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History Of MARPOL 7378


... routine tanker operations and the discharge of oily wastes from machinery spaces. ... provision of facilities for the reception of oily water and residues. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History Of MARPOL 7378

  • History Of (MARPOL 73/78)
  • And Regional
  • Implementations
  • By
  • Capt. Awad Saeed
  • Manager Environment
  • Kuwait Petroleum Corporation

  • In 1954, the United Kingdom organized a
    conference on oil pollution resulted in
  • the adoption of the International Convention for
    the Prevention Pollution of the Sea by Oil
    (OILPOL), 1954.
  • Following entry into force of the IMO Convention
    in 1958, the depository and Secretariat functions
    in relation to the Convention were transferred
    from the United Kingdom Government to IMO.

  • The 1954 Convention,was amended in 1962, 1969 and
    1971, primarily addressed pollution resulting
    from routine tanker operations and the discharge
    of oily wastes from machinery spaces.
  • Established "prohibited zones" extending at least
    50 miles from the nearest land and allows
    discharge of oil mixture of 10ppm.
  • Countries take all appropriate steps to promote
    the provision of facilities for the reception of
    oily water and residues.

1973 International Convention for the Prevention
of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73)
  • None adequacy the 1954 OILPOL Convention, despite
    the various amendments which had been adopted. 
  • In 1969, the IMO Assembly inspired by the Torrey
    Canyon disaster in 1967.
  • Decided to convene an international conference
    to adopt a completely new convention
  • The 1973 conference incorporated much of OILPOL
    1954 and its amendments into Annex I, covering

Torrey Canyon
1978 Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution
Prevention (MARPOL 78 Protocol)
  • An international Conference on tanker safety and
    Pollution Prevention was held in 1998, following
    1976-1977 series of tanker incidents.
  • The Conference adopted a protocol to the 1973
    MARPOL Convention(was not then in force),
    absorbing the parent Convention and expanding.
  • The requirements for segregated ballast tanks,
    crude oil washing system(COW) and clean ballast
    tanks for existing tankers over 40,000tons.

International Convention for the Prevention of
Marine Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by
the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL
  • Annex I - Regulations for the Prevention of
    Pollution by Oil
  • Entry into force 2 October 1983
  • Annex II - Regulations for the Control
    of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in
  • Entry into force 6 April 1987
  • Annex III - Prevention of Pollution by Harmful
    Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form.
  • Entry into force 1 July 1992
  • Annex IV - Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from
  • Entry into force 27 September 2003
  • Annex V - Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from
  • Entry into force 31 December 1988
  • Annex VI  - Prevention of Air Pollution from
    Ships (adopted September 1997 - not yet in force.
  • Entry into force 19 May 2005

International Convention for the Prevention of
Marine Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by
the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL
  • To speed-up the implementation the Conference
    allowed that the Parties "shall not be bound by
    the provisions of Annex II of the Convention for
    a period of three years" from the date of entry
    into force of the Protocol, so that countries
    could accept Annex I and have three years to
    implement Annex II.
  • Sufficient States had ratified MARPOL by October
    1982, and finally entered into force on 2 October
    1983 (for Annexes I and II)

(No Transcript)
Regional Implementations Back Ground
  • ROPME States first meeting on reception
    facilities was convened in Kuwait 1982.
  • High priority was given to reception and
    treatment of dirty ballast.
  • Feasibility study by Overseas Shipbuilding
    Cooperation Centre (OSCC) in 1984.
  • The study resulted in huge amount of investment
    required to establish Ballast reception
    facilities to cover 23 ports.

New approach
  • ROPME to up-date OSCC study carried out in 1984
    to meet the development that have taken place.
  • To meet the requirement to accede MARPOL 73/78,
    a provision of small number (1-3) of land and/or
    floating reception facilities jointly funded on
    regional basis should be considered as an
    alternative and,
  • Consider load-on-top system for the offshore
    crude loading terminals as the most cost
    effective method of satisfying MARPOL 73/78

New approach cont.
  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) support commenced
    in 1989, GCC/ROPME ad-hoc meeting recommended to
  • Prepare a comprehensive study with the concerned
    international organizations for the accessions to
    MARPOL 73/78.

New approach cont.
  • Study the possibilities of establishing a central
    reception facility or to be distributed at a
    different ports/terminals in the Member States.
  • The seventh meeting of ROPME Council decided that
    member state to accede to MARPOL 73/78.
  • ROPME secretariat jointly with GCC to prepare a
    document to be submitted the Marine Environment
    Protection Committee (MEPC/IMO) Prior to its
    annual meeting in March 1991.

Established Ad- hoc Task Force
  • ROPME/ IMO Symposium on MARPOL Convention held in
    Kuwait Feb.1996 recommended the set up of an
    ad-hoc task force includes experts from IMO,GCC,
    GAOCMAO (RECSO) and experts from member states to
    assist ROPME in carrying out a feasibility study
    in cooperation with Sultanate of Oman in line
    with 14th ROPME Executive Committee Meeting in
    Muscat, Jan.1996.
  • ROPME Regional Feasibility Study.

Communications With IMO
  • Document summarizes the out come of the
    preparatory and 1st Regional Steering Committee
    meetings was submitted to MEPC/ IMO 45th Meeting.
  • MEPC very much welcomed the RSA countries
    intention to accede, implement and enforce MARPOL
    by July 2002.
  • Document on special area status has to be
    submitted in December 2001 Prior to the MEPC 47th
    meeting in March 2002.

Regional Implementations Obstacles
  • Cost
  • Misinterpretation of the change in Tankers
    design (SBT).
  • Reception Facilities the Regional Approach.
  • Commitments from member states.
  • Size and location for an adequate reception
    facilities to meet the requirements of MARPOL
  • Agreement on the fee structure

Regional Implementations Obstacles
  • Integrate MARPOL rules and regulations into the
    National Legislations.
  • The need for Competent inspectors /surveyors.
  • Proper Ship movements monitoring and
  • MARPOL enforcement requires regional Memorandum
    of Agreement on Port State Control.

  • All ROPME member States accession to MARPOL was
    announced in the GCC summit held in Qatar on
  • At IMO - MEPC 52 (October 2004) ROPME Sea Area
    was extended to cover Arabian Sea up to the OMAN
    Yemen Borders. and came into force on 1 January
    2007 together with the new revised Annexes I and
  • 1st. August 2008 ROPME Sea Area will be declared
    a special area subject of the establishment of
    the reception facilities.
  • Over 41,000 different vessels entered Strait of
    Hormuze in 2006 and 47,000 in 2007
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