POPULATION%20OUTLOOK%20Kazakhstan%20and%20Countries%20of%20Central%20Asia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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POPULATION%20OUTLOOK%20Kazakhstan%20and%20Countries%20of%20Central%20Asia

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POPULATION OUTLOOK. Kazakhstan and Countries of Central Asia. European Population Forum ... and moral development, to bring up children to the healthy life style ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: POPULATION%20OUTLOOK%20Kazakhstan%20and%20Countries%20of%20Central%20Asia


1
POPULATION OUTLOOKKazakhstan and Countries of
Central Asia
  • European Population Forum

2
Socio-Economic Development
  • KAZAKHSTAN - Achievements
  • Fastest Growing Economy among CAR
  • GDP growth 9.5 in 2002, 10.2 in first half
    2003
  • Inflation decreased to 7-8
  • Budget deficit decreased (1.4 surplus in 2003)
  • Increase in social sector programmes

3
Socio-Economic Development(cont.)
  • KAZAKHSTAN - Issues
  • Poverty and Social Stratification
  • richest 10 receive 26 of national wealth vs.
    poorest receive only 2
  • Rural poverty is almost twice as much as urban
    (38 vs. 20.4)
  • Most vulnerable least protected (women and youth,
    especially in rural areas)

4
Socio-Economic Development(cont.)
  • KAZAKHSTAN - Issues
  • Population decline - since 1991 population
    reduced by 1.7 million due to
  • emigration
  • reduced fertility
  • increased mortality (particularly among men)
  • Turkmenistan is also concerned with population
    decline
  • Uzbekistan - high fertility in rural areas

5
Socio-Economic Development(cont.)
  • KAZAKHSTAN - Issues
  • Decreasing health status of population
  • Unhealthy behavior practices
  • Lack of life skills and knowledge of healthy
    lifestyles
  • Poor attitudes to own health
  • Poor ecology

6
National Population and Development Policies
  • KAZAKHSTAN
  • National development strategies 2030 and 2010
  • Poverty reduction programme
  • Demographic and migration programme
  • Rural development programme
  • National Plan on environment for sustainable
    development

7
National Population and Development
Policies(cont.)
  • Kyrgyz Republic population issues addressed in
    various documents, but no integrated policy or
    strategy exists
  • Turkmenistan social protection of vulnerable,
    environmental and internal migration policies
  • Uzbekistan population issues integrated into
    development policies and reforms
  • Tajikistan PRSP, environmental policies,
    internal migration policies

8
Gender Equality, Equity and Women Empowerment
  • Kazakhstan and republics of Central Asia are the
    signatories of the ICPD PoA and Beijing Platform
    of Actions
  • Legislation and relevant institution established
  • Kazakhstan National Commission on Family and
    Women Affairs under the President of RK
  • Uzbekistan Bureau on Gender and Development
  • Similar establishments and/or enabling
    legislation on gender exist in Kyrgyz Republic,
    Tajikistan and Turkmenistan

9
Gender Equality, Equity and Women
Empowerment(cont.)
  • Gender Violence and Discrimination
  • Kazakhstan
  • Gender differentials in key socio-economic
    indicators
  • Gender Stereotyping
  • Lower carrier perspectives
  • Reported domestic violence
  • Similar situation in other CA countries

10
Gender Equality, Equity and Women
Empowerment(cont.)
  • Gender Violence and Discrimination
  • Kazakhstan
  • Units combating abuse against women formed in
    1999 in the Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • Network of crisis centers established
  • Planned adopting of the Law Concerning Domestic
    Violence and the Law on Introducing Additions to
    the Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan
    Regarding the Issues of Illegal Trafficking and
    Migration for Purposes of Sexual or any other
    Exploitation

11
Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health
  • Kazakhstan
  • MMR is highest among CA countries 50.5 per
    100,000 livebirths
  • High rate of pregnancy and delivery complications
    60
  • Causes of maternal deaths
  • Insufficient management of obstetric emergencies
    (hemorrhages, infections, eclampsia, etc)
  • Abortions
  • Poor health nutritional status
  • Poor quality of antenatal care

12
Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health
(cont.)
  • Kazakhstan
  • Contraceptive prevalence rate on rise 50.7
    (MoH, 2002)
  • Unmet need for family planning 8.7 (DHS, 1999)
  • Access and quality of reproductive health
    services poor, particularly in rural areas

13
Abortion Trends in Kazakhstan
  • During 10 years the absolute amount of abortions
    in RK decreased by 2.3 times. All indicators
    defining abortions have improved 1 abortion
    accounts for each 2 childbirths
  • Number of abortions per 1000 females in
    reproductive age decreased by 2.2 times
  • Number of abortions per 100 births decreased
    almost twice
  • But discrepancies between official and
    independent sources on abortion and its
    complications limits analysis of abortion related
    maternal deaths

14
Abortions in Kazakhstan
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
1999 2000 2001 2002
15
Adolescents and Youth
  • Kazakhstan
  • STIs on the rise
  • Drug abuse 40,000 officially registered
    estimated 250,000
  • Smoking 10 of adolescents under 14 years, 20
    under 16 years, and 70 under 24 years.
  • Al?ohol 6 of adolescents under 16 years, up to
    80 of under 24s
  • Reproductive Health only 20 adolescents under
    17 are healthy. 7000 abortions among girls under
    17 of which secundigravidae - 53,8 (NHLS, 2003)
  • 24 HIV positive among adolescents under 14
  • 411 HIV positive among adolescents 15-19 years

16
HIV/AIDS in Kazakhstan
  • Spread of HIV/AIDS in Kazakhstan at a fastest
    pace among countries of Former Soviet Union
  • 3788 HIV positive in September 2003
  • 205 HIV positive pregnant women
  • 80 IDUs among HIV positive
  • 17 of men and 33 of women ages 15 to 19 are not
    aware of HIV prevention measures
  • Enacted the Concept Paper and National Programme
    on Counteracting of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the
    Republic of Kazakhstan for 2001-2005.

17
Partnerships
  • Partnerships
  • UNFPA and other UN organizations,
  • development agencies and donors
  • Government
  • Civil Society

18
Best Practices
  • Kazakhstan
  • Focus on quality of care enabled developing and
    introducing evidence-based clinical protocols on
    a variety of reproductive health issues
  • A continuing series of training for health
    professionals on modern contraceptive technology,
    management of STIs and RH counseling by national
    experts and NGOs
  • Alliance of the Government with international
    community and civil society organisations paved
    the way for introducing population dimensions
    into development strategies
  • Community-based distribution of information and
    services demonstrated its high value as a tool
    for social mobilization

19
Best Practices
Kyrgyz Republic establishment of a
community-based Social Patronage System enabled
minimizing cases of infant and maternal mortality
Turkmenistan advocacy efforts led to
introduction of gender issues into sectoral
plans Uzbekistan running of a social
communication campaign covering a broad spectrum
of reproductive health issues Tajikistan
participatory approach involving Government
agencies, technical expertise and civil society
resulted in adoption of Poverty Reduction
Strategy Paper
20
Emerging Issues
  • Kazakhstan
  • Low understanding of reproductive rights among
    decision-makers may jeopardize development agenda
    of the country pursuing pro-natalist policy
  • Lack of national expertise in demography and
    social statistics exacerbated by data problems
  • Growing danger of HIV/AIDS well recognised but
    very little action in place. Actual level of the
    disease is likely 8-10 times exceeds official
    figures.
  • Low capacity to detect STIs. Real dimensions
    unknown. High incidence of STIs may have serious
    impact on reproductive health of entire
    population.

21
Health Legislation in Kazakhstan
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan as
    of 30.08.95 according to which the citizens have
    right to health care
  • Citizens have right to get free guaranteed
    package of health care

22
Legislation in the Area of Reproductive Health
  • The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on
    Healthcare of the citizen of RK asof 19.05.97
    according to which
  • a woman has right to decide herself the issue on
    maternity
  • with a view of healthcare a woman has right to
    use the modern methods of contraception
  • maternity in RK is preserved and encouraged
  • maternity care is ensured by organizing of the
    wide network of specialized medical
    organisations, benefit payments on account of
    childs birth, efficient employment of pregnant
    women, ensuring maternity leave with benefit
    payments to child-care.

23
Legislation on health protection of children
and pregnant women
  • The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Health
    Protection of the Citizens of RK dated 19.05.97
    according to which
  • the Government protects the rights and interests
    of children who are to be under medical
    examination and constant and dispensary
    observation
  • Adults must care about childrens health, their
    physical, intellectual and moral development, to
    bring up children to the healthy life style
  • Pregnant women must get registered in maternity
    healthcare centers
  • Parents should follow regulations promoting the
    birth of healthy children

24
Legislation (continued)
  • The Law of RK on Marriage and Family as of
    17.12.1998
  • A person under 18 years old is recognized as a
    child.
  • Every child has right to live and be brought up
    in a family, to know her/his parents.
  • Parents should provide care to their children
  • Health legislation has been implemented
    through the State Programme Health of the Nation.
    Priorities identified in the programme include
    protection of maternal health, family planning,
    and building of health lifestyles

25
Priorities of Reproductive Health in
Kazakhstan
  • Improvement of reproductive health of
  • population, formulation and training of
  • skills for responsible attitude of people
  • towards their own health

26
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
  • At the present time in Kazakhstan exist more than
    150 womens NGOs
  • Republican movement Women of Kazakhstan,
    Coalition of womens NGOs in operation.
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