THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: FROM ELITE PROTEST TO POPULAR REVOLT, 17631783 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: FROM ELITE PROTEST TO POPULAR REVOLT, 17631783 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 1451c6-YWM5M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: FROM ELITE PROTEST TO POPULAR REVOLT, 17631783

Description:

Americans proud to be part of Europe's most thriving, prosperous empire ... Americans interpret as a subtle ploy to get them to consume taxed tea ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:164
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: cmu73
Learn more at: http://wps.ablongman.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: FROM ELITE PROTEST TO POPULAR REVOLT, 17631783


1
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONFROM ELITE PROTEST TO
POPULAR REVOLT, 1763-1783
  • America Past and Present
  • Chapter 5

2
Structure of Colonial Society
  • 1760s an optimistic post-war period
  • striking ethnic and racial diversity
  • 60 of population under 21 years old
  • high level of post-war prosperity
  • wealth unevenly distributed
  • Americans proud to be part of Europes most
    thriving, prosperous empire

3
Breakdown of Political Trust
  • 1760--George III ascended throne
  • Suspicions on both sides of the Atlantic that
    Crown wished to enlarge its powers
  • Conflict over Parliamentary sovereignty
  • English officials assumed that Parliament must
    have ultimate authority
  • colonists tried to reserve internal colonial
    authority for their own legislatures

4
No Taxation Without Representation the American
Perspective
  • Colonists assume their legislatures equal in some
    ways to Parliament
  • Americans not represented at all in Parliament
  • British officials espoused virtual
    representation
  • Colonists insist only colonial assemblies could
    tax Americans

5
Ideas About Power and Virtue
  • John Locke, "Commonwealthmen" inform colonial
    political thought
  • All governments believed susceptible to
    corruption into tyranny
  • tyranny understood as any attempt to encroach
    upon the people's liberty
  • Virtuous citizens, alert to rights and
    determined to live free, resist tyranny

6
Eroding the Bonds of Empire
  • Large, expensive army left in America at the end
    of the Seven Years War
  • Colonists doubted the armys value
  • Pontiacs War
  • exposed the British armys weakness
  • revealed the desperate situation of Native
    Americans after withdrawal of French
  • Colonists determined to settle trans-Appalachian
    West

7
Paying off the National Debt
  • First minister George Grenville attempts to
    reduce Englands war debt
  • Revenue Act of 1764 (the Sugar Act)
  • Merchants and gentry protest, most colonists
    ignore

8
Colonial Products and Trade
9
Popular Protest
  • 1765--Stamp Act requires that colonists purchase
    stamp to validate documents
  • Unites the gentry and the mass of the population
    in protest
  • Stamp Act Congress petitions the King and
    Parliament for repeal
  • Protest includes mob riots, boycotts

10
Failed Attempts to Save the Empire
  • 1766--New administration in office, favors repeal
    of Stamp Act
  • Repeal tied to Declaratory Act of 1766
  • Parliament sovereign over America "in all cases
    whatsoever"
  • Controversy estranges colonists from English
    officials

11
Fueling the Crisis the Townshend Duties
  • Charles Townshend chancellor of the exchequer
  • 1767--Townshend Duties tax American imports of
    paper, lead, glass, and tea
  • American Board of Customs Commissioners created
    to collect duties

12
Fueling the Crisis Response to the Townshend
Duties
  • Sons of Liberty organize boycott of English goods
  • Circular letter from Massachusetts House of
    Representatives urges protest
  • 92 Massachusetts Representatives defy government
    order to rescind letter

13
Fatal Signs of Force
  • English government moves troops from frontier to
    Boston to save money
  • Tensions increased
  • March 5, 1770--English soldiers fired on Boston
    mob, killed five Americans
  • incident labeled the Boston Massacre
  • Paul Revere engraving a best-seller
  • Tensions defused by Lord North

14
Last Days of the Old Order, 1770-1773
  • 1770--New prime minister, Lord North, leads
    repeal of all duties except tea
  • 1770-1773 marked by tranquility
  • Customs collectors antagonize colonists
  • Radicals protest tea tax as violation of American
    rights
  • Committees of correspondence built up alternative
    political structure

15
The Final Provocation The Boston Tea Party
  • 1773--Parliament passes Tea Act
  • designed to help the East India Company by making
    its sale cheaper in America
  • Americans interpret as a subtle ploy to get them
    to consume taxed tea
  • December 1773--Boston protestors dump the tea
    into the harbor

16
The Final Provocation The Coercive Acts
  • Port of Boston closed until tea paid for
  • Massachusetts government restructured
  • upper house made appointive body
  • town meetings permitted only once per year
  • Accused officials to be tried in England, not
    America
  • Army authorized to quarter troops wherever needed

17
The Final Provocation The Quebec Act
  • Quebec Act establishes authoritarian government
    for Canada
  • Colonists interpret Act as final proof of
    Parliamentary plot to enslave America
  • Mainland colonies rally to support Boston,
    protest the British blockade

18
The Final Provocation The Ultimate Crisis
  • Parliaments insistence on supremacy would make
    rebellion unavoidable
  • Ben Franklin suggests Parliament secure colonial
    loyalty by renouncing claim to supremacy
  • Parliament rejects Franklins advice

19
(No Transcript)
20
Steps Toward Independence
  • September 1774--First Continental Congress in
    response to Coercive Acts
  • Congress commends Suffolk Resolves urging
    forcible resistance
  • Intercolonial Association halts commerce with
    Britain until Coercive Acts repealed

21
Shots Heard Around the World
  • April 19, 1775--skirmish breaks out in Lexington,
    Massachusetts
  • Fighting spread along road between Lexington,
    Concord, Boston
  • English retreat to Boston with heavy losses

22
Beginning The World over Again Early War Effort
  • June 1775--Congress appoints George Washington
    commander of Boston force
  • English government blockades colonial ports,
    hires German mercenaries
  • Royal governors urge slaves to take up arms
    against their masters

23
Beginning The World over Again Decision for
Independence
  • January 1776--Thomas Paines Common Sense urges
    independence
  • July 2, 1776--Independence voted by Congress
  • July 4--Declaration of Independence issued

24
Fighting for Independence
  • The British entered the war confident of a full
    and complete victory
  • English task
  • meet the challenge of a long supply line
  • use better-trained army to occupy territory
  • crush the popular spirit of independence
  • They underestimated the Americans commitment to
    their political ideology

25
The American Revolution, 1775-1781
26
Building a Professional Army
  • Washingtons task
  • defend territory as well as possible
  • keep his army intact
  • The Continental Army would be a fighting force
    and symbol of the republican cause
  • Militias role compel support for Revolution

27
Testing the American Will
  • American army routed on Long Island
  • New York City captured
  • Washington forced to retreat through New Jersey
  • British obtain thousands of Oaths of Allegiance
    in wake of retreat

28
"Times That Try Men's Souls"
  • December 25, 1776--Washington captures Trenton
  • January 3, 1777--Washington captures Princeton
  • Victories rekindle wartime patriotism
  • British consolidate forces, leave territory in
    patriot control

29
Victory in a Year of Defeat
  • British campaign for New York under John
    Burgoyne defeated at Saratoga
  • British capture Philadelphia under General
    William Howe
  • Washington's army winters at Valley Forge,
    Pennsylvania

30
The French Alliance
  • Saratoga prompts British suit for peace to
    prevent Franco-American alliance
  • Terms include repeal of all laws since 1763,
    respect for colonial taxation rights
  • February 1778--Americans ally with France to
    secure full independence

31
The Final Campaign
  • Spring 1780--English capture Savannah and
    Charleston
  • August 1780--American army routed at Camden,
    South Carolina
  • Nathaniel Greenes forces deal several defeats to
    English under Cornwallis
  • October 19, 1781--Cornwallis surrenders to
    Washingtons combined forces

32
The Loyalist Dilemma
  • Loyalists treated poorly by both sides
  • English never fully trusted Loyalists
  • Patriots seize property, imprison, execute some
  • More than 100,000 Loyalists leave U.S. at wars
    end

33
Loyalist Strongholds
34
Winning the Peace
  • Peace Treaty of 1783 negotiated by Franklin, John
    Adams, and John Jay
  • Terms secured by playing France against England,
    include
  • independence
  • U.S. gains all territory east of Mississippi
    River, between Canada and Florida
  • U.S. secures fishing rights in North Atlantic

35
Preserving Independence
  • The American Revolution begins construction of
    new form of government
  • Question remains a government of the elite or a
    government of the people?
About PowerShow.com