling all students to have an equal
    opportunity for success at school, research
    indicates the need for developing a
    comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive system
    of learning supports.
  • Learning supports are the resources, strategies,
    and practices that provide physical, social,
    emotional, and intellectual supports to directly
    address barriers to learning and teaching and
    re-engage disconnected students.
  • A comprehensive system of learning supports
    provides supportive interventions in classrooms
    and schoolwide and is fully integrated with
    efforts to improve instruction and management at
    a school.

17

Framing a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports to Address Barriers to Learning
18
Intervention Continuum Content

19
Continuum -- Interconnected Systems for
Meeting the Needs of All Students One key Facet
of a Learning Supports Component
School Resources (facilities, stakeholders,
programs, services)
Community Resources (facilities,
stakeholders, programs, services)
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems primary prevention
includes universal interventions (low end
need/low cost per individual programs)
Systems of Early Intervention early-after-onset
includes selective indicated
interventions (moderate need, moderate cost per
individual)
Systems of Care treatment/indicated
interventions for severe and chronic
problems (High end need/high cost per individual
programs)
20
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
21
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
22
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
23
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transitions
24
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
25
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
26
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
27
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Infrastructure gtleadership gtresource-
oriented mechanisms
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
28
Major Examples of Activity inEach of the Six
Basic Content Arenas
29
  • Classroom-Based Enabling
  • Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning
  • FOCUS
  • Classroom based efforts to enable learning
  • Prevent problems intervene as soon as problems
    appear
  • Enhance intrinsic motivation for learning
  • Re-engage students who have become disengaged
    from classroom learning

30
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports

31
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals
32
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development
33
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development Curricular
enrichment and adjunct programs
34
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development Curricular
enrichment and adjunct programs Classroom and
school-wide approaches used to create and
maintain a caring and supportive climate
35
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
FOCUS School-wide and classroom-based efforts
for gtresponding to crises gtminimizing the
impact of crises gtpreventing crises
36
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring immediate
assistance in emergencies so students can
resume learning
37
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring immediate
assistance in emergencies so students can
resume learning Providing Follow up care as
necessary
38
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning Providing Follow
up care as necessary Forming a
school-focused Crisis Team to formulate a
response plan and take leadership for developing
prevention programs
39
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning Providing Follow
up care as necessary Forming a
school-focused Crisis Team to formulate a
response plan and take leadership for developing
prevention programs Mobilizing staff,
students, and families to anticipate response
plans and recovery efforts
40
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning Providing Follow
up care as necessary Forming a
school-focused Crisis Team to formulate a
response plan and take leadership for developing
prevention programs Mobilizing staff,
students, and families to anticipate response
plans and recovery efforts Creating a caring
and safe learning environment
41
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning
Providing Follow up care as necessary
Forming a school-focused Crisis Team to
formulate a response plan and take leadership
for developing prevention programs
Mobilizing staff, students, and families
to anticipate response plans and recovery
efforts Creating a caring and
safe learning environment Working
with neighborhood schools and community to
integrate planning for response and
prevention
42
Support for Transitions FOCUS School-wide
and classroom-based efforts to gtenhance
acceptance and successful transitions gtprevent
transition problems gtuse transition periods to
reduce alienation gtuse transition periods to
increase positive attitudes/motivation toward
school and learning
43
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers
44
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch)
45
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs
46
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs
47
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs School-to-career/higher
education
48
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs School-to-career/higher
education Broad involvement of stakeholders in
planning for transitions
49
Home Involvement in Schooling FOCUS
School-wide classroom-based efforts to engage
the home in gtstrengthening the home
situation gtenhancing problem solving
capabilities gtsupporting student development and
learning gtstrengthening school and community
50
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family
51
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home
52
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making
53
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making Enhancing home support for
learning and development
54
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making Enhancing home support for
learning and development Recruiting families
to strengthen school and community
55
Community Outreach for Involvement and
Support (including Volunteers) FOCUS
Building linkages and collaborations to
strengthen students, schools, families, and
neighborhoods
56
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources
57
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement
58
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement Reaching out
to Students and Families Who Don't Come to
School Regularly Including Truants and
Dropouts
59
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement Reaching out
to Students and Families Who Don't Come to
School Regularly Including Truants and
Dropouts Connecting School and Community
Efforts to Promote Child and Youth
Development and a Sense of Community
60
Student and Family Assistance
FOCUS Specialized assistance provided
through personalized health and social service
programs
61
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways
62
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems
63
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
64
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective
65
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective Mechanisms for resource coordination
and integration to avoid duplication, fill
gaps, garner economies of scale, and enhance
effectiveness
66
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective Mechanisms for resource coordination
and integration to avoid duplication, fill
gaps, garner economies of scale, and enhance
effectiveness Enhancing stakeholder
awareness of programs and services
67
For more specific examples and mapping and
analysis self study surveys for each arena, see
the Centers online resource aid Guide to
resource mapping and management to address
barriers to learning An intervention for
systemic change
68
  • Combined Continuum and
    Content Arenas
  • Levels of Intervention

Systems for Promoting Healthy
Development
Preventing Problems
Systems for Early Intervention (Early after
problem onset
Systems of Care
Classroom-Focused Enabling
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for transitions
Content Arenas
Home Involvement in Schooling
Community Outreach/ Volunteers
Student Family Assistance
69
System of Learning Supports is Designed to
Produce a Declining Proportion of Students
Needing Special Assistance
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems
Levels
Systems for Early Intervention (early-after proble
m onset)
(a)
Systems of Care
(b)
Intervention Content Arenas
(c)
(d)
(e)
Specialized Assistance other intensive
interventions
(f)
Accommodations for differences disabilities
(a) Classroom-focused enabling (b) Support
for transitions (c) Home involvement in
schooling (d) Community outreach/volunteers (e)
Crisis/ emergency assistance and prevention
(f) Student and family assistance
70
  • The framework is meant to guide development of
  • a comprehensive system of learning supports as
  • a primary and essential component of school
  • improvement. Such an enabling component is
  • meant to
  • (1) address interfering factors
  • and
  • (2) re- engage students in classroom instruction

71
Whats Missing?
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
72
An Enabling or Learning Supports Component to
Address Barriers and Re-engage Students in
Classroom Instruction
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
  • Enabling
  • Component
  • Addressing
  • Interfering
  • Factors
  • (2) Re-engaging
  • Students in
  • Classroom
  • Instruction

Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
73
To Recap
School improvement planning for developing a
comprehensive system of learning supports to
address barriers to learning and teaching
requires (1) adoption of a umbrella framework
that can unify current efforts (2)
expansion of the framework for school
accountability to account for efforts to
enhance social and personal functioning
and address barriers to learning and teaching
74
To Recap
A comprehensive framework to guide development of
an enabling/learning supports component combines
a continuum of intervention with a discrete set
of content arenas. The resulting matrix provides
a mapping tool and a planning guide for
developing a comprehensive set of learning
supports.
75
Study Questions
gtWhat constitutes a full continuum of
interventions in providing learning supports?
gtWhy dont most schools strive to develop a
comprehensive system of learning supports?
76
Activity Looking at the schools you know
How close are they to having a comprehensive
system of learning supports? To answer this,
see the tool for mapping analyzing Learning
Supports Online at http//smhp.psych.ucla
.edu/summit2002/ tool20mapping20current20st
atus.pdf
77
Some Relevant References Resources
  • gtFrameworks for Systemic Transformation of
    Student and Learning Supports
    http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/systemic/framew
    orksforsystemictransformation.pdf
  • gtThe School Leader's Guide to Student Learning
    Supports New Directions for Addressing Barriers
    to Learning http//www.corwinpress.com/book.as
    px?pid11343

78
Next An overview of operational
infrastructure considerations
79
  • Infrastructure Framework
  • gtLevels for Infrastructure Development
  • gtKey Mechanisms for a Component
  • gtWhat the infrastructure look like at most
    schools
  • gtExample of an Integrated Infrastructure at the
  • School Level
  • gtConnecting the Feeder Pattern
  • gtSchool District Infrastructure
  • gtDeveloping a Learning Supports Resource Team
  • gt About an Effective School-Community
  • Collaborative

80
Developing a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports (an Enabling Component) involves
reworking the organizational and operational
infrastructure for gtschools gtfeeder
patterns gtdistricts (and departments of
education) gtschool-community
collaboratives gtstate departments and
USDOE In reworking infrastructure, it is
essential to remember Structure Follows
Function!
81
Key Mechanisms for a Component Administrative
Leader Staff Lead for Component Staff
Workgroups
82
What the student support infrastructure look
like at most schools
Instructional Component
Leadership for instruction
School Improvement Team
(Various teams and Work groups focused
on Improving instruction)
moderate problems
Management/Governance
Component
severe problems
Management/ Governance/ Administrator
Case- Oriented Mechanisms
(Various teams and Work groups focused
on management governance)
83
School Mechanisms for an Enabling or Learning
Supports Component
gtAdministrative Leader (e.g., 50 FTE
devoted to component) gtStaff Lead for
Component gtStaff Workgroups A key
infrastructure mechanism for ensuring
continuous analysis, planning, development,
evaluation and advocacy is a Learning
Supports Resource Team
84
Example of an Integrated Infrastructure at the
School Level
Instructional Component
Learning Supports or Enabling Component
Leadership for Learning Supports
Leadership for instruction
School Improvement Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
moderate problems
Management/Governance
Component
Management/ Governance Administrator
severe problems
Work Groups
Case- Oriented Mechanisms
Resource- Oriented Mechanisms
85
Leadership Beyond the School for Enhancing a
System of Learning Supports For a family of
schools (e.g., feeder pattern) 1-2
representatives from each School-Based Resource
Team Facilitator for a Multi-site Resource
Council At the district Level 1-2
representatives from each Complex Resource
Council High Level District Administrator
School Board Subcommittee Chair (Comparable
leadership at county, state, and federal levels)
86
  • Enhancing a System of Learning Supports
  • Connecting Resources Across a Family of Schools,
  • a District, and Community-Wide

Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
High Schools
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Middle Schools
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Elementary Schools
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Council
Learning Supports Resource Council
School District Resources, Management,
Governing Bodies
Community Resources, Management, Governing
Bodies
87
Prototype for an Integrated Infrastructure at the
District Level with Mechanisms for Learning
Supports That Are Comparable to Those for
Instruction
Board of Education
Superintendent
Subcommittees
Superintendents Cabinet
Leader for Learning Supports Component (e.g.,
assoc.sup.)
Leader for Instructional Component (e.g.,
assoc.sup.)
Schools Improving Planning Team
Learning supports Cabinet (e.g., component leader
and leads for all six content arenas)
Instructional Component Cabinet (e.g., component
leader and leads for all content areas
Leader for Management Governance Component (e.g.,
Assoc. Sup.)
Leads for Content Arenas Content Arena Work
Groups
Leads for Content Arenas2 Content Arena Work
Groups
Leads, Teams, and Work Groups Focused on
Governance/Management
88
Assign Leadership and Develop a Learning Supports
Resource Team
89
Whos at a School?
  • Often, schools have not generated a map of the
  • staff who are trying to address barriers to
    learning
  • and teaching.
  • Adapt the following list to fit a specific
    school
  • and then fill in names, what they do, and when.
  • (2) Share the final version with teachers,
    parents,
  • and other concerned stakeholders.
  • The staff listed are all potentially invaluable
    members
  • of a schools Learning Supports Resource Team

90
Learning Supports Staff at a School
gtAdministrative Leader for Learning
Supports gtSchool Psychologist gtSchool
Nurse gtPupil Services Attendance Counselor
gtSocial Worker gtCounselors gtDropout
Prevention Program Coordinator
gtTitle I and Bilingual Coordinators gtResource
and Special Education Teachers Other
important resources gtSchool-based Crisis
Team Members gtSchool Improvement Program
Planners gtCommunity Resources
Such a list should include a brief description
of programs and services and times available
91
A Learning Support Resource Team Schools say
We already have a team But is it
Resource-oriented?
What you also need is a a
Resource-Oriented Team (Focused
on all students and the resources, programs, and
systems to address barriers to learning promote
healthy development)
What you probably have is a
Case-Oriented Team (Focused on
specific individuals and discrete
services)
92
A Resource-oriented Team
A Case-oriented Team
Possibly called gtResource
Coordinating Team gtResource Coordinating
Council gtSchool Support Resource Team gtLearning
Support Resource Team
Sometimes called gtChild/Student Study
Team gtStudent Success Team gtStudent Assistance
Team gtTeacher Assistance Team gtIEP Team

93
A Resource-oriented Team
A Case-oriented Team
EXAMPLES OF
FUNCTIONS gtaggregating data across students
from teachers to analyze school
needs gtmapping resources gtanalyzing resources
gtenhancing resources gtprogram and system
planning/development gtredeploying resources
gtcoordinating-integrating resources gtsocial
"marketing"
EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS gttriage gtre
ferral gtcase monitoring/management gtcase progress
review gtcase reassessment
94
Can you define collaboration for me?
\ \ \
Sure! Collaboration is an unnatural act between
nonconsenting adults.
/
95
About Developing an Effective School-Community
Collaborative Too often, what is described as
a collaborative amounts to little more than a
monthly or quarterly meeting of a small and not
very empowered group of stakeholders. The
meeting involves sharing, discussion of ideas,
and expression of frustrations. Then, everyone
leaves and little is done between meetings.
96
Collaboration is not about meeting. It is
about pursuing specific functions and
accomplishing essential tasks. For a
school-community collaborative to be meaningful,
it must be organized with full understanding of
where schools fit in strengthening the community
and where the community fits in strengthening
the school. And, the collaborative must
establish an effective infrastructure
(remembering that structure follows function).
97
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system needs
98
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just services)
99
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just
services) gt analyzing resources
100
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just
services) gt analyzing resources gt program
system planning/development
101
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just
services) gt analyzing resources gt program
system planning/development gt redeploying
resources
102
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just
services) gt analyzing resources gt program
system planning/development gt redeploying
resources gt enhancing resource use and seeking
additional resources
103
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just
services) gt analyzing resources gt program
system planning/development gt redeploying
resources gt enhancing resource use and seeking
additional resources gt coordinating-integratin
g resources
104
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just
services) gt analyzing resources gt program
system planning/development gt redeploying
resources gt enhancing resource use and seeking
additional resources gt coordinating-integratin
g resources gt social marketing
105
About Collaborative Infrastructure Basic
Elements Who should be at the table?
steering gtfamilies group
gtschools gtcommunities collab.
body ad hoc work groups
Connect Collaboratives at All Levels
106
Expanded Elements
steering group standing
work group for pursuing operational daily
functions/tasks collab.
body ad hoc work
groups standing work groups for
pursuing process for pursuing programmatic
functions/tasks functions/tasks
107
To Recap Operational infrastructure at all
levels needs to be reworked to effectively
plan, develop, and implement a comprehensive
system of learning supports Current school
improvement guidelines provide opportunities to
expand planning to focus on development of a
comprehensive system of learning
supports Planning means little if there is no
dedicated leadership and workgroup mechanisms
to carry out the work on a regular basis
108
Study Question
What changes in current operational
infrastructure would enhance efforts to develop a
comprehensive system of learning supports?
109
Activity Looking at the schools you know
What Does the Operational Infrastructure Look
Like? In thinking about this, see the tool
entitled Infrastructure Is What We Have What
We Need? Online at
http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/summit2002/tool20infra
structure.pdf
110
Some Relevant References Resources
  • gtFrameworks for Systemic Transformation of
    Student and Learning Supports
    http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/systemic/framew
    orksforsystemictransformation.pdf
  • gtInfrastructure for Learning Supports at
    District, Regional, and State Offices
    http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/studentsupport/
    toolkit/aidk.pdf
  • gtDeveloping Resource-Oriented Mechanisms to
    Enhance Learning Supports http//smhp.psych.ucla.e
    du/pdfdocs/contedu/developing_resource_oriented-me
    chanisms.pdf
  • gtThe School Leader's Guide to Student Learning
    Supports New Directions for Addressing Barriers
    to Learning http//www.corwinpress.com/book.as
    px?pid11343

111
Next A policy perspective
112
Policy Framework
  • gtExpanding School Improvement Policy to Encompass
    an Enabling or Learning Supports Component
  • gt Expanding School Accountability to Encompass an
    Enabling or Learning Supports Component

113
School systems are not responsible for meeting
every need of their students. But . . .
when the need directly affects learning, the
school must meet the challenge. Carnegie Task
Force on Education
114
The Council of Chief State School Officers has
adopted the following as the organizations
mission statement CCSSO, through leadership,
advocacy, and service, assists chief state
school officers and their organizations
in achieving the vision of an American education
system that enables all children to succeed in
school, work, and life.
115
How Does School Improvement Policy and Practice
Need to be Expanded?
116
  • A Brief Overview
  • Schools and communities increasingly are being
    called on to meet the needs of all youngsters
    including those experiencing behavior, learning,
    and emotional problems.
  • The challenge for us all is to collaborate and
    maximize resources to strengthen young people,
    their families, and neighborhoods.

117
Currently, the situation is one where there is a
considerable amount of promising activity, but it
is implemented in fragmented and often highly
competitive ways. Of even greater import is the
fact that most of this activity is marginalized
in policy and practice, especially at school
sites.
118
  • The need is to enhance policy and practice
  • based on a unifying framework that is
  • comprehensive, multifaceted, and integrated.

119
For schools and communities, this means
developing, over time, a full continuum of
systemic interventions (not just integrated,
school-linked services) that encompass the three
intervention levels gtsystems for
promoting healthy development and
preventing problems gtsystems for responding
to problems as soon after onset as is
feasible gtsystems for providing intensive care
120
and, that encompasses content that
gtenhances classroom-based efforts to enable
learning gtprovides support for
transitions gtprovides prescribed student and
family assistance gtincreases home involvement
in schooling gtresponds to and prevents
crises gtoutreaches to increase community
involvement support
121
Building all this requires fully integrating the
above learning support frameworks into policy and
practice for school improvement.
122
It also requires rethinking infrastructure
at all levels.
123
and, financing all this requires (a) weaving
together school-owned resources and (b)
enhancing programs by integrating school
and community resources
124
The end product will be a fundamental
transformation of how the community and its
schools address barriers to learning and enhance
healthy development. And this should result
in gtbetter achievement for all, gta closing of
the achievement gap, gtschools being viewed as
key hubs in their neighborhood.
125
Moving from a Two- to a Three-component
Framework for School Improvement
Current State of Affairs
Direct Facilitation of
Learning Development
Student Family Assistance
Besides offering a small amount of school-owned
student "support services, schools outreach to
the community to add a few school-based/linked
services.
Instructional/ Developmental Component
Management Component
Governance and Resource Management
126
Moving from a Two- to a Three-component
Framework for School Improvement
Moving toward a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports
Direct Facilitation of Learning
Development
Addressing Barriers to Learning
Instructional/ Developmental Component
Learning Supports Component
Management Component
Governance and Resource Management
127
Policy Umbrella for School Improvement Planning
Related to Addressing Barriers to Learning
Addressing Barriers to
Learning/Teaching (Enabling or Learning
Supports Component)
Direct Facilitation of Learning
(Instructional Component)
Examples of Initiatives, programs and
services that belong under the umbrella
gtpositive behavioral supports gtprograms
for safe and drug free schools gtbi-lingual,
cultural, and other diversity programs gtcompensat
ory education programs gtfamily engagement
programs gtspecial education programs gtmandates
stemming from the No Child Left Behind Act
other federal programs
Governance and Resource Management (Management
Component)
128
Expanding the Framework for School Accountability
to Encompass an Enabling or Learning Supports
Component
High Standards for Academics
gtmeasures of cognitive achievements
High Standards for Learning/Development
Related to Social Personal Functioning
gtmeasures of engagement and social emotional
learning
Indicators of Positive Learning and
Development
"Community Report Cards" gtincreases
in positive indicators
gtdecreases in negative indicators
Benchmark Indicators of Progress in Addressing
Barriers (Re-)engaging Students in Classroom
Learning
High Standards for Enabling Learning and
Development gtmeasures of
effectiveness in addressing barriers, such as
gtincreased attendance family
involvement gtreduced tardies misbehavior and
bullying gtfewer inappropriate referrals for
specialized assistance special education
gtfewer suspensions dropouts
129
Study Question
To what degree does the current policy and
practice framework for student/learning supports
marginalize the work and contribute to ad hoc and
fragmented planning and development?
130
Activity Analyze current school improvement
guidelines to clarify what is and isnt included
to address barriers to learning and teaching.
How marginalized and fragmented is the focus on
student/learning supports?
131
Some Relevant References Resources
  • gtFrameworks for Systemic Transformation of
    Student and Learning Supports
    http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/systemic/framew
    orksforsystemictransformation.pdf
  • gtPolicy section toolkit
  • http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/toolkita.htm
  • gtThe School Leader's Guide to Student Learning
    Supports New Directions for Addressing Barriers
    to Learning http//www.corwinpress.com/book.aspx?p
    id11343

132
Notes About Moving Forward
  • Developing a comprehensive, multifaceted,
  • Integrated approach for addressing barriers to
  • learning requires
  • moving beyond piecemeal and fragmented activity
  • working to restructure, transform, and enhance
  • gtschool-owned programs and services
  • and
  • gtcommunity resources
  • weaving school community resources together

133
  • In doing so, the emphasis needs to be on
  • all school resources (e.g., compensatory
    education, special education, general funds,
    community resources)
  • all community resources (e.g., public and private
    agencies, families, businesses services,
    programs, facilities volunteers,
    professionals-in-training)

134
  • blending resources together in ways that evolve a
    comprehensive, integrated approach that can
    enhance effectiveness in addressing barriers to
    learning at a school
  • enhancing the role schools play in strengthening
    neighborhoods and communities

135
  • The end products are cohesive and potent
    school-community partnerships that create caring
    and supportive environments that maximize
    learning and well-being.

136
  • The real difficulty in changing
  • the course of any enterprise lies
  • not in developing new ideas
  • but in escaping old ones.
  • John Maynard Keynes

137
  • How do we get from here to there?
  • Is this your systemic change process?

138
  • To get beyond the miracle, see
  • Systemic Change for
  • School Improvement
  • http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/systemic/system
    icchange.pdf
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