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Towards the Sixth Framework Programme

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organic, low-input and conventional production systems. and their components ... low in omega 3 fatty acids; except for oily fish which is high in omega 3 fatty acids ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Towards the Sixth Framework Programme


1
Improving the quality and safety and reduction
in cost in the European organic and low-input
food supply chains
Integrated project 506358 QualityLowInputFood QLI
F www.qlif.org
2
?
SP2
?
?
SP3
SP4
SP5
SP1
SP6
WP6.1
WP6.1
SP7 HA7.3 Dissemination HA7.4 Training
?
SP7 HA7.2
SP7 HA7.1
?
SP2 WP2.3
3
SP2 Effect of organic, low-input and
conventional production systems and their
components on food quality and safety
www.qlif.org
4
Animal production systems
Production system components dairy
cows pigs poultry rats SP2 Effect of 1.
Season 2. Health management
3. Feeding regime 3.
Husbandry 5. Breed/genotype
SP3 health impact studies Improvement
of 2. Health management Parasites
Intestinal diseases ()
Mastitis 3. Feeding regimes
4. Husbandry 5.
Breed/genotype
Identifying factors affecting yield, quality
and/or safety
Improving yield, quality and/or safety
5
SP2 - WP2.2 Effect of organic, low-input and
conventional production systems on fatty acid and
fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations in milk  
Newcastle University, UK Aarhus University,
DK Granarolo Ltd, Italy
Gillian Butler Jacob H Nielsen, Tina Slots,
Chris Seal, Roy Sanderson Carlo Leifert
6
SP2 - WP2.2 Effect of organic, low-input and
conventional production systems on fatty acid and
fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations in
milk Gillian Butler, Jacob H Nielsen, Tina
Slots, Cris Seal, Roy Sanderson and Carlo Leifert
Newcastle University, UK Aarhus University, DK
Granarolo Ltd. Italy www.qlif.org
7
Experimental approach
  • UK survey monitored milk from 25 farms in the UK
    over 2 years (surveys also in Sweden, Denmark and
    Italy)
  • 2 production systems in North East England
  • High input conventional
  • Low Input organic certified
  • 3 production systems in Wales
  • High input conventional
  • Low Input organic certified (block calving)
  • Low Input non-certified (block calving)

8
Proportion of Holstein Friesian genetics in
conventional, organic and low input dairy herds
a
Holstein Friesian genetics
b
c
Dairy production system
9
Diets of conventional, organic, and low input
dairy herds
of diet
synthetic Vitamin E
Dairy production system
10
Proportion of cows receiving antibiotic
treatments for mastitis in conventional,
organic, low input dairy herds
a
cows treated for mastitis
b
b
Dairy production system
11
Milk yield per cow in conventional, organic and
low input dairy herds
Milk yield per cow
a
b
b
Dairy production system
12
Protein and fat content in milk from
conventional, organic, low input dairy herds

a
ab
b
A
B
C
Dairy production system
13
Milk composition
  • Milk is recognised to be a valuable sources of
  • protein,
  • minerals (especially Calcium)
  • and vitamins …
  • But also contains Milk fat!
  • For years milk fat (butter cream) was mainly
    know for its nutritionally undesirable
    components
  • High levels of saturated fats, which are known to
    increase
  • blood LDL (bad) cholesterol levels an
  • the risk of heart disease

14
Unsaturated milk fatty acids
  • Milk fat also contains 25-40 unsaturated fats,
  • some of these have been linked to positive
    effects on health
  • the main unsaturated fatty acids linked to
    potential positive effects on health are
  • a-linolenic acid (a-LA), C183c9c12c15
    the main omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) in milk
  • conjugated linoleic acid isomer C182c9 t11
    (CLA9)
  • vaccinic acid (VA) C181t11, which the human body
    can convert into CLA isomer C182 c9 t11

15
Nutritionally desirable polyunsaturated fatty
acids
  • Omega 3 fatty acids (C183c9c12c15)
  • (Hu et al., American Journal of Clinical
    Nutrition69(5)890-897 and Horrobin, American
    Journal of Clinical Nutrition57732S-736S)
  • Reduced risk of diabetes and heart/cardiovascular
    diseases
  • Important for nervous tissue development linked
    to improved brain function
  • CLA9 (C182c9t11)
  • (Whigham, Cook and Atkinson, Pharmacological
    Research 200042(6)503-10)
  • Reducing cancer risk
  • Preventing heart disease
  • Improving immune function

16
Nutritionally less desirable polyunsaturated
fatty acids
  • However
  • Some of the unsaturated fats are less desirable
  • these include
  • omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) , because we take up
    too much omega-6 and too little omega 3 in our
    diet
  • CLA isomer C182c10 c12 (CLA10), which was linked
    to both beneficial and negative health effects

17
Sources of omega-3 fatty acids and CLA9 in the
human diet
  • Most foods are low in omega 3 fatty acids except
    for oily fish which is high in omega 3 fatty
    acids
  • The only source of CLA9 is ruminant fat in milk,
    dairy products or meat from cows, sheep and goats
  • CLA9 can be produced from vaccenic acid (VA) in
    the human body by the ?-9 desaturase enzyme
  • C181 t11 ? C182 c9 t11
  • VA ?-9 d CLA9
  • The total potential CLA content in the diet is
    therefore CLA9 VA

18
Omega 3 and omega 6 levels in milk from
different dairy production systems (outdoor
period)
g kg-1 milk fat
a
b
c
A
A
B
Dairy production system
19
Omega 3 6 ratio in milk from different dairy
production systems (outdoor period)
a
n-3n6 FA ratio
a
b
Dairy production system
20
VA, CLA9 and CLA10 levels in milk from different
dairy systems (outdoor grazing period)
A
g kg-1 milk fat
A
B
c
b
a
ns
ns
ns
Dairy production system
21
Fat soluble Antioxidants
  • Milk is a valuable source of fat soluble vitamins
    and antioxidants especially
  • Vitamin E and carotenoids (pro-vitamin A)
  • Antioxidants have 3 important functions
  • linked to protection against cancer and heart
    disease in humans
  • Improve the health of dairy cows (Vit E
    especially reduced mastitis and improved
    fertility)
  • Prolong shelf life of unsaturated fats in dairy
    products

22
3R and 2R stereoisomers of a-tocopherol in milk
from different dairy systems
mg kg-1 milk fat
a
b
c
ns
ns
ns
Dairy production system
23
Carotenoids (pro-vitamin A) in milk from
different dairy systems (outdoor grazing period)
A
mg kg-1 milk fat
B
C
a
b
c
Dairy production system
24
Composition differences between organic and
conventional milk during the outdoor grazing and
winter indoor period
difference compared to conventional
Milk components
25
Dairy production Multi-variate analyses
26
Multivariate analyses Feed components as
drivers Individual Fatty acids as response
variables
Concentrate
n-6
Conserved forage
Fresh forage
n-3
VA vaccenic acid (C181 t11) CLA conjugated
linoleic acid (isomer C182 c9 t11) LA
linolenic acid (C183 c9 c12 c15)
27
Dairy - Multivariate analyses Feed components and
vitamin supplements as drivers Individual
antioxidants as response variables
a-tocopherol 2RT 2R steroisomers 3RT 3R
stereoisomer carotenoids ßC ß-carotene LUT
lutein ZEA zeaxanthine
Conserved forage
Vitamin supplements
Concentrate
Fresh forage
28
Fatty acid and fat-soluble antioxidant
concentrations in milk from high- and low-input
conventional and organic systems seasonal
variation Gillian Butler, Jacob H Nielsen, Tina
Slots, Cris Seal, Roy Sanderson and Carlo Leifert
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
(2008) 88 1431-1441 Influence of organic diet
on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in
breastmilk of lactating women in the NL Lukas
Rist, Andre Mueller, Christiane Barthel, Bianca
Snijders, Margje Jansen, Paula Simoes-Wust,
Machteld Huber, Ischa Kummeling, Ursula von
Mandach, Hans Steinhart and Carel Thijs British
Journal of Nutrition (2007) 97 735-743
Consumption of organic foods and risk of atopic
disease during the first 2 years of life in the
Netherlands Ischa Kummeling, Carel Thijs,
Machteld Huber, Lucy P. L. van de Vijver, Bianca
E. P. Snijders, John Penders, Foekje Stelma,
Ronald van Ree, Piet A. van den Brandt and Pieter
C. Dagnelie British Journal of Nutrition (2008)
99 598-605
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