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ShoShoni Indians 19601990 The word Shoshone originates from the word Newe which means The People

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Title: ShoShoni Indians 19601990 The word Shoshone originates from the word Newe which means The People


1
ShoShoni Indians (1960-1990)The word Shoshone
originates from the word Newe which means The
People
  • The Shoshone Tribes were nomadic people whose
    area of travel encompasses a major portion of the
    Western US, including Montana, Idaho, Utah,
    Arizona, and Nevada.
  • They expanded their travel from the Great Basin
    to the Plains into what is current day Wyoming
    and Colorado.

2
Study Questions
  • Q What was the Shoshone language a mixture of?
  • Q What does Shoshoni mean?

3
Shoshone Language
  • The language was a mixture of Shoshoni, Comanch,
    and Hopi. The Shoshoni language was also
    influenced by the Great Basin, Plateau, and
    Plains areas as they traveled across the United
    States.

4
Language SamplesBasic Colors
  • Red aeng-guh-veet
  • Blue ae-fee-veet
  • Green boo-hoo-gaet
  • Yellow oe-huh-peet
  • Black doo-hoo-veet
  • White doe-so-veet
  • Brown oh-de-gaet

5
Basic Numbers
  • One si-muh
  • Two wat-hat-tu
  • Three ba-yte
  • Four wat-zu-whit
  • Five mie-re-geet
  • Six naa-fa-yte
  • Seven dot-so-wit
  • Eight nie-wut-su-wite
  • Nine si-woe-woo-me-hund
  • Ten si-woed

6
  • Study Questions on American Indian
  • Movement
  • What were some of the goals and demands the
    Indian tribes of the AIM had?
  • How long did the Indians from the AIM reclaim
    Alcatraz and who took it back?
  • What grade range of children could receive an
    education at the Heart of Earth survival school
    formed by Indian Tribes supporting the AIM? What
    kind of education would they receive?

7
American Indian Movement
  • Who and what does it affect?
  • It effected, over the space of many years, the
    goals of all Indian tribes that covered the
    entire spectrum of Indian demands
  • EXAMPLE economic independence, revitalization
    of traditional culture, protection of legal
    rights, and, most especially, autonomy over
    tribal areas and the restoration of lands that
    they believed had been illegally seized.

8
  • Whats its purpose?
  • Its purpose was to help Indians in urban ghettos,
    which were displaced by government programs that
    forced them from reservations.
  • Events that took place
  • Reclaim of Alcatraz Island
  • 1969 Many Native tribe leaders, including LaNada
    Boyer of the Shoshone tribe, reclaimed Alcatraz
  • All tribes signed a proclamation stating the
    reasons and plans for the island. Some consisted
    of a museum including a cultural education center
    of all Indian cultures

9
  • President turned nation against the reclaim and
    it fell back into Federal hands 19 months later
  • Heart of Earth Survival School
  • 1972 Second survival school to open up as a
    result of Indian Education Act pushed by AIM
  • Provided children of all Indian tribes, K-12, a
    culturally based education

10
Study Questions on Education1. How was
Shoshone education before American influence?
2. How was Shoshone education after American
influence?
11
Shoshone Education before
  • Education was done with story telling by the
    tribe elders, teaching about their ancestors ways
    of life, ceremonies, and experiences.
  • Traditional language was taught and learned and
    spoken in the tribe.
  • Pottery and basket weaving were essential life
    teachings and used as every day dishes.
  • The meanings of myths, spirits, and traditional
    beliefs were taught.
  • They were educated in the use of plants and herbs
    for medicine and how to use the land for their
    survival.

12
Shoshone Education after
  • Shoshone children were placed into government
    boarding schools, where many were abused.
  • Traditional language was not allowed to be
    spoken. English was taught.
  • Traditional teachings were lost.
  • 1966 Thirty six young Shoshones were put in a
    early start program run by white teachers.
  • 1972 The Indian Education act. Was an effort to
    carry out self-determination.
  • 1973 Duckwater Shoshone Elementary School was
    opened with 18 Shoshones and 3 whites.
  • 1975 Indians Self-Determination and Education
    Assistance Act was intended to reduce government
    paternalism over the tribe.

13
  • Study Questions on Religion
  • 1. Who was the Medicine Man?
  • 2. The Shoshone Indians believed in
    Kachinas which are what?
  • 3. In the Shoshone Ghost Dance, the Indians used
    songs that were viewed as what?

14
RELIGION
  • Shoshone Indians
  • Based on Christian denominations
  • Believed in Kachinas
  • - Gods
  • - beings of a great might and a great
  • power
  • - made into dolls and given to children

15
BELIEFS
  • The Great Spirit
  • The Spirit (Mugua)
  • Ghost (Tsoap)
  • The Sun (Apo)
  • The Medicine Man
  • Spiritual leader
  • Prophet
  • Possess special powers

16
Shoshone Ghost Dance
  • They use songs that are viewed as cultural
    documents that mediate complex and richly
    textured levels of meaning.
  • Dancing to these songs was believed to to bring
    back the world that was being lost.
  • Helped growth of crops, helped restore land, and
    kept animals healthy.

17
Study Questions Economics
  • Native Americans economics advancement goals had
    to be postponed due to a more important issue.
    Native Americans almost lost their rights to the
    treaties they had with the government over
    something referred to as what?
  • Shoshone Indian children have suffered the
    consequences of poverty among the tribe,
    especially in areas of education. True or False?
  • Popular jobs among the Shoshone during this time
    period included land work, teaching, and what?

18
Shoshone Indians Economics

Front Row  Dick Washakie, Chief Washakie, Tigee.
Back Row  Per-na-go-shia, Pan-zook, So-pa-gant
and Mat-ta-vish.
19
Politics Play a Big Role
20
  • In the 1930 President Roosevelt promoted Indian
    self autonomy by creating the Indian new deal
    However in the 1940s and 1950s the government
    tried to revert back to assimilating Indians into
    Anglo culture.
  • In 1950 the house of representatives passed house
    concurrent resolution 108. Also known as
    termination. Under this tribes would lose all
    privileges related to treaties with the
    government.
  • The start of the 1960s is when Native American
    protesters and political activists really started
    to take way in reaction to the termination.
  • Economic development for reservations a goal set
    in the 1960s was now a lesser concern for the
    NACI.

21
  • The NCAI ( The National Congress of American
    Indians) passionately opposed this Termination
    and urged all Indians to do the same.
  • Young urban Indians founded Red Power and the
    American Indian Movement in 1968.
  • Running for president in 1968, Nixon backed
    anti-assimilation for native American tribes.
  • 1969 more than 100 Indians made Alcatraz their
    home in response to them making it a national
    park. They claimed in under Fort Laramie treaty
    of 1968. This soon lost media attention but
    remains a symbol for the needs of Indians that
    have been unmet time and time again.
  • Native Americans became involved in the war on
    poverty in the 1960s and the Inter-Tribal
    council received its first quarter million grant
    to aid California Rancherias.
  • July 8th, 1970 Nixon renounced termination as
    morally and legally unacceptable.

22
How does all this effect the Shoshone Indians in
an economic state?
  • The Shoshone Indian reservations, much like other
    Indian reservation had suffered much poverty
    through the 1960s 1990s and still struggle
    today.
  • During this time politically they were struggling
    to hold on to their independence as a tribe, this
    was something that needed to be resolved first
    and foremost. Trying to enrich their tribe
    economically had to be on the back burner for a
    while.
  • Jobs range in a wide variety of activities of
    those many worked on the land, taught various
    things on the reservations and also were private
    business owners.

23
Shoshone Children
  • The children of Shoshone tribes are directly
    affected by the poor economic state of the
    reservations.
  • It is a vicious cycle. The schools are poorly
    funded and the children are not given a fair
    chance to rise up out of poverty. Also, national
    testing has not been sensitive native American
    children. Testing has been geared toward a Anglo
    middle class to upper class population.
  • However Since 1975, the political climate has
    increasingly supported the inclusion of American
    Indian culture and language in Native education
    and the training of Native teachers.

24
Study Guide Questions What did boys and girls
of the Shoshone tribe play with?
  •  
  • For generations, toys have been used to teach the
    values and traditions of culture to children.

  • Mothers used toys to teach young girls the arts
    of beadwork and sewing through making dolls.
  • The Shoshone children played with dolls, toy
    cradles, and miniature hide teepees.
  • Mothers used toys to teach young girls the arts
    of beadwork and sewing through making dolls.
  • Young boys had child-size bows and arrows
  •  Children would make their toys out of materials
    they found around the reservation

25
What chores were children of the Shoshone tribe
responsible for?
  • Boys
  • Boys went hunting with their Father or their
    older brothers
  • Took care of the horses and cows
  • Gathered corn and potatoes
  • Bailed hay
  • Cleared land
  • Girls
  • Girls helped with the housekeeping
  • Hang dried their clothes
  • Tended buckskin hides
  • Also helped with farm chores

26
C. 1960-1975s.  Shoshone beaded male doll. 
Cotton thread, yarn, buckskin, cloth, seed
beads.  This doll depicts a Traditional Dancer as
in the 1960-1975 period, as might be seen on the
powwow circuit.  The dancer has on beaded cuffs,
with matching beaded "mirror" bag, matching
beaded belt, and matching beaded moccasins with
bell fur anklets.  He also has on an apron,
leggings, beaded breastplate, and an imitation
"roach" headdress. 
27
Study Guide Questions Play
  • What type of play is thought to be most
    beneficial within this tribe?

28
Shoshone Children at Play
  • Opened preschool on reservation for Shoshone
    children and other community children to learn
    the ways of the Shoshone
  • Encouraged young children to act out stories of
    their ancestors, to keep their culture alive.
  • Story time involves stories of the ancestors
    and legends from generations before.
  • Use the Montessori Method- many activities are
    open ended, for the child to experience and
    become creative individuals.

29
Outside of School
  • GAMES
  • Football played in spring and summer,
    only boys could play
  • Single Goal Ball two balls, one goal, older
    boys only
  • Target games used bow and arrow as early
    as age 4
  • Jacks a game girls were allowed to
    participate in
  • (Girls are slowly being integrated into games but
    still are limited on the activities they are
    allowed to do)

30
Rachelle DelmonicoShoshone EducationBibliography
  • Crum Steven J. The Road on Which We Came. Salt
    Lake City University of Utah Press, 1994.
  • Dorn, Edward. The Shoshoneans. New York. 1966.
  • Loftsteadt, Stephanie. Personal interview. 23
    Jan. 2005.
  • Readers Digest. Americas Fascinating Indian
    Heritage. New York Montreal, 1978.
  • Smithsonian Institution. Handbook of North
    American Indians. Washington Dc U.S.
    Government Printing Office, 1986.
  • Utah State History. The Northwestern Shoshone.
    New York, 1966.
  • Wyoming Indian Schools. Fremont County School
    District 14. Wyoming, 2005. http//www.fremont1
    4.k12.wy.us/

31
Sarah Browns Works Cited page
  • Eastern Shoshoni Tribal Culture.25 January 2005.

  • Hopi Indians. 25 January 2005. inks.com/hopi.htm
  • Noss, Danny. Western Shoshoni Indians in Nevada.
    25 January 2005.e_country/ethic/shoshoni.htm

32
  • Sara Ochs Bibliography
  • American Indian Movement. Encyclopedia
    Britannica. 2005. Encyclopedia Britannica Online
    18 Jan. 2005.
  • eb.com.libproxy.csusb.edu/article?
    tocid9006120
  • The Shoshone Indians. 2003. Jun 2. 2003.

  • Eagle, Adam Fortunate. Heart of The Rock The
    Indian Invasion of Alcatraz. University of
    Oklahoma. 2002.
  • Wittstock, Laura Waterma and Salinas, Elaine J.
    A Brief History of the American Indian
    Movement. 2002. istory.html.

33
  • Ashelys Bibliography
  • A Gallery of Shoshone-Bannock Childrens' Dolls,
    Toys Games. Wind River History . Retrieved 25
    Jan. 2005 http//www.windriverhistory.org/exhibits
    /ShoshoneArt/games/index.html
  • Fradin, Dennis B. The Shoshoni. Chicago
    Childrens Press, 1988.
  • Teran, Reba. Interview. 26 Jan. 2005.

34
  • Danielles Bibliography
  • Essie's story the life and legacy of a Shoshone
    teacher / by Horne, Esther Burnett., McBeth,
    Sally J. c1998.
  • Constructive Conquest in the Courts A Legal
    History of the Western Shoshone Lands
    Struggle--1861 to 1991. O'Connell, John D.
  • Natural Resources Journal Fall2002, Vol. 42
    Issue 4, p765, 35p
  • Alcatraz, Wounded Knee, and Beyond The Nixon and
    Ford Administrations Respond to Native American
    Protest. Kotlowski, Dean J. Pacific Historical
    Review May2003, Vol. 72 Issue 2, p201, 27p
  • American Indian Women's Activism in the 1960s and
    1970s. Langston, Donna HightowerHypatia
    Spring2003, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p114, 19p
  • FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE Western Shoshoni
  • http//www.fourdir.com/western_shoshoni.htm
  • Pictures from Wind River Indian Reservation
  • http//www.easternshoshone.net/

35
  • Tamaras Bibliography
  • Funk and Magnalls. Hopi. The History Channel.
    Jan 25, 2005.
  • Harrod, Howard. The Journall of American History.
    Vol.84, no. 3. December 1997, 1100.

  • Utah Division of Indian Affairs-Shoshone Tribe.
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