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B. Brief history (Marler 1967) C. My approach/outlook. II

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Title: B. Brief history (Marler 1967) C. My approach/outlook. II


1
Measuring Communication Signals in Lizards How
and Why
Rich Glor, Losos Lab, WUSTL
2
I. Introduction to communication A.
Definition B. Brief history (Marler 1967) C. My
approach/outlook II. Communication in
lizards A. Anolis carolinensis display
description (DeCourcy Jenssen 1994) 1.
Function 2. Ontogeny 3. Causation 4.
Evolution
3
A. Definition
Evolution hates definitions for every tidy
definition a biologist constructs, evolution will
have provided some exception. Bradbury
Vehrencamp 1998
Proposed Definition Information transfer from
sender to receiver
4
Wayne Lynch National Wildlife Federation
e.g., Tuttle Ryan 1981
5
Nature 2004
Nature 2004
6
Starring Greg Pryor, University of Florida (more
specifically, his toe), an unidentified male
Anolis sagrei
7
Revised Definition Communication is the
phenomenon of one organism producing a signal
that, when responded to by another organism,
confers some advantage (or the statistical
probability of it) to the signaler Burghardt 1970
Signal
Sender Receiver
Environment
Decision Response
8
Signal
Sender Receiver
Environment
Decision Response
Signals vs. Cues Receivers vs. Eavesdroppers
9
B. Brief history
Animal communication as a scientific discipline
has a recent past ?Lorenz Ethologists 1940s
-60s ?Tinbergen NATURE/Instinct ?Von
Frisch Umvelt
10
In contrast to ?Pavlov Behaviorists 1890s
-1960s ?Watson NURTURE/Learning ?Skinn
er Experimental Control
11
Definitions of communication 1950s-60s ? For
the survival of the species
Signaler/receiver cooperation 1960s-80s ?
Individual benefit Signaler/receiver
competition 1980s-present ? Synthesis
Honest and dishonest signals
Context-dependent decision making at
the individual level
12
Dugatkin 2004
Structure/Function relationships between signal
mode and environment
13
Marler 1967
14
C. My approach/outlook
Tinbergens four questions (Tinbergen 1963)
Function Ontogeny Causation Evolution
N. Tinbergen 1907-1988
15
II. Communication in lizards
16
Anolis carolinensis range (U.S.)
Modified from Conant Collins, 1998
  • Huge genus only species endemic to North
    America
  • Polygynous social organization
  • Seasonal breeders ( April-July)
  • Females lay single-egg clutches at weekly
    intervals
  • No parental care
  • Communication via headbobbing displays
  • Excellent field and laboratory model

17
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18
Anolis Communication (Jenssen, 1977, 1978)
Headbobbing displays are body movements which
raise and lower the head and dewlap Headbobbing
displays can be divided into core and
modifier components The core component is the
display type a species-specific headbobbing
pattern that is performed predictably across
all displays of the same type Display modifiers
are postures or movements added to the display
type, but they are neither species-specific nor
predictably associated with any particular
display type
19
A. Anolis carolinensis display description (DeCour
cy Jenssen 1994)
20
Display Action Pattern (DAP-)Graphing
Charles C. Carpenter (e.g., Carpenter Grubitz
1961)
21
Anolis carolinensis DAP-graph
A B C
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10
HEAD AMPLITUDE
1 2 5 6
7 8 9 10
5 6 7 8 9
10
0.0 0.5
1.0 1.5
2.0
DISPLAY DURATION (s)
22
The problem of function-labeling
Longstanding concern widespread
problem Similar to problem of anthropomorphism
One behavior ? many functions One function ?
many behaviors Anolis carolinensis signaling
repertoire good cautionary tale ? Dont name
the behavior by the context in which it occurs!
23
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24
An overview of subsequent A. carolinensis
display work, via Tinbergens four questions
Function examination of sex differences in
structure and use Ontogeny display
description through development Causation
proximate mediators, in this case, steroids (T)
Evolution population-level analysis of
structure
25
1. Function
  • Adult males and females use the same three
    stereotyped
  • display types

Jenssen, Orrell, Lovern 2000
26
Sex Differences in Adult Display Use
Nunez, Jenssen, Ersland, 1997 Jenssen,
Orrell, Lovern, 2000
27
More Sex Differences in Adult Display Use
Males Females
Advertisement Displays YES
NO Territory Patrol Displays YES
NO Ritualized Aggression YES
NO Dewlap in Courtship
YES NO Type C in
Courtship YES NO Display Modifiers YES
FEW
Nunez, Jenssen, Ersland 1997, Jenssen, Orrell,
Lovern 2000, Orrell Jenssen 2003
28
Also Jenssen, Greenberg, Hovde 1995 Jenssen
Nunez 1998 Jenssen, Lovern, Congdon 2001
29
2. Ontogeny
30
Juvenile Display Structure
  • Juvenile males and females can display at
    hatching
  • Juvenile display structure does not differ by sex
  • Juvenile and adult display structure are the same
  • BUT stereotypy differs

Lovern Jenssen 2003
31
Juvenile Display Use
N60 juveniles, 515 displays
Size class H 15.7, P 0.001

N30 each sex
Lovern Jenssen, 2001
32
Juvenile Display Use -- Continued
Unlike Adults
  • Social context has no effect on display type use
  • No advertisement displays, patrolling displays,
  • ritualized aggression, courtship

Lovern Jenssen, 2001, 2003
33
3. Causation
34
Background on Steroids
  • Major class of hormones highly evolutionarily
    conserved
  • Primarily synthesized by the gonads and adrenal
    glands
  • Circulate in bloodstream affect target tissues
    throughout
  • body via binding to steroid-specific
    receptors and
  • subsequent modification of gene activity
  • Very small (0.5-1.0 pg) quantities can be
    reliably measured --
  • from a variety of tissue types -- by
    radioimmunoassay (RIA)
  • Sex steroids (androgens and estrogens) play
    major roles
  • in sexual differentiation and adult
    reproductive function

35
Juvenile and Adult T Comparison
P lt 0.001

ADULTS JUVENILES

N 8 50
21 44
Lovern, McNabb, Jenssen, 2001
36
Juvenile T-Implant Study
P lt 0.001
BLANK IMPLANTS T IMPLANTS
a
a
b
c
N 6 6
8 6
Lovern, McNabb, Jenssen, 2001
37
T Implant Study Results
Lovern, McNabb, Jenssen, 2001
38
Causation Sexual dimorphisms in adult behavior
likely arise through underlying physiological
differences between males and females that
mediate the expression of behavior, rather
than through fundamental sex differences in the
ability to perform sexually dimorphic behaviors.
39
4. Evolution
Comparisons of Temporal Display Structure across
Contexts and Populations in Male Anolis
carolinensis Signal Stability or Lability?
Lovern, Jenssen, Orrell, Tuchak 1999
40
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41
Objectives
To determine if males from three geographically
distinct populations possess the same display
types To determine if males vary the temporal
structure of display types (i.e., intra-display
structure) across contexts, populations
  • Hypothesis Due to recent founding of Hawaii
    population
  • (ca. 1950), and dramatic climatic differences
    found there,
  • we expected males in this population to express
    the highest
  • degree of display type variability, potentially
    due to founder
  • effects, genetic drift, and/or unique selective
    pressures of a
  • tropical environment

42
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43
Results I Do Male Anolis carolinensis from
Different Populations Possess the Same Display
Types? YES
Nearest Neighbor Discriminant Analysis
GA 100 (96) FL 99.5 (92) HI 100 (100)
44
Results II Do Male Anolis carolinensis Vary
Display Type Structure across Populations? MAYBE..
.
Intra-display structure
Among GA, FL, and HI populations, total display
duration was not significantly different for any
display type However, 18/24 display units were
significantly different Display Type A
6/10 Display Type B 7/8 Display Type C 5/6
45
Sources of Variation Nested ANOVA
46
Overall Similarity Cluster Analysis
47
Conclusions
Male Anolis carolinensis use all display types
(A, B, C) in the field and lab, and in all
contexts display type structure is unaffected by
these parameters Males from three distinct
populations (GA, FL, HI) possess the same three
highly stereotyped -- but statistically
distinguishable -- display types in their
repertoires Within relatively small total
variance, among- and within-individual
differences account for more of the existing
variance than does population or context
Overall, male Anolis carolinensis show display
type stability males from HI show no evidence of
increased display lability resulting from
potential genetic and/or environmental influences
from recent colonization of a novel habitat
48
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