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TCPIP Application and Transport

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Title: TCPIP Application and Transport


1
TCP/IP Application and Transport
  • CPE302 TCP/IP Network Lab 2004
  • Dome Potikanond
  • Sakgasit Ramingwong

2
TCP/IP Application and Transport
  • TCP/IP Transport Layer
  • TCP/IP Application Layer

3
Transport Layer
4
Introduction to TCP/IP Transport Layer
  • The primary duties
  • Transport and regulate the flow of information
    from the source to the destination, reliably and
    accurately
  • Segmentation of upper-layer application data
  • Establishment of end-to-end operations
  • Transport of segments from one end host to
    another end host
  • Flow control provided by sliding windows
  • Reliability provided by sequence numbers and
    acknowledgments

5
Flow Control
  • Flow control avoids the problem of a transmitting
    host overflowing the buffers in the receiving
    host
  • TCP provides the mechanism for flow control by
    allowing the sending and receiving host to
    communicate
  • The two hosts then establish a data-transfer rate
    that is agreeable to both

6
Flow Control
7
Session Establishment
  • Transport functionality is accomplished on a
    segment-by-segment basis (first-come,
    first-served)
  • The segments can be routed to the same or
    different destinations
  • The session is connection-oriented

8
Establishing a Connection with a Peer System
9
Establishing a Connection with a Peer System
10
Establishing a Connection with a Peer System
11
Three-Way Handshake
  • Initializing a connection
  • the two hosts must synchronize their Initial
    Sequence Numbers (ISNs) by exchanging of
    connection establishing segments that carry a
    control bit called SYN, for synchronize, and the
    ISNs
  • Segments that carry the SYN bit are also called
    SYNs
  • The synchronization requires each side to send
    its own initial sequence number and to receive a
    confirmation of exchange in an acknowledgment
    (ACK) from the other side
  • Each side must also receive the INS from the
    other side and send a confirming ACK

12
Three-Way Handshake
A?B SYN(A) initial sequence number is X ACK
number is 0 SYN bit is set ACK bit is not set
B?A ACK(A) sequence number is X 1, (B)
initial sequence number is Y SYN bit is set ACK
bit is set
A?B ACK(B) sequence number is Y 1, (A)
sequence number is X 1 SYN bit is not set ACK
bit is set
13
Windowing
  • Small data packets for preventing protocol
    failure
  • Expectational acknowledgements
  • Available during lifetime of the connection

14
TCP Basic Window
15
TCP Sliding Window
16
Acknowledgement
  • Positive acknowledgment with retransmission is
    one technique that guarantees reliable delivery
    of data
  • A recipient will send back an acknowledgment
    message to the source when the data is received
  • The sender keeps a record of each data packet
    (TCP segment), that it sends and expects an
    acknowledgment
  • The sender also starts a timer when it sends a
    segment and will retransmit a segment if the
    timer expires before an acknowledgment arrive

17
TCP Sliding Window
18
TCP Sequence and Acknowledgement
19
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  • Connection-oriented
  • Layer 4
  • Full-duplex data transmission
  • The protocols that use TCP include
  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
  • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • Telnet

20
TCP Segment Format
21
TCP Segment
  • The following are the definitions of the fields
    in the TCP segment
  • Source port Number of the calling port
  • Destination port Number of the called port
  • Sequence number Number used to ensure correct
    sequencing of the arriving data
  • Acknowledgment number Next expected TCP octet
  • HLEN Number of 32-bit words in the header
  • Reserved Set to zero
  • Code bits Control functions, such as setup and
    termination of a session
  • Window Number of octets that the sender is
    willing to accept
  • Checksum Calculated checksum of the header and
    data fields
  • Urgent pointer Indicates the end of the urgent
    data
  • Option One option currently defined, maximum
    TCP segment size
  • Data Upper-layer protocol data

22
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Connectionless
  • Layer 4
  • No windowing or acknowledgments
  • The protocols that use UDP include
  • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)
  • SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol)
  • DNS (Domain Name System)

23
UDP Segment Format
24
UDP Segment
  • The following are the definitions of the fields
    in the UDP segment
  • Source port Number of the calling port
  • Destination port Number of the called port
  • Length Number of bytes including header and
    data
  • Checksum Calculated checksum of the header and
    data fields
  • Data Upper-layer protocol data

25
TCP and UDP Port Number
  • Issued by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
    (IANA)
  • Numbers below 1024 are considered well-known
    ports numbers
  • Numbers above 1024 are dynamically assigned ports
    numbers
  • Registered port numbers are those registered for
    vendor-specific applications. Most of these are
    above 1024
  • MSN?, ICQ?, SSH?, HTTPS?

26
Port Numbers
27
Port Numbers
28
Application Layer
29
Introduction to TCP/IP Application Layer
  • Comprise session, presentation and application
    layers from the OSI model
  • The TCP/IP application layer protocols include
    the following applications
  • Domain Name System (DNS)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  • Telnet

30
Application Layer
31
Domain Naming System (DNS)
  • Used on the Internet for translating names of
    domains and their publicly advertised network
    nodes into IP addresses
  • There are more than 200 top-level domains on the
    Internet, examples of which include the
    following
  • .us United States
  • .uk United Kingdom
  • .th - Thailand
  • There are also generic names, which examples
    include the following
  • .edu educational sites
  • .com commercial sites
  • .gov government sites
  • .org non-profit sites
  • .net network service
  • .mil, .int, .info, .biz, .tv

32
File Transfer Protocol (FTP and TFTP)
  • FTP
  • Connection-oriented
  • TCP
  • Transfer files from one computer to another by
    copying and moving files from servers to clients,
    and from clients to servers
  • TFTP
  • Connectionless
  • UDP
  • Used on the router to transfer configuration
    files and Cisco IOS images and to transfer files
    between systems that support TFTP

33
FTP Application
34
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  • World Wide Web
  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
  • http//www.doc.eng.cmu.ac.th/course/cpe302/

35
URL
36
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • Send and receive mail between mail servers
  • Transports email messages in ASCII format using
    TCP
  • The most popular mail client protocols are POP3
    and IMAP4
  • MS Outlook
  • Mozilla Thunderbird
  • Eudora pro

37
Sending E-mail
38
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  • Facilitates the exchange of management
    information between network devices
  • Manage network performance
  • Find and solve network problems
  • Plan for network growth
  • UDP

39
SNMP
  • An SNMP managed network consists of the following
    three key components
  • Network management system (NMS)
  • NMS executes applications that monitor and
    control managed devices
  • Managed devices
  • Network nodes that contain an SNMP agent and that
    reside on a managed network
  • Routers, access servers, switches, and bridges,
    hubs, computee, or printers.
  • Agents
  • Network-management software modules that reside
    in managed devices
  • An agent has local knowledge of management
    information and translates that information into
    a form compatible with SNMP.

40
SNMP-Managed Network
41
Telnet
  • Provides the ability to login to a remote
    Internet host that is running a Telnet server
    application and then to execute commands from the
    command line
  • Telnet client is referred to as a local host
  • Telnet server, which uses special software called
    a daemon, is referred to as a remote host

42
Telnet
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