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Coastal Ocean Observation Lab

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Title: Coastal Ocean Observation Lab


1
Coastal Ocean Modeling, Observation, and
Prediction
Innovating Ocean Science and Technology for a
Healthy Planet 247 365 days a year
Coastal Ocean Observation Lab Regional Ocean
Prediction Education and Outreach
Coastal Ocean Observation Lab http//marine.rutger
s.edu/cool
Regional Ocean Prediction http//marine.rutgers.e
du/po
Education Outreach http//coolclassroom.org
Coastal Observation and Prediction Sponsors
2
Coastal Ocean Observation Lab Operations
Center The COOLRoom
Collaboration Table
A Stommel View of the Ocean
Research Ops Command Control Station
CODAR Network
Glider Fleet
L/X-Band Satellite Systems
3
ONR MURI REA 2006-2010
NSF LaTTE 2004-2006
NSF MSF 2006-2007
ONR SW06 2005-2006
ONR CPSE HyCODE 1998-2001
Observatory-Enabled Collaborative Research
Campaigns in the Mid-Atlantic Bight with the
scales of study moving offshore and increasing
over time.
4
Using water mass identification techniques, 3
major events dominate MAB shelf productivity
which are coastal upwelling, rivers, and outer
shelf prod.
ANNUAL CHLOROPHYLL A FOR THE MAB
Water mass identification
Rivers (high CDOM Chl)
Coastal Bloom (high Chl)
150
Rivers
Winter
Winter
Winter
100
mg Chl a m-3
50
0
1998
2000
2002
2004
Year
5
MAB dynamics is dominated by the seasonal
stratification northward extension warm
oligotrophic water
ANNUAL CHLOROPHYLL A FOR THE MAB
Xu et al. in prep
Mar.
Jan.
Apr.
Feb.
May
Jun.
Jul.
Aug.
Dec.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
6
05/2005
03/2004
10/2003
06/2004
10/2005
10/2005
06/2005
11/2003
07/2004
03/2004
11/2003
04/2004
11/2005
07/2005
07/2004
07/2005
01/2005
08/2004
12/2003
04/2004
01/2006
02/2005
01/2004
08/2004
05/2004
01/2004
05/2004
02/2005
04/2006
09/2004
05/2004
09/2004
04/2006
03/2005
03/2005
06/2004
10/2004
05/2006
Castaleo et al. (JGR)
7
Productivity for the shelf follows the
stratification
Xu et al. in prep
Jan.
Mar.
Apr.
Feb.
May
Jun.
Jul.
Aug.
Dec.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
8
After stratification phytoplankton on the shelf
is largely associated with a subsurface
chlorophyll maximum. The pycnocline so strong
even tropical storms or hurricanes cannot disrupt
it.
9
Changes observed on MAB in 1990s with shelf
waters in 1990s about 1 degree Warmer and 0.25
units fresher. Satellite EOF show large change
after El Nino.
Variability in Shelf waters during 1990s due
largely from transport of Scotian Shelf water and
Slope waters.
El Nino
First mode of EOF
Mountain JGR 2002
These changes could not be explained by
increases in precipitation
Xu et al. in prep
10
Nearshore coastal productivity dominated by the
summer upwelling which is correlated with the
three recurrent regions of hypoxia
?
CODAR SST
Observatory Finds Upwelling Eddies
Warsh NOAA 1989
Three Southern Low DO Regions Formation is
associated flow over irregular bottom
topography Schofield et al. Oce. Engin.
2002, Song et al. 2002 Glenn et al. JGR 2004
Models Used to Explain Why
11
Nearshore coastal productivity dominated by the
summer upwelling which is correlated with the
three recurrent regions of hypoxia
Barnegat
Cape May
12
15m
6
Towed-ADCP
POC represents potentially 182 µmol
oxygen/kg Upwelling can account For spatially
distribution of recurrent upwelling eddies
13
Consistent with the phytoplankton bloom link is
that there is enhanced detritus under the
nearshore upwelling enhanced blooms capable of
fueling hypoxia
Depth (m)
A) 2001
B)
C)
detritus (440 nm)
5
10
15
20
5
10
15
20
Distance Offshore (kilomter)
14
Upwelling does not account for the northernmost
recurrent hypoxic zone. The role of the Hudson
river was studied during LATTE program.
To quantify mixing and the rates that biological
and chemical processes transform material in
a Buoyant Urban Coastal Plume
  • Biological production rates
  • and community composition
  • Zooplankton community
  • response
  • Bioavailability and bio-
  • accumulation of metals
  • CDOM photobleaching rates

New York City
Downwelling Wind
Upwelling Wind
Link these rates to wind forced changes in the
structure of the plume.
Geyer and Fong
15
The River outflow strongly influenced by the
tides and local winds
Positioning the Cape Hatteras to inject dye in an
ebb tidal pulse
0400
0600
1000
0800
16
Observatory View of the Hudson River Plume
Hudson delivers deliver water highly enriched in
organic matter to the coastal ocean that is
extremely turbid.
View of the Ocean from the COOLroom
17
Outflow forms the bulge of recirulating water.
Takes 4-5 days to form, nutrients are depleted in
just about one week.
18
Recirculation of material provides an ideal
incubator for phytoplankton. This turbid layer
enhances the stratification of the upper layer.
Drifters Recirculate
Observatory Finds The Frazer Eddy!
Hudson River
Oxygen Drops
Large Phytoplankton Dominate
19
Impact of buoyant plume turbidity in the water
column stratification. ROMS model run using
standard parameterization versus the measured
river turbidity
Standard
Day 0
Day 18
Day 19
Day 15
Measured River
Day 18
Day 19
Day 15
Day 0
20
Associated with the river is some unique urban
signatures
Vietnam Agent Orange
Dioxin in surface sediments
21
Urban signals are enhanced in the plume
Particulate copper (?20 ?m) concentrations
(nmol/L) April, 2005
Reinfelder et al. In Prep
22
Urban signals are enhanced in the plume
Copper concentrations (nmol/g) in plume
phytoplankton (?20 ?m) April, 2005
Reinfelder et al. In Prep
23
Urban signals are enhanced in the plume
Copper in plume zooplankton April, 2005
Reinfelder et al. In Prep
24
Transport of these materials is offshore making a
direct conduit to the outer shelf.
Satellite SST
25
LaTTE 2005 -- After Luring the Cape Hatteras
Offshore.
Shipboard Salinity Section Across the NJ Coastal
Current and the HSV Highway
The survey began on the Highway. We were near
the glider when it surfaced. We saw currents
ripping southward in a 10 m thick layer of
freshwater along the highway -- perhaps the most
significant freshwater transport we saw all
week. Perhaps the most perplexing to me
is the Highway and why there has been a lack of
a strong coastally trapped flow this week.
--- Bob Chant aboard the Cape Hatteras, April
21, 2005
26
Is this offshore transport a regular feature and
how far offshore can it extend?
  • Top 5 Discharge Events
  • Since 1918
  • 3/21/1936 3955
  • 3/16/1977 3438
  • 1/22/1996 3201
  • 9/20/1938 3171
  • 6/29/2006 3167

Summer Rain
LaTTE Spring Freshet
5 Albanys Wettest June on Record since 1795
Hudson River Watershed
2006
27
The transport can extend to the outer shelf,
delivering buoyant water and associated urban
signals offshore
  • On July 26
  • 10 Drifters Deployed
  • 3 Clusters
  • Cross-Shelf Line
  • Hudson Shelf Valley

US Coast Guard SAROPS Testbed
28
Deploy the Glider Fleet
USCG Drifters
RU10
RU01
RU11
RU12
RU09
OSU Jane
29
Check the Salinities
30
Salinity
31
The across the shelf transport is then influenced
by passage of warm core rings
32
Conclusions Hypoxia/anoxia on MAB
associated With summer upwelling and Hudson river
plume The buoyant plumes have significant cross
shore transports These plumes carry near
shore signals to outer shelf Shelf shows major
Changes in the 90s Punctuated by the El Nino
in 1996-97
Where are going? -Going regional baby -With 1000
km of deployed operating CODAR -Redundant
satellite receiving stations -fleets of
Interstate Gliders -Ensembles of POM, ROMs, and
HOPs
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