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Title: Supersonic Wind and Imaging Flow Tunnel


1
Supersonic Wind and Imaging Flow Tunnel
Critical Design Review
Kendria Alt Joshua Clement Shannon
Fortenberry Katelynn Greer
  • David McNeill
  • Charles Murphy
  • Matthew Osborn
  • David Springer

2
Contents
  • Overview of Objectives
  • Overview of Requirements
  • Unchanged Requirements
  • Updated Requirements
  • Requests for Action
  • System Architecture
  • Mechanical Design Elements
  • Tunnel Design
  • Visualization Design
  • Electrical Design Elements
  • Software Design Elements
  • Integration Plan
  • Verification and Test Plan
  • Design-to-Specification Tests
  • System Tests
  • Project Management Plan

3
Overview of Objectives
  • Supersonic Wind Tunnel and Flow Visualization
    System
  • Operable by Undergraduate Engineering Students
  • Mach 1.5 2.5 in 0.5 Increments
  • Accuracy of Mach 0.05
  • Customer Dr. Brian Argrow

4
Unchanged Requirements
5
Updated Requirements
6
Requests for Action
  • Request Hire a licensed, insured, PE to assist
    with settling tank design.
  • Requestor Matt Rhode
  • Resolution
  • Received assistance from the PE at Mayo
    Industries Inc.
  • Purchase tank rather than manufacture

7
System Overview
8
Electrical / Software Overview
9
Mechanical Design Elements Tunnel Subsystem
10
Mechanical Design Elements Gas Supply
11
Mechanical Design Elements Liquid vs. Gaseous
Nitrogen
  • Liquid Nitrogen
  • Added Complexity not Necessary to Meet
    Requirements
  • Cryogenic Components
  • Small Tolerances
  • Tank Heater and Thermal Fatigue
  • Expensive
  • Gas Nitrogen
  • Common Commercial Components
  • Requirement Changes Easier To Meet Requirements
  • 12 Runs To 6 Runs
  • Only Need 4 Tanks

12
Mechanical Design Elements Pressure System Design
13
Mechanical Design Elements Pressure System
14
Mechanical Design Elements Pressure System Before
Settling Tank
Quick-Disconnect SS Tee
Thermoplastic Hose
  • Design Considerations
  • Flexible
  • Inexpensive
  • Solution Thermoplastic Hose
  • 3.88/ft
  • Industry Standard SF 4
  • MS 2.6
  • Design Considerations
  • Easy Connect and Disconnect
  • Automatic Shut-off
  • Solution Quick Disconnect
  • Automatic Shut-off Stem
  • Industry Standard SF 4
  • MS 0
  • Design Considerations
  • Inexpensive Manifold Design
  • Avoid Manufacturing
  • Solution Industry Standard Tees and Elbows
  • Industry Standard SF 4
  • MS 0

15
Mechanical Design Elements Pressure System Before
Settling Tank
Pressure Regulator Gauge SS ¼ in
Pipe Needle Valve
  • Design Considerations
  • From 2300 psi to 600 psi
  • High Flow Rate
  • Solution
  • 2600 psi to 750 psi
  • Flow Rate 4 ft3/min
  • Industry Standard SF 2.5
  • MS 5.8
  • Design Considerations
  • Pressure Rating
  • Solution
  • SS Pipe
  • Industry Standard SF 4
  • MS 4.5
  • Design Considerations
  • High Flow Rate
  • Inexpensive
  • Solution
  • Needle Valve
  • ID 0.25 in
  • Industry Standard SF 2.5
  • MS 0
  • Design Considerations
  • 1.6 Max Pressure Reading
  • Solution
  • Input 5000 psi
  • Output 1500psi

16
Mechanical Design Elements Settling Tank
17
Mechanical Design Elements Settling Tank
Design-to-Specifications
  • Dimensions
  • Volume 4 ft3
  • Overall Length 33 in
  • Inside Diameter 18.5 in
  • Hemispherical Ends
  • Pressure
  • Mach 3 1000 psi
  • Mach 2.5 600 psi
  • 5 openings
  • 0.25 in NPT (x3)
  • Inlet and 2 Sensors
  • 0.5 in NPT
  • Pressure Relief Valve
  • 1 in NPT
  • Outlet

18
Mechanical Design Elements Settling Tank
  • 1000 psi
  • AATanks
  • ASME Certified
  • 2,390 200 S/H
  • Weight 280 lbs
  • 10-12 Weeks
  • SWIFT Design
  • Verified by Mayo PE
  • SWIFT Materials
  • Licensed Welder
  • Third Party Inspections
  • Weight 240 lbs
  • 4200
  • 6-8 Weeks
  • 600 psi
  • McMaster Carr
  • ASME Certified
  • 946 90 S/H
  • Weight 182 lbs
  • 2 Weeks
  • Conclusions
  • Choose 600 psi McMaster Carr Tank
  • Budget, Weight, Time, Safety
  • Future Upgrade Still Possible
  • 1000 psi AATanks

19
Mechanical Design Elements Settling Tank Sensors
  • Thermocouple and Pressure Transducer
  • K-type Thermocouple
  • Max Pressure 1000 psi
  • Settling Tank Connetion ¼ in NPT
  • Supplier Omega
  • Verify Stagnation Conditions During Run
  • Notify Tank is Full
  • Simple LabView Integration for Data Collection
  • Synchronized with Schlieren to Create Data Point
    for Every Image

20
Mechanical Design Elements Settling Tank / Test
Section Connection
21
Mechanical Design Elements Pressure System After
Settling Tank
Design To Specification Minimum I.D. 0.52 in
Pressure Relief Valve Steel 1 in Pipe 1 in
Brass Ball Valve
  • Design Considerations
  • High Flow Rate
  • Min. I.D. 0.52 in
  • Solution Ball Valve
  • I.D. 0.875 in
  • Industry Standard SF 2.5
  • MS 2.9
  • Design Considerations
  • Inexpensive
  • Min. I.D. 0.52 in
  • Solution Steel Pipe
  • Industry Standard SF 4
  • MS 4.5
  • Design Considerations
  • Release Pressure
  • 600 - 700 psi
  • Industry Standard Crack Pressure 10 MOP
  • Release Pressure 660 psi

22
Mechanical Design Elements 1 in NPT to Flange
Adapter
  • NPT Pipe Threads Into Adapter
  • Test Section is Bolted to Adapter
  • Carbon Steel
  • Bolts to Optical Breadboard

23
Mechanical Design Elements Nozzle / Test Section
24
Mechanical Design Elements Nozzle Design
  • Two Phase Design
  • Subsonic (before throat)
  • Supersonic (after throat)
  • Subsonic Design
  • Want to Find Sonic Line
  • Small Wall Slope
  • Large Transition Radius
  • Assume Design Phases are Independent1
  • Straight Sonic Line

Transition Radius
Wall Slope
Supersonic
Subsonic
Throat
  • Wall Slope 30º
  • Transition Radius 0.5 in

(1) Argrow, Emanuel
25
Mechanical Design Elements Nozzle Design
  • Supersonic Design
  • Want Shock Free Flow
  • Assume Straight Sonic Line
  • Method of Characteristics
  • Infinitesimal Expansion and Compression Waves
    (Characteristic Lines)

26
Mechanical Design Elements Test Objects
  • Cannot Choke Flow
  • Mach 1.5 Max. Height 0.135 in
  • Mach 2.0 Max. Height 0.367 in
  • Mach 2.5 Max. Height 0.559 in
  • Material Black Acrylic
  • Milling Tolerance 0.01 in
  • Assembly
  • Two location rods 1/32 in
  • Plastically Welded to Wall
  • 22-Caliper Bullet
  • Blunt face
  • Leading Edge Hemisphere
  • Wedge
  • Detached shock at Mach 1.5
  • Attached shock at Mach 2.0 and 2.5
  • 15º half angle
  • Diamond Airfoil
  • LE Half Angle 10o
  • Angle of Attack 4o

27
Mechanical Design Elements Test Section Prototype
  • Motivation
  • Tall Pole
  • Intricacies Manufacturing Method
  • Determine Manufacturing Hours
  • Mitigate Risk
  • Hydrostatically Pressure Test
  • Verify to 3x MDP or Failure

28
Mechanical Design Elements Prototype Version 1
  • Steel Sandwiched by Acrylic
  • Silicon Caulk as Sealant
  • Concern
  • Significant Leak
  • Need O-Ring
  • Numerous Joints / Interfaces

29
Mechanical Design Elements Prototype Version 2 3
  • Steel Sandwiched by Acrylic
  • Sealed by Standard O-Rings
  • Silicon
  • High Pressure 3000 psi
  • Low Temperature -75oF
  • Assembly/Maintenance Clean and Easy

30
Mechanical Design Elements Nozzle / Test Section
Construction
  • Single Piece of Carbon Steel
  • Two Acrylic Windows
  • Silicon O-Ring Seals
  • High Pressure 3000 psi
  • Low Temperature -75o
  • 3 Critical Leak Areas
  • Adapter / Test Section Interface
  • Acrylic Windows / Steel Interface

31
Mechanical Design Elements Test Section Window
Stress and Fatigue
  • Plate Under Uniform Loading (Max 600 psi)
  • Tmin 0.14 in, T 0.25 in
  • Industry Standard SF 2.5
  • MS 0.6
  • Fatigue
  • Basquin Relationship (SF 4)
  • 103 Cycles
  • 50 Uses Per Nozzle Per Semester For 10 Years
  • Each Run is Logged

32
Mechanical Design Elements Noise Box
33
Mechanical Design Elements Noise Box
  • Requirement
  • 85 dBA at Walkways
  • Other Wind Tunnels
  • 100-125 dBA
  • Hard To Analyze
  • High Risk
  • Versatile Sound Box Design
  • Two Noise Foams
  • Vinyl Lowers dB
  • Foam Absorbs Sound
  • Combination of the Two

1 GKTM Melamine Foam
1/8 SoundBlocker1TM Vinyl
Flow
Test Section Outlet
1/16 Stainless Steel Sheet Metal
¼ Acrylic
34
Mechanical Design Elements Visualization Subsystem
35
Visualization Prototype Set-up
Plastic Coupon
  • Electrical Engineering Optics Lab
  • Visuals
  • Cold Spray, Candle, Coupon
  • 3 different Cameras

Camera
Light Source
Lenses
Knife Edge
36
Visualization Prototype Results
Sony Cybershot 2738 x 1825 Stepped
Focus Continuous Zoom
Sony VX2000 720 x 486 Continuous Zoom, Focus, Iris
HP WebCam 480 x 640 Manual Focus
37
Visualization Prototype Conclusions
  • Lens Array (Zoom, Focus Iris)
  • Properly Focus
  • Utilize Full Frame
  • Minimum Resolution 640 X 480
  • Measures Angles Sufficiently
  • Longer Secondary Focal Length
  • Use L Shape with Mirror
  • Use Dim Light Source
  • Saturated Color Filter
  • Fine Knife Edge Adjustability Required

38
Mechanical Design Elements Light Source, Mount
Iris
39
Mechanical Design Elements Light Source, Mount
Iris
  • Light Source
  • DC Incandescent Light Source
  • Low Light Intensity
  • Lamp Base With Screw Terminals
  • Casing
  • Eliminates Ambient Light From Bulb
  • Secured to Breadboard
  • Manufactured of Aluminum
  • Mounted Iris Diaphragm
  • Pin Point Light Source
  • Aperture Range 0.47 to 0.0313 in

40
Mechanical Design Elements Lenses Mirror
41
Mechanical Design Elements Lenses Mirror
  • Achromatic Doublets
  • Aligns Blue And Red Focal Lengths
  • Diameter 3 in
  • Focal Length
  • Primary 7.84 in
  • Secondary 15.69 in
  • Glass Type BK7-SF5
  • 45 Angle Kinematic Flat Mirror
  • Precision Optical Flat Mirror
  • Diameter 3 in
  • Wave Accuracy 1/10 ?
  • Coating Enhanced Aluminum
  • Between Mirror Secondary Lens 5.69 in
  • Needed for Longer Secondary Focal Length

Supplier Edmund Optics
42
Mechanical Design Elements Ray Detection and
Capture
43
Mechanical Design Elements Ray Detection
  • Knife Edge
  • Standard Razor
  • Color Filters
  • Blue And Red
  • Saturated Colors
  • Manufactured Interchange Adapters
  • Knife Edge, Color Filters
  • Three Axis Translation Stage
  • 0.5 in Travel
  • Bearing Drive System For High Accuracy

44
Mechanical Design Elements Capture Camera
  • Dragonfly2
  • Sony 1/3 in CCD Color
  • 1024 X 768 _at_ 30 fps
  • IEEE-1394
  • Anodized Al Case
  • Lens/Zoom/Iris Array and PCI Board Included

2.54 in
2.94 in
Supplier Point Grey Research
45
Mechanical Design Elements Encasing Structure
46
Mechanical Design Elements Encasing Structure
  • Aluminum Tubing Skeleton
  • Black Acrylic 4 Sides
  • Clear Acrylic 2 Sides
  • Windows For Student Viewing
  • Black Acrylic Lid
  • Secured To Optics Bread Board
  • Entire Encasing Is Removable

47
Mechanical Design Elements Cart Integration and
Reinforcement
48
Mechanical Design Elements Cart Integration and
Reinforcement
  • Settling Tank
  • Bolt Into Reinforcement
  • Bolt Diameter 9/16 in
  • Bolt Length 2 in
  • Optical Bench
  • Bolt Into Cart Top
  • Washer Reinforcement
  • Bolt Diameter 1/4 in
  • Bolt Length 4 in
  • Allen Head
  • Max Diameter 3/8 in
  • Improved Casters

Bolt
Bolt
Cart Structure
Reinforcement
49
Mechanical Design Elements System Summary
50
Electrical Design Elements
  • Power Consumption
  • Camera lt 2W, 167mA
  • Light Source 0.9 W, 75mA

Light Source
Camera
3
Cart
1
2

110V
12V DC
4
IEEE 1394
  • 1. 15, 50 Cord Supplier Home Depot 277576
  • 110V AC Electrical Box Supplier Home Depot
  • 12V, 1A AC to DC Converter Supplier Radioshack
    55010887
  • 25-Ohm 3-Watt Potentiometer Supplier Radioshack
    271-265
  • Inline Fuse Holder for 1¼x¼" Fuses Supplier
    Radioshack 270-1281
  • 0.75A Fast-Acting Glass Fuse Supplier
    Radioshack 270-1004

51
Software Design Elements Software Block Diagram
52
Software Design Elements Proto-Program
  • LabView Vision
  • Variable fps (up to 30 fps)
  • Save Images as .jpeg
  • Very Simple

53
Project Risk
54
Integration Plan Prototype Hydrostatic Test
55
Verification and Test Plan Subsystem Tests System
  • Visualization
  • Redo Prototype Test
  • Test Plastic Coupon, Candle and Cold Spray
  • Verify Image Quality, Resolution
  • Tunnel System
  • Pressure Tests
  • Quality of Connections
  • Integrity of Custom Components
  • Qualitative Run Test
  • Loud Noise

56
Verification and Test Plan System Tests
  • 6 Runs at Mach 2
  • Run Time
  • Lab Session Requirements
  • Flow Quality, Image Quality, Resolution
  • Accuracy
  • Noise
  • Mach 1.5 and 2.5
  • Accuracy

57
Project Management Plan Spring Schedule
  • Areas of Risk
  • Nozzle Manufacture
  • Machine Availability
  • Testing
  • Nozzle Verification
  • No Time for Redesign

58
Project Management Plan Team Structure
59
Project Management Plan Tunnel Team Workbreakdown
60
Project Management Plan Visualization Team
Workbreakdown
61
Project Management Plan Budget
  • Total 7526.50
  • With Contingency
  • 9408.13
  • Total Funding Received 10,000
  • Department 4000
  • UROP 1000
  • EEF 2000
  • Deans Fund 500
  • Additional Funding 2500 (source breakdown
    pending)

62
References
  • 1 80 / 20. 80 / 20 Inc. ltlthttp//www.8020.netgtgt
    , November 21, 2006.
  • 2 Abraham, Alshuth, Jerrams. The Dependence
    on Mean Stress and Stress Amplitude of the
    Fatigue Life of Elastomers. lthttp//www.dikauts
    chuk.de/angebot/dokuhttp//www.dikautschuk.de/ange
    bo t/doku/publi/134.pdf/publi/134.pdfgt, December
    3, 2006.
  • 3 Argrow, B. M., and G. Emanuel. "Computational
    Analysis of the Transonic Flow Field of
    Two-Dimensional Minimum Length Nozzles." Journal
    of Fluids Engineering 113 (1991) 479-488.
  • 4 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code An
    International Code. Section VIII Rules for
    Construction of Pressure Vessels. The American
    Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York July
    1, 2001.
  • 5 Baker, David N. Personal Interview. November
    8, 2006.
  • 6 Bedard, Alfred. Personal Interview. October
    12, 2006.
  • 7 Charles, Becht. Process Piping. 2nd ed. New
    York ASME P, 2004.
  • 8 Crown, Conrad. Ames Aeronautical Laboratory.
    National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
    Supersonic Nozzle Design, TN1651. 1948.
  • 9 Dk-Lok USA. Dk-Lok USA.
    ltwww.dklokusa.comgt, December 3, 2006.
  • 10 "Edmund Optics." Edmund Optics.
    ltwww.edmundoptics.comgt, December 3, 2006.
  • 11 Classic Optics Ltd. NBS/Classic Optics
    Guide A Technical Guide to Binoculars. 2006.
  • 12 GK Acoustics. Gretch-Ken Industries, Inc.

63
References
  • 13 Hamilton Casters. Hamilton Caster.
    lthttp//hamiltoncaster.comgt, December 3, 2006.
  • 14 Lesa, Roe, Susumu Yoshitomi, Andrew
    McGrath, Heinz Gindl, and Fabio Bracciaferri.
    Payload Flight EquiMent Requirements and
    Guidelinges for Safety-Critical Structures.
    NASA. Houston NASA, 2002.
  • 15 Matweb.com. MatWeb. ltwww.matweb.comgt,
    December 3, 2006.
  • 16 McKenna, Ed. Personal Interview. November
    7, 2006.
  • 17 McMaster Carr. McMaster Carr.
    ltwww.mcmaster.comgt, November 28, 2006.
  • 18 McSweeney, Darren. Personal Interview.
    November 28, 2006.
  • 19 Mickelson, Alan. Personal Interview.
    October 1, 2006.
  • 20 NASA Standard 3000. lthttp//msis.jsc.nasa
    .gov/sections/section04.htm_4.9_STRENGTHgt,
    December 3, 2006.
  • 21 "Newport Optics." Newport.
    ltwww.newport.comgt, December 3, 2006.
  • 22 Online Metals. Online Metals Company.
    lthttp//www.onlinemetals.comgt, November 21,
    2006.
  • 23 Parker O-Ring Handbook. Parker.
    lthttp//www.parker.com/o- ring/Literature/ORD5700.
    pdfgt, December 3, 2006.
  • 24 "Process Diagrams." Webtools.Com.
    http//webtools.delmarlearning.com/sample_chapter
    s/1418030678_ch12.p, November 2006.

64
References
  • 25 Products and Services Imaging Products
    Dragonfly2. Point Grey Research.
    ltwww.ptgrey.com/products/dragonfly2/index.aspgt,
    November 7, 2006.
  • 26 Pudlo, Jim at AA Tanks. Personal
    Interview. November 17, 2006.
  • 27 SAE Bolt Strength. Dodge Ram.
    lthttp//dodgeram.org/tech/specs/bolts/SAE_bolt_st
    rength.htmlgt, December 3, 2006.
  • 28 Schoepp, Al. Tap Drill Charts.
    lthttp//www3.telus.net/public/aschoepp/index.html
    gt, December 3, 2006.
  • 29 Settles, Gary S. Personal E-mail
    Interview. November 1, 2006.
  • 30 SolidWorks Help. SolidWorks, 2006.
  • 31 Staff, Colorado Plastics. Personal
    Interview. November 21, 2006.
  • 32 Staff, McGuckins Hardware. Personal
    Interview. November 3, 2006.
  • 33 "Swagelok Fluid System Technologies."
    Swagelok.Com. lthttp//www.swagelok.com/gt, Oct.
    2006 .
  • 34 "ThorLabs." ThorLabs. ltwww.thorlabs.comgt,
    December 3, 2006.
  • 35 Torres, Charles at Mayo Welding. Personal
    Interview. November 17, 2006.
  • 36 Vable, Madhukar. Mechanics of Materials.
    Oxford University Press, New York 2002.
  • 37 Whitmore, Stephen A. "MAE 5420 -
    Compressible Fluid Flow." Utah State University
    Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.
    http//www.engineering.usu.edu/classes/mae/5420/C
    ompressible_fluids/com p_flow.html, November 30,
    2006.

65
Homepage
  • 3. Overview of Objectives
  • 4. Unchanged Requirements
  • 5. Updated Requirements
  • 6. Requests for Action
  • 7. System Overview
  • 8. Electrical / Software Overview
  • 11. Liquid vs. Gaseous Nitrogen
  • Pressure System Design
  • 14. Pressure System Before Settlin...
  • 15. Pressure System Before Settlin...
  • 17. Settling Tank Design-to-Specif...
  • 18. Settling Tank
  • 19. Settling Tank Sensors
  • 21. Pressure System After Settling...
  • 22. 1 in NPT to Flange Adapter
  • 24. Nozzle Design
  • 26. Test Objects 27. Test Section Prototype
  • 28. Prototype Version 1
  • 29. Prototype Version 2 3
  • 30. Nozzle / Test Section Construc...
  • 31. Test Section Window Stress and...
  • 33. Noise Box
  • 35. Visualization Prototype Set-up
  • 36. Visualization Prototype Results
  • 37. Visualization Prototype Conclusions
  • 39. Light Source, Mount Iris
  • 41. Lenses Mirror
  • Ray Detection
  • 44. Capture Camera
  • Encasing Structure
  • 48. Cart Integration and Reinforce...
  • 50. Electrical Design Elements
  • 51. Software Block Diagram
  • 52. Proto-Program
  • 53. Project Risk
  • 54. Integration Plan Prototype Hydrostatic Test
  • 55. Subsystem Tests System
  • 56. System Tests
  • 57. Spring Schedule
  • 58. Team Structure
  • 59. Tunnel Team Workbreakdown
  • 60. Visualization Team Workbreakdown
  • Budget
  • 62. References

Appendix A Pipe Sizing Calculation Appendix B
Settling Tank Optimization Appendix C
O-Rings Appendix D Nozzle Design Method of Char.
(Step 1) Appendix E Test Objects Bolt
Analysis Appendix F Visualization
Prototype Appendix G Light Source
Mounting Appendix H Iris Diaphragm Appendix I
Primary Lens Appendix J Ray Detection Optical
Plastics Appendix K Cart Reinforcement Appendix
L Risk Mitigation
66
Appendix A Pipe Sizing Calculation
  • csum of the mechanical allowances plus corrosion
    and erosion allowances
  • t pressure design thickness
  • tm minimum required thickness including
    allowances
  • D pipe outside diameter
  • E quality factor
  • P internal design gage pressure
  • S allowable stress value
  • W weld joint strength reduction factor (1)
  • Y coefficient provided (0.4)

67
Appendix A Pressure System Safety Margins
68
Appendix A Connection From Commercial Tanks
69
Appendix A Connections To Manifold
  • Considerations
  • Ease of Use
  • Options
  • Swivel NPT Adapters
  • Pressure Rating 8,000 psi
  • SF 3.5
  • Placement on Cart makes it Difficult to Access
  • Quick Connects
  • Pressure Rating 6000 psi
  • Easily Assembled
  • SF 2.6

70
Appendix A Manifold Options
  • Connect Four Commercially Pressurized Nitrogen
    Tanks
  • 1/4in Female NPT Connections

71
APPENDIX A Manifold Components
72
Appendix A Pressure Regulator
  • Design To Specifications
  • Reduce Pressure from 2,300psi to 600psi
  • ¼ Female NPT Fittings
  • Flow Rate gt 0.2ft3/min (fill time 20min.)
  • Other Considerations
  • Compact

73
Appendix A Needle Valve
  • Design To Specifications
  • 1/4 NPT Female NPT Fittings
  • Options
  • Ball Valve
  • Not Cost Effective
  • Toggle Valve
  • Working Pressure lt 500 psi
  • Will Constrict Flow
  • Needle Valve
  • Cost Effective
  • Will Not Constrict Flow
  • High Working Pressure
  • Needle Valve
  • Orifice 0.25 in
  • Working Pressure 5,000 psi
  • Material 316 SS

74
Appendix B Settling Tank Optimization
  • Considered dividing 4 ft3, equally, among as many
    as 7 smaller volume tanks.
  • Assumptions
  • Vol 4ft3
  • Hemispherical End Caps
  • ASME Code Thickness
  • Carbon Steel
  • Conclusions
  • Small weight savings from increasing number of
    tanks
  • Increased complexity negates savings
  • 1 Tank
  • Inside Diameter 19 in
  • Length 34 in

75
Appendix B Settling Tank Design
  • ASME Section VIII
  • SA-53 Carbon Steel
  • Cylinder Length 13 in
  • Thickness 7/8 in
  • Hemispherical Ends Diameter 19 in
  • SF 3.5
  • Weight 240 lbs
  • Adequate opening reinforcement
  • NPT fittings

76
Appendix B Settling Tank Manufacture
  • SWIFT Design
  • Verified by Mayo ASME Licensed PE
  • SWIFT Materials
  • Welded at Mayo by Licensed Welder
  • Third party inspections
  • Hydrostatic test
  • Tested SF 1.3
  • 6-8 weeks
  • Cost
  • Labor 2,500
  • Consultation 500
  • Inspection 600
  • Materials 600
  • Total 4,200

77
Appendix B Settling Tank Purchase
  • 1000 psi
  • AATanks
  • ASME Certified
  • 2,390 200 SH
  • Weight 280 lbs.
  • 10-12 weeks
  • 600 psi
  • McMaster Carr
  • ASME Certified
  • Tested SF 1.3
  • 946 90 SH
  • Weight 182 lbs.
  • 2 weeks

78
Appendix B Settling Tank Conclusion
  • Could buy both commercial tanks for price of
    manufacture
  • Chose 600 psi
  • Budget constraints
  • 1,500 additional for Mach 3 vs. Mach 2.5
  • Time Constraints
  • Additional safety
  • Possibility of future upgrade

79
Appendix B Settling Tank Sensors
  • Type K Thermocouple
  • Pmax 2500 psi
  • Tmin -328 F
  • Tmax 2282 F
  • Measurement Accuracy 4 F
  • Pressure Transducer
  • Pmax 1000 psi
  • Delay 1 ms
  • Snubber Equipped Against Pressure Spikes
  • ¼ in Male NPT Connection
  • Supplier Omega

80
Appendix B Ball Valve
  • Design To Specifications
  • DO NOT CONSTRICT FLOW
  • Orifice gt 0.52in.
  • Ball Valve
  • Brass
  • Working Pressure-1500psi
  • 1 Female NPT Fittings

81
APPENDIX C O-Rings
  • Silicon
  • High Pressure
  • 3000 psi
  • Low Temperature
  • -75o F
  • Assembly / Maintenance Clean and Easy

Parker O-Ring Handbook
82
Appendix C Bolt Analysis
  • Flange to Test Section
  • Tensile force 1885 lb
  • Grade 8 1/4-20
  • Clamp load 4750 lb
  • Total Clamping Load 64750 28500 lb
  • Factor of Safety 15.1
  • Test Section Windows
  • Tensile Force 5442 lb
  • Grade 8 4-40
  • Clamp load 540 lb
  • Total Clamping Load 43540 23220 lb
  • Factor of Safety 4.3

83
Appendix C Test Section Prototype Hydrostatic Test
  • Incompressible Fluid
  • Hydraulic Fluid
  • Eliminates Explosion Risk
  • Easily Detected Leaks
  • Equipment Readily Available
  • Performed On Campus
  • Minimal Cost
  • Will Be Conducted Before Jan. 23 2007

84
Appendix D Nozzle Design Method of Char. (Step 1)
  • Initial Curve
  • Prandtl-Meyer Expansion
  • As d?0, µ1 µ2 (Mach Wave)

85
Appendix D Nozzle Design Method of Char. (Step 2)
  • Reflection about symmetry line
  • ?0

86
Appendix D Nozzle Design Method of Char. (Step 3)
  • Intersection of Characteristic Lines

87
Appendix D Nozzle Design Method of Char. (Step 4)
  • Neutralization of Mach Waves
  • Create Shock at same angle
  • Expansion / Compression Waves Cancel

88
Appendix E Test Objects Bolt Analysis
Bolt Analysis
  • Requirements
  • Accurate AOA
  • Trade Study
  • Two Screws
  • Glue and Inlay
  • Inlay hard sharp angles
  • Sting
  • Effects flow

89
Appendix E Test Objects Wedge at Mach 1.5
  • Requirements
  • PDD
  • Mach 1.5 Detached Shock
  • Mach 2 and 2.5 Attached Shock
  • Design-to-Specification
  • Cannot Choke Flow
  • Max. Height 0.134 in.

Made from Black Acrylic Locating Holes 1/32
in Milling Tolerance 0.01 in Plastic Adhesive
IPR Weld-on 4
90
Appendix E Test Objects Blunt 22 at Mach 1.5
  • Requirements
  • PDD
  • 2-D 22 Caliper Bullet
  • Blunt Nose
  • Design-to-Specification
  • Min. Length for mounting holes
  • Cannot Choke Flow
  • Max. Height 0.134 in

Made from Black Acrylic Locating Holes 1/32
in Milling Tolerance 0.01 in Plastic Adhesive
IPR Weld-on 4
91
Appendix E Test Objects Diamond Airfoil at Mach
1.5
  • Requirements
  • PDD
  • Wedge AOA 4º
  • Half Angle 10º
  • Design-to-Specification
  • Cannot Choke Flow
  • Max. Height 0.134 in.

Made from Black Acrylic Locating Holes 1/32
in Milling Tolerance 0.01 in Plastic Adhesive
IPR Weld-on 4
92
Appendix E Test Objects Wedge at Mach 2.0 and 2.5
  • Requirements
  • PDD
  • Mach 1.5 Detached Shock
  • Mach 2 and 2.5 Attached Shock
  • Design-to-Specification
  • Cannot choke flow
  • Max. height 0.34 in.
  • Made from Black Acrylic
  • Holes are Threaded 2-56
  • Milling Tolerance 0.01 in

93
Appendix E Test Objects Blunt 22 at Mach 2.0 and
2.5
  • Requirements
  • PDD
  • 2-D 22 Caliper Bullet
  • Blunt Nose
  • Implicit
  • Min. Length for mounting holes
  • Made from Black Acrylic
  • Holes are Threaded 2-56
  • Milling Tolerance 0.01 in

94
Appendix E Test Objects Diamond Airfoil at Mach
2.0 and 2.5
  • Requirements
  • PDD
  • Wedge at 4º AoA
  • 10º Half Angle
  • Implicit
  • 1.5 in Chord
  • Fit in View of Camera
  • Made from Black Acrylic
  • Holes are Threaded 2-56
  • Milling Tolerance 0.01 in

95
Appendix E Test Objects
Bolt Analysis
  • Requirements
  • Accurate AOA
  • Trade Study
  • Two Screws
  • Glue and Inlay
  • Inlay hard sharp angles
  • Sting
  • Effects flow

96
Appendix F Visualization Prototype
97
Appendix F Visualization Prototype Setup
  • Setup in Electrical Engineering optical lab
  • Parts
  • Light Source
  • Iris
  • 2 BK7 (borosilicate glass) Achromatic Lenses
  • Focal Length Lens 1 6 in
  • Focal Length Lens 2 22.5 in
  • Binocular Lenses by NBS (Outside Edge Series 2
    7x35 Binoculars)
  • BK7 lenses, FL 4.5 in
  • 45 Mirror (not with binocular lenses)
  • Razor Blade Knife Edge and Color Filter
  • 3 Camera Selections
  • Visuals
  • Wedge Coupon
  • Candle
  • Cold Spray

98
Appendix G Light Source Mounting
  • Cylindrical Casing
  • Eliminates Ambient Light From Bulb
  • Places Light Output At Iris Opening
  • No Direct Exposure Of The Filament
  • Base
  • Secures Lamp Base And Cylindrical Casing To The
    Breadboard
  • Aluminum Construction

99
Appendix G Light Source Cylinder diagrams
Units in mm
100
Appendix G Light Source Base diagrams
Units in mm
101
Appendix H Iris Diaphragm
  • Light Source Must Be A Pinpoint
  • Allows For More Accurate Ray Refraction Detection
  • Mounted Iris Diaphragm
  • Used To Pinpoint Light At Primary Lens Focal
    Length
  • Aperture Range 0.47 To 0.0313 in
  • Locking Pin To Ensure Calibration

Supplier Edmund Optics
102
Appendix H Iris Mounting
  • Thread to Thread Adapter
  • 8-32 to ¼-20
  • English Mounting Post
  • Stainless Steel
  • Height 3 in
  • English Post Holder
  • Height 3 in
  • Diameter .5 in

Supplier Edmund Optics
103
Appendix I Primary Lens
104
Appendix I Secondary Lens
105
Appendix I Lenses Mounting
  • 76.2mm Optic Mount
  • Black Anodized Aluminum
  • Stainless Steel Post
  • Metric Post Holder
  • Brass Construction
  • Stainless Steel Collar Lock
  • Metric/English Adapter Plate
  • Converts M6 to ¼-20
  • Black Anodized Aluminum

Supplier Edmund Optics
106
Appendix I Mirror Surface
  • Precision Optical Flat Mirror
  • Diameter 3 in
  • Wave Accuracy 1/10 ?
  • Glass Fused Silica
  • Coating Enhanced Aluminum
  • Minimum Of 5.69 in Distance To Secondary Mirror
  • 45 Angle
  • Allow For A Longer Secondary Focal Length

Supplier Edmund Optics
107
Appendix I Mirror Mounting
  • Kinematics Optic Mount
  • Easy adjustment
  • 3in diameter optics
  • English Mounting Post
  • Stainless Steel
  • Height 3 in
  • English Post Holder
  • Height 3 in
  • Diameter .5 in

Supplier Edmund Optics Newport
108
Appendix J Ray Detection Optical Plastics
109
Appendix J Ray Detection Optical Plastics
110
Appendix J Ray Detection Filters
  • Knife Edge
  • Standard Razor
  • Sharpened Edge For High Accuracy
  • Color Filters
  • Blue And Red For Highest Accuracy With Achromats
  • Optical Cast Plastic Color Filters
  • Highest Transmission Of Available Plates
  • High Abrasion Resistance
  • Saturated Colors
  • Supplier Edmund Optics

111
Appendix J Ray Detection Interchange
  • Aluminum Construction
  • Allows For Easy And Stable Interchangeability
  • Adjustable Heights
  • Knife Edge And Color Filter Have The Same Focal
    Point Positioning

Color Filter Frame
Interchange Mount
Knife Edge Frame
112
Appendix J Ray Detection Mounting
  • Filters Must Be Able To Be Fine Tuned To Exact
    Focal Point
  • Three Axis Adjustment Required
  • Three Axis Translation Stage
  • 0.5 in Travel
  • Bearing Drive System For High Accuracy
  • Locking Plate To Maintain Position

Supplier Edmund Optics
113
Appendix J Ray Detection Interchange Mount
Diagrams
Units in mm
114
Appendix J Ray Detection Color Filter Mount
Diagrams
Units in mm
115
Appendix J Ray Detection Knife Edge Mount
Diagrams
Units in mm
116
Appendix K Cart Reinforcement
  • Assumptions
  • Tank Weight, WT, Distributed Between
    Reinforcements
  • WT182 lbs
  • Force Applied 250 lbs
  • Cart Structure Negligible
  • Steel Strength 30,000 psi
  • SF 3.5
  • Calculations

F250 lbs
y
1 in
x
L36 in
t
W2 in
117
Appendix K Cart Buckling Reinforcement
  • Assumptions
  • Tank Weight, WT, Transmitted to Caster Supports
  • WT 182 lbs
  • Force Applied 250 lbs
  • Other Structure Negligible
  • Steel Strength 30,000 psi
  • SF 3.5
  • Calculations

F250 lbs
y
Dimensions in inches
1/4
x
L24
W2
118
Appendix K Cart Top Reinforcement
F250 lbs
  • Assumptions
  • Vertical Force on Column 250 lbs
  • Length 24 in
  • Test Worst Case Buckling
  • Steel Modulus 29 106 psi
  • Conclusion No Reinforcement Needed
  • Calculations

L36
1 in
x
y
t0.06
W3.25
119
Appendix K Cart Reinforcements
  • Rectangular Tube
  • Attaches Settling Tank
  • Length 36 0.125 in
  • Width 1.5 0.02 in
  • Height 1 0.02 in
  • Thickness 0.035 0.0035 in
  • 75,000 psi
  • Low Carbon Steel
  • AMS-T-6736A
  • Supplier McMaster Carr 6566K1
  • Casters
  • Attach to Cart Structure
  • Wheel Diameter 6 in
  • Improved Mobility
  • Ball Bearings
  • Duralast Coating (Rubber Alternative)

120
Appendix L Risk Mitigation
  • Pre-Settling Tank
  • Test to 3000 psi
  • Industry Standard Parts Rated to 3000 psi
  • Rupture Disk In Regulator
  • Post-Settling Tank
  • Max Operating Pressure 600 Psi
  • Industry Standard
  • Pressure Relief Valve (660 Psi)
  • Test to 900 psi
  • Pressure Vessel To Nozzle
  • Max Operating Pressure 600 Psi
  • Hydrostatic Test to 2x MDP
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