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History of Psychology

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Title: History of Psychology


1
History of Psychology
  • Chapter 8
  • Applied Psychology The Legacy of Functionalism

2
I. The Growth of Psychology in the United States
  • A. Wundt's impact
  • 1. American psychology guided by Darwin and
    Galton
  • 2. Wundt's American students did not replicate
    his psychology
  • 3. Wundt's and Titchener's systems without
    practical applications
  • 4. American pragmatism concomitant with rise of
    functionalism

3
The Growth of Psychology in the United States
  • B. Journal articles in 1900
  • 1. 25 applied
  • 2. 3 involved introspection
  • C. Laboratories
  • 1. 1880 none
  • 2. 1900 42

4
The Growth of Psychology in the United States
  • D. Dominance in numbers
  • 1. 1903 more PhDs in psychology than in any
    science other than chemistry, zoology, and
    physics
  • 2. 1913 United States had more of the world's
    leading psychologists than any other country

5
The Growth of Psychology in the United States
  • E. Publication language
  • 1910 50 written in German
  • 30 in English
  • 1933 52 written in English
  • 14 in German
  • F. Popularity
  • 1. 1904 World's Fair speakers included
    Titchener, Morgan, Janet, Hall, Watson

6
II. Economic Influences on Applied Psychology
  • A. 1900 more Ph.Ds laboratories
  • 1. applied work necessary for an income
  • 2. applied work necessary to supplement academic
    salary
  • B. Pressure to prove psychology's value
  • 1. to administrators and legislators for funding
  • 2. to the public

7
Economic Influences on Applied Psychology
  • C. Opportunity
  • 1. dramatic increase in public school enrollments
  • 2. education became big business

8
III. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • A. Hall's career
  • 1 .first American doctoral degree in psychology
  • 2. first (second) American student in the first
    year of the first psychology laboratory

Stanley Hall
9
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • 3. began first psychology laboratory in the
    United States
  • 4. began first American journal of psychology
  • 5. first president of Clark and APA
  • 6. one of the first applied psychologists

10
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • B. halls life
  • 1. Interested in philosophy evolutionary theory
  • 2. became a tutor in English at Harvard, did
    research at the medical school PhD in 1878
  • 3. University of Leipzig was Wundt's student,
    knew Fechner, did physiological research
  • 4. United States lectures on application of
    psychology to education

11
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • 5. Professor at Johns Hopkins University
  • a. established first American psychology
    laboratory (1883)
  • b. his students Dewey and Cattell
  • 6. founded Journal of genetic Psychology, Journal
    of applied Psychology, and Journal of religious
    Psychology
  • 7. 1887 founded American Journal of psychology
  • a. 1st American Journal
  • b. an area for theoretical and experimental
    ideas

12
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • 8. 1888 first president of Clark University
  • a. preferred to develop a graduate institution
  • b. receptive to women and minority students at
    graduate level and to Jewish faculty
  • c. Francis Cecil Sumner - first African American
    to earn a Ph.D. in psychology (Clark University
    in1920, became chair of the psychology department
    at Howard University in 1928

13
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • 9. founded APA and was 1st APA president
  • 10. early interest in psychoanalysis invited
    Freud and Jung to celebrate Clark Universitys
    20th anniversary
  • 11. 81 doctorates were awarded in psychology at
    Clark during his 36 years there.

14
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • C. Evolution as framework for human development
  • 1. contributed more to educational psychology
    than to experimental psychology
  • 2. a genetic psychologist study of childhood is
    the core of his psychology

15
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • 3. extensive use of questionnaires
  • 4. child study movement
  • a. established the empirical study of the child
  • b. established concept of psychological
    development

16
Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
  • 5. 1904 Adolescence
  • a. his most influential work
  • b. recapitulation theory of psychological
    development
  • It means that the psychological development of
    children repeats the history of the human race.
  • 6. 1922 Senescence (first large survey of
    psychology of elderly)

17
IV. James Cattell (1860-1944)
  • A. Cattell's life
  • 1. Born in Pennsylvania
  • 2. graduate work Gottingen, then Leipzig with
    Wundt

James Cattell
18
James Cattell (1860-1944)
  • 3. 1882 fellowship at Johns Hopkins
  • a. major interest philosophy
  • b. interest in psychology due to experiments with
    drugs
  • c. took Hall's lab course
  • d. began reaction-time research
  • 4. 1883 return to Leipzig
  • a. lab assistant to Wundt
  • b. PhD in 1886

19
James Cattell (1860-1944)
  • 4. taught in United States, then at Cambridge
    met Galton
  • 5. one of first in United States to stress
    quantification, ranking, ratings
  • a. developed ranking method
  • b. first psychologist to teach statistical
    analysis of experimental results
  • c. encouraged the use of large groups of subjects

20
James Cattell (1860-1944)
  • 6. interested in Galton's eugenics
  • 7. 1888 professor of psychology at University of
    Pennsylvania
  • 8. 1894 began Psychological Review
  • 9. other books and journals

21
James Cattell (1860-1944)
  • 10. 1891 professor of psychology and chair at
    Columbia University
  • 11. at Columbia
  • a. more PhDs in psychology than anywhere else in
    United States
  • b. emphasized independent research by graduate
    students
  • c. urged increased faculty involved university
    decision

22
James Cattell (1860-1944)
  • 12. 1917 dismissed on grounds of disloyalty to
    United States
  • 13. 1921 organized Psychological Corporation,
    promoting applied psychology as a business

23
James Cattell (1860-1944)
  • C. Mental testing
  • 1 .1890 coined term mental tests
  • 2. his intelligence tests
  • elementary sensorimotor measurements
  • 3. 1901 concluded such tests not valid
    predictors of intelligence

24
James Cattell (1860-1944)
  • D. Comment
  • 1. strongest impact
  • as organizer, executive, administrator, and link
    to scientific community
  • 2. contributed through his students
  • Robert Woodworth E. L. Thorndike
  • 3. reinforced functionalism

25
V. The Psychological Testing Movement Alfred
Binet (1857-1911)
  • A. Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
  • 1. self-taught psychologist
  • 2. first true psychological test of mental
    ability
  • 3. provided effective measure of cognitive
    abilities

26
V. The Psychological Testing Movement Alfred
Binet (1857-1911)
  • 4. initiated modern intelligence testing
  • 5. cognitive functions reflect intelligence,
    sensorirnotor responses do not
  • 6. Binet and Simon test
  • a. 30 problems
  • b. ascending difficulty
  • c. foci judgment, comprehension, reasoning

27
V. The Psychological Testing Movement Alfred
Binet (1857-1911)
  • 7. mental age concept
  • The age at which children of average ability can
    perform certain tasks
  • 8. Progress in intelligent test in United States
  • a. 1908 Henry Goddard translated Binet test was
    from French to English
  • b. 1916 Lewis Terman developed Stanford-Binet
    test

28
V. The Psychological Testing Movement others
  • A. The impact of World War I
  • 1. needed a group test to assign people to the
    suitable tasks
  • 2. Robert Yerkes urged to develop a group
    intelligent test
  • 3. WWI ended before a group test developed.
    However, it enhanced publicity of psychological
    testing.

29
V. The Psychological Testing Movement others
  • B. The impact of educational needs
  • IQ scores became the most important criterion for
    student placement and advancement
  • Other tests for cognitive functioning

30
V. The Psychological Testing Movement others
  • C. Metaphors from medicine
  • 1. purpose psychology is a science
  • 2. medicine
  • Not as subjects but as patients
  • Tests were like X-ray to see inside the mind or
    patients mental mechanisms.
  • administered by a trained psychologists

31
V. The Psychological Testing Movement others
  • D. Metaphors from engineering
  • 3. Engineering
  • Schools were referred to as education factories
  • Tests as ways to measure a factors products
    (intelligence levels)

32
V. The Psychological Testing Movement others
  • E. Racial Differences
  • 1 .1912 Goddard at Ellis Island
  • a. northern Europeans and non-Jews normal
  • b. legislation restricting the immigration of
    "inferior" racial and ethnic groups
  • 2. 1921 mental age of World War I draftees was 13

33
V. The Psychological Testing Movement others
  • E. Racial Differences
  • 3. Horace Mann Bond racial differences in IQ due
    to environment
  • 4. 1994 The Bell Curve (Herrnstein and Murray)
  • Intelligent tests are not culturally biased ??
  • 5. However, this controversial issue remained
    unfinished today

34
V. The Psychological Testing Movement others
  • E. Contribution of Women to the testing movement
  • Female psychologists prohibited from seeking
    university positions.
  • Women have made significant contribution to the
    development and application of psychological
    tests.
  • E.g., Psyche Cattell
  • Catell Infant Intelligence Scale

35
VI. Clinical Psychology MovementLightner Witmer
(1867-1956)
  • A. Witmer's life
  • 1. Cattell chose him as his successor
  • 2. Encouraged him to study with Wundt
  • 3. He was not impressed with Wundts research
    methods
  • 4. Titchener was his classmate

Lightner Witmer
36
VI. Clinical Psychology MovementLightner Witmer
(1867-1956)
  • 5. 1892-1896 faculty at the Uni. of Pennsylvania
  • a. experimental research on individual
    differences and psychological pain
  • b. goal application of psychology to abnormal
    behavior
  • c. the growth in funding for public education,
    demand for educational psychology courses

37
VI. Clinical Psychology MovementLightner Witmer
(1867-1956)
  • 6. 1896 published an article, entitled Practical
    Work in Psychology
  • 7. Used the term clinical psychology for the
    first time
  • 8. 1907 founded Psychological Clinic

38
VI. Clinical Psychology MovementLightner Witmer
(1867-1956)
  • B. Career
  • 1. 1896 opened the worlds first psychology
    clinic
  • 2. began the field of clinical psychology
  • a. assessed/treated learning and behavior
    problems
  • b. today is called school psychology
  • 3. He offered the first college course on
    clinical psychology
  • 4. functionalist helped people solve problems

39
VI. Clinical Psychology Movement--Others
  • 1. 1908 A Mind That Found Itself (Beers)
  • 2. 1909 Psychotherapy (Munsterberg)
  • 3. 1909 first child guidance clinic (Healey)
  • a. early intervention
  • b. team approach
  • 4. S. Freud's work psychoanalysis

40
VI. Clinical Psychology Movement--Others
  • 5. By 1940,
  • clinical is a small part of psychology
  • few treatment facilities for adults
  • few jobs for clinical psychologists

41
VI. Clinical Psychology Movement--Others
  • 6. WWII in 1941
  • Needed clinical psychologists to treat the
    emotional issues of military personnel
  • After war, needs clinical psychologists even
    greater in VA hospitals
  • VA funded graduate programs to let graduate
    students to work at VA hospitals and clinics

42
VI. Clinical Psychology Movement--Others
  • 7. Today, clinical psychology
  • Clinical psychologists are employed in mental
    health centers, business, and private practices
  • Is the largest field in applied psychology
  • More than 1/3 of graduate students in clinical
    psychology
  • More than 1/3 of APA members are in private
    practice

43
VII. I-O Psychology Movement--Walter Scott
(1869-1955)
  • A. Scott's life
  • 1 . trained to be missionary to China
  • 2. 1898 began study with Wundt at 'Leipzig
  • 3. 1900 faculty in Northwestern University

Walter Scott
44
VII. I-O Psychology Movement--Walter Scott
(1869-1955)
  • 4. 1902 was asked to apply psychology to
    advertising
  • 5. 1903 The Theory and Practice of advertising
  • 6. Expertise in personnel selection and
    management
  • 7. 1919 The Scott Company personnel selection
    and worker efficiency

45
VII. I-O Psychology Movement--Walter Scott
(1869-1955)
  • B. Career
  • 1. first to apply psychology to advertising,
    personnel selection, management
  • 2. first professor of applied psychology
  • 3. founded first psychological consulting company
  • 4. first psychologist to receive army
    Distinguished Service Medal

46
VII. I-O Psychology Movement--Walter Scott
(1869-1955)
  • C. Advertising
  • 1. consumers not rational, easily influenced
  • 2. Applied his law of suggestibility into
    advertising
  • 3. Recommend to use direct commands to sell
    products

47
VII. I-O Psychology Movement--Walter Scott
(1869-1955)
  • D. Personnel selection
  • 1. rating scales and group tests of successful
    employees
  • 2. group tests of intelligence and other
    abilities
  • a. how people used their intelligence, not their
    base levels of intelligence

48
VII. I-O Psychology Movement---other impacts
  • A. The impact of the world wars
  • 1. during the wars testing, screening, and
    classifying people to the suitable tasks
  • 2. after the wars need to select the best
    employees
  • a. subspecialty human engineering, engineering
    psychology, or human factors engineering

49
VII. I-O Psychology Movement ---other impacts
  • B. The Hawthorne studies and organizational
    factors
  • 1. 1920s matching the right person with the
    right job
  • 2. The importance of social/psychological factors
    influences on employee motivation, productivity,
    satisfaction
  • 4. development of organizational psychology

50
VII. I-O Psychology Movement ---other impacts
  • C. Contributions of women to I-O psychology
  • I-O psychology provided career opportunities to
    women
  • Lillian Moore Gilbreth first 1-0 PhD in 1915
    from Brown University
  • Today, more than half of candidates in I-O
    psychology were women.

51
VIII. Applied Psychology in the United States
  • A. Between World Wars
  • 1. applied psychology respected
  • 2. sufficient jobs and funding in academia
  • 3. 1920s publicity of psychology
  • People believe that psychologists could fix
    everything
  • 4. The Depression years attacked for failure to
    cure

52
VIII. Applied Psychology in the United States
  • B. World War II
  • 1. different set of problems
  • More psychologists involved in the war
  • 2. psychology in Germany revived for a demand for
    selecting the military personnel.
  • C. By 1990s shift from experimental psychology
    to applied psychology
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