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Conflict, War and Terrorism

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Title: Conflict, War and Terrorism


1
Chapter 16
  • Conflict, War and Terrorism

2
War
  • War, the most violent form of conflict, refers to
    organized armed violence aimed at a social group
    in pursuit of an objective.
  • Whether war is just or unjust, defensive or
    offensive, it involves the most horrendous
    atrocities known to humankind.

3
Global Trends in Violent Conflict, 19462004
4
War and the Development of Civilization
  • War resulted in small groups and villages
    becoming incorporated into larger political
    chiefdoms.
  • Centuries of war between chiefdoms culminated in
    the development of the state.

5
State
  • An apparatus of power, a set of institutionsthe
    central government, the armed forces, the
    regulatory and police agencieswhose most
    important functions involve the use of force, the
    control of territory and the maintenance of
    internal order.

6
Annual Costs of Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan,
20012008
7
Cold War
  • The state of military tension and political
    rivalry that existed between the United States
    and the former Soviet Union from the 1950s
    through the late 1980s.

8
Structural-Functionalist Perspective
  • Gives members a common cause and a common
    enemy.
  • In short term, war increases employment and
    stimulates economy.
  • Inspires developments that are useful to
    civilians.

9
Structural Functionalist View of War
  • Structural functionalists argue that a major
    function of war is that it produces unity among
    societal members.
  • Societal members feel a sense of cohesion, and
    they work together to defeat the enemy.

10
Dual-use Technologies
  • Defense funded technological innovations with
    commercial and civilian use.

11
Conflict Perspective on War
  • War is the result of antagonisms that emerge when
    two or more groups struggle for control of
    resources.
  • War benefits corporate, military, and political
    elites.

12
Military-Industrial Complex
  • A term used by Dwight D. Eisenhower to connote
    the close association between the military and
    defense industries.

13
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
  • Meanings and definitions influence attitudes and
    behaviors regarding conflict and war.
  • Attitudes and behaviors that support war develop
    in childhood.
  • Most world governments preach peace through
    strength, rather than strength through peace.

14
Patriotism
  • The face of patriotism is changing.
  • A recent survey of 2005 college graduates found
    that 83 defined themselves as patriotic.

15
 Causes of War
  • Conflict over Land and Other Natural Resources
  • Conflict over Values and Ideologies
  • Racial and Ethnic Hostilities
  • Defense against Hostile Attacks
  • Revolution
  • Nationalism

16
Conflict over Values and Ideologies
  • World War II was largely a war over democracy
    versus fascism.
  • Cold War largely involved conflict over
    capitalism versus communism.
  • Wars over differing religious beliefs have led to
    some of the worst episodes of bloodshed in
    history.

17
Constructivist Explanations
  • Explanations that emphasize the role of leaders
    of ethnic groups in stirring up hatred toward
    others external to ones group.

18
Primordial Explanations
  • Explanations that emphasize the existence of
    ancient hatreds rooted in deep psychological or
    cultural differences between ethnic groups, often
    involving a history of grievance and
    victimization, real or imagined, by the enemy
    group.

19
Security Dilemma
  • A characteristic of the international state
    system that gives rise to unstable relations
    between states.
  • As State A secures its borders and interests, its
    behavior may decrease the security of other
    states and cause them to engage in behavior that
    decrease As security.

20
Terrorism
  • Premeditated use, or threatened use, of violence
    to gain a political or social objective.
  • Transnational terrorism occurs when a terrorist
    act in one country involves victims, targets,
    institutions, governments, or citizens of another
    country.
  • Domestic terrorism is exemplified by the 1995
    truck bombing of a nine-story federal office
    building in Oklahoma City, resulting in 168
    deaths and the injury of more than 200 people.

21
Terrorism and Victims by Region, 2006
22
Causes of Terrorism
  • A failed or weak state, which is unable to
    control terrorist operations.
  • Rapid modernization, when, for example, a
    countrys sudden wealth leads to rapid social
    change.
  • Extreme ideologiesreligious or secular.
  • A history of political violence, civil wars, and
    revolutions.

23
Causes of Terrorism
  • Repression by a foreign occupation (i.e.,
    invaders to the inhabitants).
  • Large-scale racial or ethnic discrimination.
  • The presence of a charismatic leader.

24
Guerrilla Warfare
  • Warfare in which organized groups oppose domestic
    or foreign governments and their military forces
    often involves small groups of individuals who
    use camouflage and underground tunnels to hide
    until they are ready to execute a surprise attack.

25
Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • (WMD) Chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons
    that have the capacity to kill large numbers of
    people indiscriminately.

26
Social Problems of War Women and Children
  • Before and during WWII, the Japanese military
    forced 100,000 to 200,000 women and girls into
    prostitution as military comfort women.
  • Refugee women and female children are vulnerable
    to sexual abuse and exploitation.

27
Child Soldiers
  • A child soldier in Liberia points his gun at a
    cameraman while carting a teddy bear on his back.
  • Although reliable figures are hard to obtain, the
    UN estimates that there are about 300,000 child
    soldiers fighting in wars worldwide.

28
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Symptoms include recurring nightmares,
    flashbacks, poor concentration.
  • Associated with family violence, alcoholism,
    divorce, and suicide.
  • Estimate 30 of male veterans of the Vietnam war
    have experienced PTSD, and about 15 continue to
    experience it.

29
Environmental Degradation
  • Oil smoke from the 650 burning oil wells left in
    the wake of the Gulf War contains soot, sulfur
    dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, the major
    components of acid rain, along with a variety of
    toxic and potentially carcinogenic chemicals and
    heavy metals.

30
Nuclear Winter
  • The predicted result of a thermonuclear war
    whereby thick clouds of radioactive dust and
    particles would block out vital sunlight, lower
    temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, and lead
    to the death of most living things on earth.

31
Genocide
  • The deliberate, systematic, annihilation of an
    entire nation, people, or ethnic group.

32
Mediation
  • A neutral third party facilitates negotiation
    between representatives or leaders of conflicting
    groups.

33
Arbitration
  • A neutral third party listens to evidence and
    arguments presented by conflicting groups and
    arrives at a decision or outcome that the two
    parties agree to accept.

34
Clash of Civilizations
  • A hypothesis that the primary source of conflict
    in the 21st century has shifted away from social
    class and economic issues and toward conflict
    between religious and cultural groups, especially
    those between large scale civilizations such as
    the peoples of Western Christianity and Muslim
    and Orthodox peoples.
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