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Positive Physical Education

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At least 60 minutes, and up to several hours, a day of physical activity. NASPE ... Elementary schools: 150 minutes / week; secondary schools: 225 minutes / week ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Positive Physical Education


1
Positive Physical Education
  • PUT YOUR NAME AND AFFILIATION HERE

NASPE Sets the Standard
2
Purpose of This Presentation
  • To guide you (and the others you will assist) in
    serving as an articulate spokesperson for
    physical education
  • Accurate and succinct information (talking
    points)
  • Positive message
  • Staying on message
  • Convey the bottom line (take home message)

3
Disclaimer
  • All physical education is not good physical
    education

4
Goal of Physical Education
  • To develop physically educated individuals who
    have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to
    enjoy a lifetime of healthful physical activity
  • To guide youngsters in the process of becoming
    physically active for a lifetime

5
Popular Terms to Describe Good Physical
Education
  • Quality physical education
  • Positive physical education

6
Positive Physical Education
  • Another term for quality physical education
  • Focus is on creating a positive environment in
    which all students can be successful
  • Recognition that enjoyment of physical activity
    is a major influence on whether a person chooses
    to be active

7
Positive (Quality) Physical Education
  • Opportunity to learn
  • Qualified teachers
  • Adequate time
  • Meaningful content
  • National/state standards for physical education
  • Appropriate instruction
  • Formative and summative assessment

8
Examples of Positive (Quality) Physical Education
  • All children being active
  • Stations
  • Small group games
  • Technology (pedometers, heart rate monitors)
  • Choices
  • Variety of activities
  • Various practice levels
  • Personal goals
  • Cooperative Activities

9
Definition of a Physically Educated Person
  • HAS learned skills necessary to perform a variety
    of physical activities
  • IS physically fit
  • DOES participate regularly in physical activity
  • KNOWS the implications of and the benefits from
    involvement in physical activities
  • VALUES physical activity and its contribution to
    a healthful lifestyle

10
Purpose of National Standards for Physical
Education
  • To define what a student should know and be able
    to do as a result of a quality physical education
    program
  • Provides credibility to our profession as we are
    one of many disciplines with standards

11
National Standards, 2nd Edition
  • Standard 1 Demonstrates competency in motor
    skills and movement patterns needed to perform a
    variety of physical activities
    (Physical skills)
  • Standard 2 Demonstrates understanding of
    movement concepts, principles, strategies, and
    tactics as they apply to the learning and
    performance of physical activities
    (Knowledge)
  • Standard 3 Participates regularly in physical
    activity
    (Physical activity)

12
National Standards, 2nd Edition
  • Standard 4 Achieves and maintains a health
    enhancing level of physical fitness
    (Health-related fitness)
  • Standard 5 Exhibits responsible personal and
    social behavior that respects self and others in
    physical activity settings
    (Behavioral skills)
  • Standard 6 Values physical activity for health,
    enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or
    social interaction
    (Intrinsic value)

13
Physical Activity vs. Physical Education
  • Physical activity behavior
  • Physical education curricular area that teaches
    about physical activity (helps student attain the
    knowledge and skills does not just provide an
    opportunity for students to be physically active)
  • Students are physically active in physical
    education, but students are not (comprehensively)
    physically educated at recess or through sport
    participation

14
Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity and
Education
  • Physical activity
  • At least 60 minutes, and up to several hours, a
    day of physical activity
  • NASPE
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Federal
    government)
  • Physical education
  • ES at least 150 minutes/week
  • MS, HS at least 225 minutes/week
  • NASPE
  • Others that support the NASPE recommendation
    (e.g., CDC)

15
The Bad News
16
Percentage of U.S. High School Students Who
Attended Physical Education Classes Daily, 1991
- 2001
Source CDC, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey
17
Percentage of Schools that Require Physical
Education, by Grade
CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study,
2000
18
Daily Physical Education for All Students
  • Daily PE or its equivalent is
  • provided for entire school year
  • for students in all grades in
  • 8 of elementary schools (excluding kindergarten)
  • 6 of middle/junior high schools
  • 6 of senior high schools

Elementary schools 150 minutes / week
secondary schools 225 minutes / week
Source CDC, School Health Policies and Programs
Study 2000
19
Percentage of U.S. Children and Adolescents Who
Were Overweight
Ages 12-19
5
Ages 6-11
4
gt95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based
on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts Data are
from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and
from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of
age Source National Center for Health
Statistics
20
Percentage of U.S. Children and Adolescents Who
Were Overweight
16
15
Ages 12-19
5
Ages 6-11
4
gt95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based
on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts Data are
from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and
from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of
age Source National Center for Health
Statistics
21
Prevention of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity
  • American Academy of Pediatrics - August, 2003
  • Probability of childhood obesity persisting into
    adulthood
  • 80 during adolescence
  • 20 at 4 years of age
  • Probability that co-morbidities will persist into
    adulthood

AAP, Policy Statement, Pediatrics 112(2),
pp.424-430
22
Economic Costs
  • US obesity-attributable medical expenditures in
    2003
  • 75 billion
  • Approximately 10 of total US medical
    expenditures
  • Percent financed by taxpayers through Medicare
    and Medicaid
  • Approximately 50

23
Which begs the question
  • What might the statistics look like if kids in
    the U.S. had positive, daily physical education
    for 12 years of school?

24
The Good News
25
Recognized Solutions
  • Physical activity
  • Physical education

26
Physical Educations Role in the Obesity Epidemic
  • Physical inactivity is part of the problem
  • Physical activity is part of the solution
  • Physical education is a critical to increasing
    physical activity
  • School physical education programs are the one
    place that
  • All children can participate in regular physical
    activity
  • All children can become physically educated for a
    lifetime of physical activity

27
National Call to Action Increase Physical
Activity Among Youth
  • Healthy People 2010 (2000)
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2000)
  • Promoting Better Health for Young People Through
    Physical Activity and Sports A Report to the
    President from the Secretary of Health and Human
    Services and Secretary of Education (2000)
  • The Surgeon Generals Call to Action To Prevent
    and Decrease Overweight and Obesity (2001)
  • Guide to Community Preventive Services (2001)

28
The Brain/Body Connection
  • Research has not been conducted to conclusively
    demonstrate a link between physical activity and
    improved academic performance
  • However, such a link might be expected
  • Research does show that
  • Movement stimulates brain functioning
  • Physical activity increases adolescents
    self-esteem and reduces anxiety and stressthus,
    through its effects on mental health, may help
    increase students capacity for learning
  • Increases in time for physical education did not
    lead to lower test scores

29
Time in the arts, physical education and school
achievement
  • 547 elementary school principals in Virginia
    responded to survey
  • Time allocated for art, music and physical
    education with a specialist?
  • Correlated with test scores from their schools
  • No meaningful relationship found
  • Results suggest that providing time for AMPE does
    not negatively impact test scores

Wilkins, J..M., Graham, G., Parker, S., Westfall,
S. Fraser, R. Tembo, M. (2003). Time in the
arts and physical education and school
achievement. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 35,
721-734.
30
The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and
Academic Achievement, in California Grade 7
31
Typical Questions You May be Asked
  • How much physical activity do children and
    adolescents need?
  • What is the most important thing that schools can
    do to increase physical activity among children
    and adolescents?
  • What are the biggest barriers for schools to
    provide quality physical education to all
    students?
  • Cant physical education be provided as part of
    recess?
  • Why do schools have to take responsibility for
    the physical activity of students?

32
Conclusion
  • Schools need to educate the whole child
  • Physical education is the only curricular subject
    that develops a childs physical self
  • Children deserve a comprehensive education
  • Its up to taxpayers and decision-makers to make
    this happen
  • Its up to us (and our partners) to influence
    taxpayers and decision-makers

33
Resources
  • www.naspeinfo.org
  • www.pecentral.org
  • www.pelinks4u.org
  • www.pe4life.org
  • www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/physicalactivity
  • www.ncppa.org
  • www.actionforhealthykids.org
  • www.fitness.gov

34
  • QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION

35
Interscholastic Sports
  • SS 271
  • Dr. Jack Watson

36
Topical Outline
  • Educational mission
  • Involvement Patterns
  • Predications about the impact of sport on
    athletes and schools
  • Consequences of H.S. sports
  • Problems related to H.S. sports
  • Reforms suggested for H.S. sports
  • Summary
  • Discussion Questions

37
Why Were Interscholastic Sports Created, and Why
Do They Still Exist?
  • What are the educational goals of most high
    schools?
  • How do sports fit into a schools goals?
  • How do sports benefit schools?
  • How do sports benefit athletes?
  • How do sports socialize individuals into society?

38
Involvement Patterns
  • 6.5 million boys and girls involved in high
    school sports (59 male)
  • Sports are run through the schools, not clubs, as
    done in Canada and Europe
  • Money given to sports
  • Popularity of sports
  • Emphasis in schools mission

39
Predicted Effects of Participation in High School
Sports on Athletes
  • Grades?
  • Socialization?
  • Popularity?
  • Opportunities?
  • Money?
  • Self-Concept?

40
Sports in U.S. High Schools
  • Importance
  • Related to academics
  • Attention
  • Bringing students together
  • Participant effects on athletes
  • Popularity and other effects on athletes

41
Consequences of H.S. Sports
  • Schools
  • Raise money from community for resources
  • Brings students together (unity) for common cause
    or collective goals
  • Promotes school pride (we talk)
  • Forces commitment to rules (creates role-models),
    promotes social control
  • Teaches societal/school values
  • Stops students form questioning the rules
  • Drains energy and diverts attention
  • Students
  • Fame and acclaim
  • Gifts/Money
  • Social/Sexual Popularity
  • Always good for males
  • Can be good for females, with in-group status
    (changing)
  • Character
  • Who benefits and how?
  • Common differences in boys include higher
    Self-esteem, aggression, and irritability, less
    honesty, independence and self-control
  • In girls, related to increased perceived
    popularity, educational aspirations
  • Adjustment to Failure

42
Consequences of H.S. Sports on Students
  • Enjoyment of students
  • Participation may be expected of students
  • Lower moral development and reasoning
  • Academic Benefits
  • Can detract from academics
  • Overall, grades are better
  • Why might this occur?
  • Reasoning for higher GPAs
  • Minimum grades needed for participation
  • Selection of those into sport (some may choose
    not to participate)
  • Causal relationship?

43
Problems and Controversies Related to
Interscholastic Sports
  • Cheating is Rampant
  • Not consistent with academic goals of sport
  • Autocratic Coaches
  • Control all aspects of players lives
  • Win at all costs Attitude
  • Sport is treated as work, not play
  • Teaches the cheating is acceptable
  • Promotes Specialization by athletes
  • Corporate sports (Friday Night Lights)
  • Lots of spent on sports (stadiums, equipment,
    travel)
  • Exposure and commercialization
  • Channeling athletes into pros (early recruiting)
  • Coaches paid much more than teachers

44
Problems and Controversies Related to
Interscholastic Sports (Cont)
  • Demanding Schedules take time away from school
    work.
  • Begin too early serve as a feeding ground/minor
    league for H.S. sports.
  • Reinforcing Gender Roles 900 increase in female
    participation from 1971
  • Budget problems
  • schools charge for right to play
  • sponsorship is accepted
  • Elitism (only the few play)
  • how is this educational

45
Reforming Interscholastic Sports
  • Reduction of corporate sports
  • Reduce schedules and travel
  • Raise educational standards for athletes
  • Let everyone play
  • Increase student involvement
  • Bring coaches back to faculty

46
Topical Summary
  • Educational mission
  • Involvement Patterns
  • Predications about the impact of sport on
    athletes and schools
  • Consequences of H.S. sports
  • Problems related to H.S. sports
  • Reforms suggested for H.S. sports

47
Chapter 5 Discussion Questions
  • Can a system be developed that allows all
    interested H.S. students to participate in
    sports? If so, how would you do it? If not,
    what factors would make doing it impossible?
  • What is an interscholastic coachs role in
    fostering character development among players?
    Is this role consistent with educational and
    athletic goals?
  • What differences, if any, exist in the sport
    programs of public and private high schools.
  • What role, if any, do H.S. athletic coaches have
    youth sport development?
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