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The Birth of the Transportation Security Administration


National concern with preventing another hijacking became a frantic obsession. ... The Travel Industry Association spent a fortune on patriotic advertisements. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Birth of the Transportation Security Administration

The Birth of the Transportation Security
Systemic Weaknesses Exploited By the 9/11
  • Insecure cockpit doors
  • Lax passenger screening standards
  • Flawed policy requiring flight attendants to
    carry cockpit keys
  • Neglecting to deal with disruptive passengers

Immediate Response after 9/11
  • National concern with preventing another
    hijacking became a frantic obsession.
  • Cockpit doors were reinforced
  • National Guardsmen were dispatched to airports
  • Military jets patrolled the skies, prepared to
    shoot down any hijacked aircraft
  • Suspicious behavior on the ground or in a plane
    resulted in terminal evacuation or fighter jet
    escort to closest airport.
  • Passengers cancelled vacation plans that required
    air travel
  • Employees travel schedules were halted

  • Many empty seats were available on flights.
  • The Travel Industry Association spent a fortune
    on patriotic advertisements.
  • These Ads implied that Americans had a
    responsibility as good citizens to travel, spend
    money, and prove that the American way of life
    was stronger than before the terrorists attacks.

High Priority Issues for Congress
  • Which government department would be charged with
    the aviation security function.
  • What would be the ultimate status of airport
    security screeners.

Reasons Against DOT Oversight
  • Fears were that market forces would ultimately
    dictate policy and compromise public safety just
    as they had in the past.
  • DOT was not a national security or primary law
    enforcement agency.
  • Trying to reinforce the present system by adding
    another level of federal supervision and
    regulation to DOT was likely to fail.

Options Considered for the Status of Screeners
  • First Option FAA oversight of the screeners as
    federal employees.
  • This option was dismissed as congressional
    members recognized that the FAAs failure to
    regulate the airline industry was in large part
    responsible for the failures of 9/11.
  • Second Option place screeners under the domain
    of a new federal agency charged with aviation
  • Third Option place screeners into an existing
    law enforcement agency of the federal government.

The Emergence of A New Agency
  • Because of the relationship between the airline
    industry and Congress, it is no surprise that
    Option Two was selected.
  • A new federal agency, under the control and
    jurisdiction of the DOT, was created by Congress
    to assume all civil aviation security functions
    and responsibilities that had been previously
    performed by the FAA.
  • With the DOT still in charge, the airlines and
    Congress would still be able to influence any
    decisions made by the new agency.
  • Eventually the TSA was moved to the Department of
    Homeland Security.

The Aviation and Transportation Security Act
  • President Bush signed the ATSA on November 19,
    2001 creating the Transportation Security
  • The legislation made the TSA responsible for the
    day-to-day security screening operations for
    passenger air transportation and interstate air
  • All functions related to aviation security
    previously under the control of the FAA were to
    be transferred to the TSA. Personnel, property,
    records, unexpended fund balances, and all
    related FAA authority were transferred to TSA.

Functions and Responsibilities of the TSA
  • Hiring, training, testing, and deploying or
    arranging for federal security screeners, federal
    security personnel, federal law enforcement
    officers, and federal security managers at all
    U.S. Airports
  • Mandated to research, develop, and deploy
    security equipment and programs at U.S. airports
  • Coordinate transportation security intelligence
  • Coordinate transportation security efforts with
    fedral and state agencies
  • Deal with threats to transportation

TSA and Optional Security Enhancements
  • President Bush encouraged the TSA to explore
    optional enhanced security measures such as
  • Providing for 911 emergency call capability on
    passenger aircraft
  • Generating a uniform ID system for state and
    local law enforcement officers carrying weapons
    on aircraft or in secure areas
  • Issuing requirements for a trusted traveler
  • Using technology for secure plane-to-ground
    threat communication
  • Developing photo and biometric imprints on all
    pilot licenses
  • Assessing voice stress biometric technology for
    screening potential threats
  • Implementing instant air-to-ground communications

TSA Job Descriptions
  • Level One trainee screeners
  • Must attend and pass classroom and on the job
    training administered by TSA
  • Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, and
    cargo under supervision of a Federal Civil
    Aviation Screening Supervisor
  • Must progress to Level Two or be terminated.
  • Level Two fully trained and certified
  • Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, and
  • Have completed all training and certification
  • Have been on the job for over a year.

  • Level Three fully trained and certified
    advanced screeners
  • On the job at Level Two for over a year.
  • Certified to use specialized explosives-detection
  • Manager Level One Screening Supervisor first
    level supervisor of screeners
  • Provide direct day-to-day supervision of Level
    One, Two, and Three screeners
  • Manager Level Two Screening Supervisor
  • Supervise the Manager Level One Managers and
    their subordinates