Alliteration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Alliteration PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 14418-YzU5O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Alliteration

Description:

As you read these lines aloud from 'The Rime of the Ancient ... Now, compare that to lines from Hilary Duff's Wake Up: Wake up, wake up || on a Saturday night ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:3090
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 93
Provided by: MCHS7
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Alliteration


1
Alliteration
  • The repetition of sounds at the beginnings of
    words. Helps to establish mood, provide
    emphasis, and echo the meaning.

2
Alliteration
As you read these lines aloud from The Rime of
the Ancient Mariner, take note of the repeated
sounds you hear. The fair breeze blew, the white
foam flew, The furrow followed free We were the
first that ever burst Into that silent
sea. From The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • Some modern examples
  • Calm, cool and collected
  • Tried and true.

3
Alliteration
  • As you read Coleridges lines, did you hear the
    repeated f, s, and b sounds? You can see and
    hear them in the words fair, foam, flew, furrow,
    followed, and free and in the words silent and
    sea and breeze, blew, and burst.

4
Couplet
  • A couplet is a pair of lines of verse that form a
    unit. Most couplets rhyme aa, but this is not a
    requirement.
  • Poetry in rhyming couplets is one of the simplest
    rhyme schemes
  • aa bb cc dd ee ff... etc.

5
Couplet
  • I THINK that I shall never see a
  • A poem as lovely as a tree. a
  • A tree whose hungry mouth is prest b
  • Against the sweet earth's flowing breast b

6
Diction
  • Diction is the art of enunciating with clarity,
    or speaking in such a way that each word is
    clearly heard. It is concerned with
    pronunciation, enunciation, and choice of words
    to be used.

7
Anaphora
  • The repetition of the same word or group of words
    at the beginning of several consecutive sentences
    or verses to emphasize an image or a concept.

8
Anaphora
  • Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition!
  • (William Shakespeare, King John, II, i)
  • We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the
    end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on
    the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing
    confidence and growing strength in the air, we
    shall defend our island, whatever the cost may
    be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight
    on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the
    fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the
    hills. We shall never surrender.
  • (Winston Churchill)

9
Stanza
  • An arrangement of two or more lines of poetry
    into regular patterns of length, rhythm, and
    often rhyme scheme. Stanzas often indicate
    separate thoughts and are separated from one
    another by spaces.

10
Stanza
  • Before you begin to read a poem, examine how the
    poet organized the lines and how the poem looks
    on the page.
  • My father was the first to hear
  • The passage of the geese each fall,
  • Passing above the house so near
  • Hed hear within his heart their call.
  • And then at breakfast time hed say
  • The geese were heading south last night,
  • For he had lain awake till day,
  • Feeling his earthbound soul take flight.
  • Knowing that winders wind comes soon
  • After the rushing of those wings,
  • Seeing them pass before the moon,
  • Recalling the lure of faroff things.
  • The Geese by Richard Peck

1
2
3
11
Stanza
  • The word stanza comes from a Latin root that
    means to stand or to stay. You can see the
    connection if you realize that the lines in a
    poems stanza stand together as one unit with its
    own rhyme scheme. As in the previous poem, each
    stanza often develops a separate idea.
  • A stanza in a poem is somewhat like a paragraph
    in prose. Poets use stanzas to give their poems
    shape on the page and also to help create the
    poems meaning.

12
Metonomy
  • The use of a single characteristic to identify a
    more complex entity. It is also known as
    denominatio or pars pro toto (part for the
    whole).
  • The substitution of one word for another with
    which it is associated.

13
Metonomy
  • The pen is mightier than the sword (pen is a
    metonym for writing sword is a metonym for
    violence).
  • "The White House", to refer to the President of
    the United States and his advisors.
  • "The press", to refer to the news media
    (especially newspapers).
  • "A dish", to refer to an entree
  • "Hollywood" to refer to the American film
    industry.

14
Imagery
  • Imagery is language that appeals to the five
    senses. Images help to re-create experiences
    vividly and add to a readers enjoyment of what
    is described.

15
Imagery
  • Try to picture what the poet is describing in
    this poem.
  • I spot the hills
  • With yellow balls in autumn.
  • I light the prairie cornfields
  • Orange and tawny gold clusters
  • And I am called pumpkins.
  • On the last of October
  • When dusk is fallen
  • Children join hands
  • And circle round me
  • Singing ghost songs
  • And love to the harvest moon
  • I am a jacko-lantern
  • With terrible teeth
  • And the children know
  • I am fooling.
  • Theme in Yellow by Carl Sandburg

Sense of sight.
Sense of touch.
Sense of hearing.
16
Imagery
  • Most of our experiences come to us through our
    senses. When you think of pumpkins, for example,
    you think of their color, their smell, their
    feel, and their taste when baked in a pie. To
    evoke strong feelings in a reader, writers create
    imagery, or language to appeal to a readers five
    senses, as well as those senses that are felt
    insidehunger, pain, sadness, fear, or joy. In
    the previous poem, the various images combine to
    create a description of an autumn scene.

17
Personification
  • A figure of speech in which poets give an animal,
    object, or idea human qualities, such as the
    ability to love, sing, cry, feel, talk, and make
    decisions.

18
Personification
  • As you read this poem, look for human qualities
    in unexpected places.
  • Let the rain kiss you.
  • Let the rain beat upon your head with silver
    liquid drops.
  • Let the rain sing you a lullaby.
  • The rain makes still pools on the sidewalk.
  • The rain makes running pools in the gutter.
  • The rain plays a little sleep-song on our roof at
    night
  • And I love the rain.
  • April Rain Song by Langston Hughes

Things humans would do.
19
Personification
  • Here, Langston Hughes speaks of the rain as if it
    were human. Everyone knows that rain cant
    actually kiss, sing a lullaby, or play a song,
    but the rain can remind you of a kiss or a song.
    This comparison of the rains actions to things a
    human being can do is one of the features that
    makes this poem interesting.
  • Giving human qualities to nonhuman things adds
    vitality to writing and helps you see everyday
    things in a new way. Poets use personification
    to startle the reader into seeing life in a
    different way.

20
Tone
  • The attitude the writer or the speaker takes
    toward the audience, the subject, or a character.

21
Tone
  • When you read poetry, think about the speakers
    attitude toward the subject.
  • Droning a drowsy syncopated tune,
  • Rocking back and forth to a mellow croon,
  • I heard a Negro play.
  • Down on Lenox Avenue the other night
  • By the pale dull pallor of an old gas light
  • He did a lazy sway
  • He did a lazy sway
  • To the tune o those Weary Blues.
  • With his ebony hands on each ivory key
  • He made that poor piano moan with melody.
  • O Blues!
  • Swaying to and fro on his rickety stool
  • He played that sad raggy tune like a musical
    fool.
  • Sweet Blues!
  • From The Weary Blues by Langston Hughes

Emphasizes the mans skill and talent.
22
Tone
  • The attitude that the poet (or the speaker) takes
    toward the subject is what gives a poem its tone.
    You have to search for clues in the word choice,
    the rhythm, and the images to determine what the
    tone is. The poet wont come right out and tell
    you. You will have to infer the tone from words
    or phrases that suggest emotion.
  • In the previous poem, you can tell the speaker
    admires the piano player. He has great respect
    for the mans talent, and the words Sweet Blues
    suggest that he likes the music. So you could
    describe the tone in this piece as respectful, or
    appreciative and enthusiastic.

23
Paradox
  • An apparently true statement or group of
    statements that seems to lead to a contradiction
    or to a situation that defies intuition.

24
Assonance
  • The repetition of vowel sounds within a short
    passage of verse or prose.

25
Assonance
  • Try to light the fire.
  • He gave a nod to the officer with the pocket.
  • Hayden plays a lot.
  • "When I get shocked at the hospital by the doctor
    when I'm not cooperating when I'm rocking the
    table while he's operating. Eminem
  • Hear the mellow wedding bells. -Edgar Allan Poe

26
Hyperbole
  • Also exaggeration, is the obvious stretching of
    the truth to emphasize strong feeling or to
    create a humorous effect.
  • Often we stretch the truth in our everyday speech
    to make a point or to inject a little humor.
    When you say youre starving just before
    lunchtime, you dont really mean it. You might
    be hungry, but starving is an exaggeration.

27
Hyperbole
  • My vegetable love should grow
  • Vaster than empires, and more slow
  • An hundred years should go to praise
  • Thine eyes, and on they forehead gaze
  • Two hundred to adore each breast,
  • But thirty thousand to the rest.
  • An age at least to every part,
  • And the last age should show your heart.
  • For, lady, you deserve this state
  • Nor would I love at lower rate.
  • From To His Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell

Exaggerated amounts of time.
28
Hyperbole
  • Poets use exaggeration, too. Andrew Marvell used
    it in his poem. These exaggerated images of time
    are quite fitting in a poem whose theme is
    limited and must be used well while we have it.

29
Allusion
  • Refers to something with which the reader is
    likely to be familiar, such as a person, place,
    or event from history or literature or some
    aspect of culture.

30
Allusion
Reference to the Greek god of music and poetry.
  • Much have I traveled in the realms of gold,
  • And many goodly states and kingdoms seen
  • Round many western islands have I been
  • Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold.
  • Oft of one wide expanse had I been told
  • That deep-browd Homer ruled as his demesne
  • Yet did I never breathe its pure serene
  • Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold
  • Then I felt like some watcher of the skies
  • When a new planet swims into his ken
  • Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes
  • He stared at the Pacific and all his men
  • Looked at each other with a wild surmise
  • Silent, upon a peak in Darien.
  • On First Looking Into Chapmans Homer by John
    Keats

Reference to the author of the Iliad and the
Odyssey, two long Greek poems.
Reference to translator of Homer
Reference to Spanish explorer
31
Allusion
  • Do you understand allusions? Two main ones in
    the previous poem are to a Greek god and to a
    Greek poet named Homer. Allusions make
    literature richer by adding extra layers of
    meaning. Here, the poet connects his and other
    poets work with the god Apollo to suggest the
    honor of being a poet. Recognizing allusions can
    add to understanding. The more you read, the
    more allusions you will begin to recognize.

32
Rhyme Scheme
  • The pattern of end rhyme in a poem.

33
Rhyme Scheme
  • As you read Concord Hymn, listen for words that
    have the same ending sound.
  • By the rude bridge that arched the flood, a
  • Their flag to Aprils breeze unfurled, b
  • Here once the embattled farmers stood a
  • And fired the shot heard round the world. b
  • The foe long since in silence slept c
  • Alike the conqueror silent sleeps d
  • And Time the ruined bridge has swept c
  • Down the dark stream which seaward creeps. d
  • On this green bank, by this soft stream, e
  • We set to-day a votive stone f
  • That memory may their deed redeem, e
  • When, like our sires, our sons are gone. f
  • Spirit, that made those heroes dare g
  • To die, and leave their children free, h
  • Bid Time and Nature gently spare g

34
Rhyme Scheme
  • In these lines, the words unfurled and world
    rhyme, as do sleeps and creeps. They are
    examples of end rhyme, or rhymes that occur at
    the ends of lines. Sometimes poets use internal
    rhyme, rhyming words within lines. You can label
    rhymes with letters, assigning the same letter to
    all words that rhyme with each other. In the
    previous poem, you can see that the rhyme scheme
    of these lines is abab cdcd efef ghgh.

35
Speaker (voice)
  • Point of view

36
Meter
  • The linguistic sound patterns of verse.

37
Caesura
  • An audible pause that breaks up a long line of
    verse.

38
Caesura
  • Old English
  • But the cæsura was even more important to Old
    English verse than it was to Latin or Greek
    poetry. In Latin or Greek poetry, the cæsura
    could be suppressed for effect in any line at
    will. In the alliterative verse that is shared by
    most of the oldest Germanic languages, the cæsura
    is an ever-present and necessary part of the
    verse form itself. Consider the opening line of
    Beowulf
  • Hwæt! we Gar-Dena on geardagum
  • ("Lo! we Spear-Danes, in days of yore. . .")
  • Middle English
  • But compare that with some lines from William
    Langland's Piers Plowman
  • I loked on my left half as þe lady me taughte
  • And was war of a womman worþeli ycloþed.
  • ("I looked on my left side, as the lady told me
    to, and perceived an expensively dressed woman.")
  • Modern English
  • Now, compare that to lines from Hilary Duff's
    Wake Up
  • Wake up, wake up on a Saturday night

39
Litotes
  • A figure of speech in which the speaker
    emphasizes the magnitude of a statement by
    denying its opposite. The literal meaning of a
    litotes is "not X (but not necessarily Y)", but a
    litotes is an understatement, actually meaning
    "very much Y". As with many figures of speech,
    the correct interpretation of litotes therefore
    depends on the cultural setting.

40
Litotes
  • "... no ordinary city." Acts 2139 (NIV)
  • "That edge was not useless / to the warrior now."
    (Beowulf about a sword)
  • "He was not unfamiliar with the works of
    Dickens."
  • "The food wasn't bad."
  • "That was no big deal"
  • "Reaching the moon was no ordinary task"

41
Refrain
  • The line or lines that are repeated in music or
    in verse the "chorus" of a song.

42
Refrain
  • Refrains usually, but do not always, come at the
    end of the verse. Some songs, especially ballads,
    incorporate refrains into each verse. For
    example, one version of the traditional ballad
    The Cruel Sister includes a refrain mid-verse
  • There lived a lady by the North Sea shore,
  • Lay the bent to the bonny broom
  • Two daughters were the babes she bore.
  • Fa la la c.
  • As one grew bright as is the sun,
  • Lay the bent to the bonny broom
  • So coal black grew the other one.
  • Fa la la c.

43
Connotation
  • An idea or meaning suggested by or associated
    with a word or thing.
  • Includes the literal meaning of the word plus all
    associated and emotional meanings of the world.
    Which would you rather buy, an antique chest or
    an old bureau?
  • Poets make frequent use of words rich in
    connotations to appeal to the emtions and to
    expand the reach of words.

44
Connotation
  • For example, a stubborn person may be described
    as being either strong-willed or pig-headed.
    Although these have the same literal meaning
    (i.e. stubborn), strong-willed connotes
    admiration for someone's convictions, while
    pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with
    someone.

45
Euphemism
  • An expression intended by the speaker to be less
    offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the
    listener than the word or phrase it replaces.

46
Euphemism
  • restroom for toilet room
  • motion discomfort bag and air-sickness bag for
    vomit bag or barf bag
  • sanitary landfill for garbage dump
  • pre-owned vehicles for used cars
  • the big C for cancer
  • bathroom tissue, t.p., or bath tissue for toilet
    paper
  • custodian for janitor
  • sanitation worker for garbage man
  • Where can I wash my hands? or Where can I powder
    my nose? for Where can I find a toilet?

47
Conceit
  • An extended metaphor with a complex logic that
    governs an entire poem or poetic passage. By
    juxtaposing images and ideas in surprising ways,
    a conceit invites the reader into a more
    sophisticated understanding of an object of
    comparison.

48
Conceit
  • An often-cited example of the metaphysical
    conceit is the metaphor from John Donne's "The
    Flea," in which a flea that bites both the
    speaker and his lover becomes a conceit arguing
    for the depth of their union
  • Oh stay! three lives in one flea spare
  • Where we almost, yea more than married are.
  • This flea is you and I, and this
  • Our marriage-bed and marriage-temple is.

49
Idiom
  • An expression (ie. term or phrase) whose meaning
    cannot be deduced from a literal definition of
    its parts, and instead refers to a nonliteral or
    figurative meaning which is only known through
    conventional use.

50
Idiom
  • A black look Giving someone a look of malice "a
    dirty look"A coon's ageA long time (Note This
    idiom is no longer in popular usage as it is
    mistakenly considered racist).A dirty lookA look
    of disapproval or malice.
  • A few X short of a Y Not possessing all of one's
    mental faculties i.e., crazy or stupid. These
    phrases take the form "A few X short of a Y"
    where X is a common component of Y. In these
    phrases, Y represents full mental capacity, and
    the lack of a few X implies a lack of full mental
    capacity. Other examples include
  • A few fries short of a Happy Meal
  • A few sandwiches short of a picnic
  • Two bricks short of a load
  • A few syllables short of a Haiku
  • A couple of cans short of a six-pack.
  • A few pickles shy of a barrel
  • A few gunmen short a firing squad.
  • One enchilada short of a full meal deal
  • One Excedrin tablet short of a full medicine
    cabinet

51
Foot
  • Many meters use a foot as the basic unit in their
    description of the underlying rhythm of a poem.
    Both the quantitative meter of Classical poetry
    and the Accentual-Syllabic meter of most poetry
    in English use the foot as the fundamental
    building block. A foot consists of a certain
    number of syllables forming part of a line of
    verse. A foot is described by the character and
    number of syllables it contains in English, feet
    are named for the combination of accented and
    unaccented syllables.

52
Symbol
  • Something concrete that stands for something
    else, such as an idea or emotion.
  • Writers use symbols to express something you
    cannot see or touch, such as love, hate, fear or
    death.

53
Symbol
  • Read the poem Piazza Piece, and ask yourself
    what the gentleman in the dustcoat represents.
  • I am a gentleman in a dustcoat trying
  • To make you hear. Your ears are soft and small
  • And listen to an old man not at all
  • They want the young mens whispering and sighing.
  • But see the roses on your trellis dying
  • And hear the spectral singing of the moon
  • For I must have my lovely lady soon.
  • I am a gentleman in a dustcoat trying.
  • I am a lady young in beauty waiting
  • Until my truelove comes, and then we kiss.
  • But what gray man among the vines is this
  • Whose words are dry and faint as in a dream?
  • Back from my trellis, sir, before I scream!
  • I am a lady young in beauty waiting.
  • Piazza Place by John Crowe Ransom

Words that suggest death.
54
Symbol
  • We see symbols around us every day. A falg is
    the symbol of a country, a logo is a symbol of a
    company, a tiny clipboard on your computer is a
    symbol for paste, a red light is a symbol
    meaning stop. A symbol suggests another
    meaning, depending on the context in which it is
    found. In this poem, the old man in the dustcoat
    symbolizes death. The words old, dying, and
    spectral support this interpretation. What other
    clues in the poem indicate that death has come
    for the young lady?

55
Apostrophe
  • An exclamatory rhetorical figure of speech, when
    a speaker or writer breaks off and directs speech
    in an abstract direction, to a person not
    present, or to a thing. In dramatic works and
    poetry, it is often introduced by the word "O"
    (not the exclamation "oh").

56
Apostrophe
  • "O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is
    thy victory?" 1 Cor. 1555
  • "O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth, /
    That I am meek and gentle with these butchers! /
    Thou art the ruins of the noblest man / That ever
    lived in the tide of times." Shakespeare, Julius
    Caesar, Act 3, Scene 1.
  • "To what green altar, O mysterious priest, /
    Lead'st thou that heifer lowing at the skies, /
    And all her silken flanks with garlands drest?"
    John Keats Ode on a Grecian Urn
  • "O eloquent, just, and mighty Death!" Sir Walter
    Raleigh, History of the World
  • "Roll on thou dark and deep blue ocean." Lord
    Byron
  • Common usage as an opposition speaker at a
    political convention "And I say to you, Mr.
    President, we do not want our children to grow up
    in a world where...(etc.)"

57
Enjambment
  • The breaking of a syntactic unit (a phrase,
    clause, or sentence) by the end of a line or
    between two verses. Its opposite is end-stopping,
    where each linguistic unit corresponds with the
    line length.

58
Enjambment
  • The following lines from Shakespeares Romeo and
    Juliet (c. 1595) are completely end-stopped
  • A gloomy peace this morning with it brings.
  • The sun for sorrow will not show his head.
  • Go hence, to have more talk and these sad things.
  • Some shall be pardond, and some punished.
  • Each line is formally correspondent with a unit
    of thought in this case, a clause of a
    sentence.

59
Enjambment
  • The following lines from The Winter's Tale (c.
    1611) are heavily enjambed
  • I am not prone to weeping, as our sex
  • Commonly are the want of which vain dew
  • Perchance shall dry your pities but I have
  • That honourable grief lodged here which burns
  • Worse than tears drown.
  • Meaning flows from line to line, and the readers
    eye is pulled forward. Enjambment creates a
    feeling of acceleration, as the reader is forced
    to continue reading after the line has ended. It
    can also make the reader feel uncomfortable or
    the poem feel like flow-of-thought with a
    sensation of urgency or disorder.

60
Onomatopoeia
  • The use of words that imitate the sounds they
    describe.

61
Onomatopoeia
  • As you read this poem, look for words whose
    sounds reflect their meanings.
  • The gray sea and the long black land
  • And the yellow half-moon large and low
  • And the startled little waves that leap
  • In fiery ringlets from their sleep,
  • As I gain the cove with pushing prow,
  • And quench its speed I the slushy sand.
  • Then a mile of warm sea-scented beach
  • Three fields to cross till a farm appears
  • A tap at the pane, the quick sharp scratch
  • And blue spurt of lighted match,
  • And a voice less loud, through its joys and
    fears,
  • Than the two hearts beating each to each!
  • Meeting at Night by Robert Browning

Words that sound like what they mean.
62
Onomatopoeia
  • If you walk through wet sand, you might hear a
    sound like slush, slush. When you read the word
    slushy describing sand, it makes you almost hear
    the sound. If youve ever lit a match, youve
    heard sounds like scratch and spurt.
  • When writers use words that sound like their
    meaning, they are using onomatopoeia. Other
    examples are buzz, bang, plop, crackle, moo,
    smack, pow, wham, and quack.

63
Synecdoche
  • Synecdoche is a figure of speech that presents a
    kind of metaphor in which
  • A part of something is used for the whole,
  • The whole is used for a part,
  • The species is used for the genus,
  • The genus is used for the species, or
  • The stuff of which something is made is used for
    the thing.
  • Synecdoche, as well as forms of metonymy, is one
    of the most common ways to characterize a
    fictional character. Frequently, someone will be
    consistently described by a single body part or
    feature, such as the eyes, which comes to
    represent their person.

64
Synecdoche
  • A part of something is used for the whole
  • "hands" to refer to workers, "head" for cattle,
    "threads" for clothing, "wheels" for car, "mouths
    to feed" for hungry people, "white hair" for the
    elderly
  • The whole is used for a part
  • "the police" for a handful of officers, "body"
    for the trunk of the body, the "smiling year" for
    spring, "the Pentagon" for the top-ranking
    generals in the Pentagon building
  • The species is used for the genus
  • "cutthroat" for assassin, "kleenex" for facial
    tissue, "coke" for soda, "castle" for home,
    "bread" for food
  • The genus is used for the species
  • "creature" for person, "milk" for cow's milk
  • The stuff of which something is made is used for
    the thing
  • "willow" for cricket bat, "copper" for penny,
    "boards" for stage, "ivories" for piano keys,
    "plastic" for credit card, "the hardwood" for a
    gym floor.

65
Syntax
  • Patterned relations" that govern the way the
    words in a sentence come together.

66
Analogy
  • A spoken or textual comparison between two words
    (or sets of words) to highlight some form of
    semantic similarity between them.

67
Allegory
  • A figurative mode of representation conveying a
    meaning other than and in addition to the
    literal. Through allegory a subject of a higher
    spiritual order is described in terms of that of
    a lower which is made out to resemble it in
    properties and circumstances, the principal
    subject being so kept out of view that we are
    left to construe the drift of it from the
    resemblance of the two subjects.

68
Allegory
69
Rhythm
  • The musical quality created by a pattern of
    stressed and unstressed syllables.

70
Rhythm
  • As you read these lines, listen for their musical
    quality, and notice how the poet emphasizes some
    words more than others.
  • Whose woods these are I think I know.
  • His house is in the village, though
  • He will not see me stopping here
  • To watch his woods fill up with snow.
  • My little horse must think it queer
  • To stop without a farmhouse near
  • Between the woods and frozen lake
  • The darkest evening of the year.
  • He gives his harness bells a shake
  • To ask if there is some mistake.
  • The only other sounds the sweep
  • Of easy wind and downy flake.
  • The woods are lovely, dark and deep,
  • But I have promises to keep,
  • And miles to go before I sleep,

71
Rhythm
  • The rhythm in this poems is quite regular, with a
    stressed, or accented, syllable following each
    unstressed one. You can hear the rhythm of a
    poem by reading it aloud and listening for a
    pattern of emphasis, such as da dum, da dum, da
    dum. It looks like this
  • Whose woods these are I think I know.

? / ?
/ ? / ? /
72
Repetition
  • The use more than once of any element of
    languagea sound, word, phrase, or sentence.

73
Repetition
  • Have you ever noticed how certain words, phrases,
    and sounds in poems are sometimes repeated?
  • Someone came knocking
  • At my wee, small door
  • Someone came knocking
  • Im suresuresure
  • I listened, I opened,
  • I looked to left and right,
  • But nought there was a-stirring
  • In the still, dark night
  • Only the busy beetle
  • Tap-tapping in the wall,
  • Only from the forest
  • The screech owls call,
  • Only the cricket whistling
  • While the dewdrops fall.
  • So I know not who came knocking,
  • At all, at all, at all.
  • Someone by Walter de la Mare

Repeated phrases.
Repeated sounds.
Repeated words.
74
Repetition
  • Poets often repeat sounds and words for effect,
    for the rhythm of it, or just for fun. Rhyming,
    alliteration, and consonance are all types of
    repetition. You could say the same of meter and
    stanzas. Repetition helps establish the rhythm
    in a poem, adds force and clarity, emphasizes
    ideas, and sets a mood. In this poem, the
    repetition helps to emphasize the idea of someone
    knocking on a door.

75
Accent
76
Understatement
77
Consonance
  • The repetition of identical consonant sounds that
    are preceded by different vowel sounds.
  • Poets sometimes use consonance instead of rhyme
    to add variety to their poems. Consonance is
    sometimes called half rhyme or slant rhyme. Its
    a softer, more subtle way of adding a musical
    quality to a poem.

78
Consonance
  • An imperceptibility as Grief
  • The Summer lapsed away
  • Too imperceptible at last
  • To seem like Perfidy
  • A Quietness distilled
  • As Twilight long begun,
  • Or Nature spending with herself
  • Sequestered Afternoon
  • The Dusk drew earlier in
  • The morning foreign shone
  • A courteous, yet harrowing Grace,
  • As guest, that would be gone
  • And thus, without a Wing
  • Or service of a Keel
  • Our Summer made her light escape
  • Into the Beautiful.
  • (As Imperceptibility as Grief) by Emily Dickinson

Notice the words begun/Afternoon, shone/gone,
and Keel/Beautiful. The words almost rhyme but
not quite.
79
Simile
  • Compares two unlike things using the word like or
    as.

80
Simile
  • As you read these poems, look for comparisons of
    things that are mostly unlike but that have some
    similarities.
  • Desolate and lone
  • All night long on the lake
  • Where fog trails and mist creeps,
  • The whistle of a boat
  • Calls and cries unendingly,
  • Like some lost child
  • In tears and trouble
  • Hunting the harbors breast
  • And the harbors eyes.
  • Lost by Carl Sandburg

Comparison of the whistle to a childs cry.
81
Simile
  • At dusk the first stars appear.
  • Not one eager finger points toward them.
  • A little later the stars spread with the night
  • And an orange moon rises
  • To lead them, like a shepherd, toward dawn.
  • Stars by Gary Soto

Comparison of the moon to a shepherd.
82
Inversion
  • Means placing a sentence element out of its
    normal position. Poets use inversion to
    emphasize, to create a certain mood, and to alter
    the rhythm of certain lines.
  • The normal order of sentence parts in English is
    subject, verb, object. When we change that
    order, we use inversion, a technique that
    increases emphasis on certain sentence elements
    by drawing attention to them.

83
Inversion
  • Read these lines from Kubla Khan, paying
    attention to the unusual order of the words.
  • In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  • A stately pleasure-dome decree
  • Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  • Through caverns measureless to man
  • Down to a sunless sea.
  • From Kubla Khan by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Verb
Object comes before the verb.
84
Inversion
  • The normal order of the first lines of this poem
    would be as follows
  • Kubla Khan did decree a stately pleasure-dome.
  • Did Kubla Khan a stately pleasure-dome
  • decree
  • You can see how differently the line reads when
    you put it in normal order. Suddenly, it sounds
    flatter and less poetic.

Verb
Object
Subject
Subject
Verb
Object
Verb
85
Oxymoron
86
Metaphor
  • A metaphor is a direct comparison between two
    unlike things. It does not use the word like or
    as.

87
Metaphor
  • What two things are being compared in this poem?
  • Morning is
  • a new sheet of paper
  • for you to write on.
  • Whatever you want to say,
  • all day,
  • until night
  • folds it up
  • and files it away.
  • The bright words and the dark words
  • are gone
  • until dawn
  • and a new day
  • to write on.
  • Metaphor by Eve Merriam

Compares morning to a new sheet of paper.
88
Metaphor
  • A metaphor is a figure of speech in which one
    thing is compared to something else. In this
    poem, Eve Merriam compares a clean sheet of paper
    and a new day. When you have a clean new sheet
    of paper, you can put whatever you want on it.
    When you start a new day, you make choices about
    what to do that day. A metaphor helps you see
    the original subject in a new way.

89
Denotation
  • The most specific or direct meaning of a word, in
    contrast to its figurative or associated
    meanings.
  • The literal meaning, the dictionary definition,
    of a word.

90
Figurative Language
Language expanded beyond its usual literal
meanings.
  • Comparing a book to a child or an author to a
    parent is an example of figurative language, or
    the use of language that goes beyond the words
    literal meanings. Poets use figurative language
    to give freshness and strength to the images they
    present. The devices for achieving figurative
    language are called figures of speech. The most
    common ones are simile, metaphor,
    personification, and hyperbole.

91
Figurative Language
  • At thy return my blushing was not small,
  • My rambling brat (in print) should mother call,
  • I cast thee by as one unfit for light,
  • The visage was so irksome in my sight
  • Yet being mine own, at length affection would
  • Thy blemishes amend, if so I could.
  • I was thy face, but more defects I saw,
  • And rubbing off a spot still made a flaw,
  • I stretched thy joints to make thee even feet,
  • Yet still thou runst more hobbling than is meet
  • In better dress to trim thee was my mind,
  • But nought save homespun cloth i th house I
    find.
  • From The Author to Her Book by Anne Bradstreet

Personification gives the book human qualities.
92
  • One of the great strengths of poetry is that it
    helps readers see things in a new way. In this
    excerpt from a poem by Anne Bradstreet, the
    speaker expresses her feelings about a book that
    she has published. Not the words she chooses to
    describe the book.
About PowerShow.com