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Understanding the Cardiovascular System

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The heart functions to contract and propel blood through the two blood transport ... Cancer, heart disease, respiratory diseases (emphysema) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding the Cardiovascular System


1
Understanding the Cardiovascular System
2
A.D.A.M. Software
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Interactive Physiology CD

CDROM
3
Cardiorespiratory System
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Respiratory System

4
Sub-Components of the Cardiorespiratory System
  • Heart
  • Blood
  • Blood Vessels
  • Lungs

5
Function of the Respiratory System
  • Transport gases (O2 and CO2) to and from the
    lungs and body tissues.
  • O2 is inhaled and transported, in blood, to the
    tissues.
  • CO2, a by product of metabolism, is picked up at
    the tissue level and transported, in blood, back
    to the heart and lungs.

6
Function of the Cardiovascular System
  • Assist in gas transport.
  • Deliver nutrients, hormones
  • Remove waste products from the cells
  • Assist in temperature regulation
  • Assist in balancing body fluids and helps prevent
    dehydration

7
Anatomical Considerations of the Heart
  • Approximately the size of a closed fist
  • Located in the mediastium of the chest cavity

8
Systems of the Heart
  • The heart functions to contract and propel blood
    through the two blood transport systems.
  • Pulmonary system
  • Systemic system

9
Pulmonary System
  • Within the pulmonary system blood is transported
    to and from the lungs.
  • The right ventricle propels deoxygenated, carbon
    dioxide rich, blood to the lungs where carbon
    dioxide is released and oxygen is picked up.
  • After gas exchange the blood returns to the left
    atrium of the heart.

10
Systemic System
  • Within the systemic system blood is propelled
    from the left ventricle to the body.
  • Here blood is delivered to the working muscles
    where oxygen is utilized and the by product of
    metabolism, carbon dioxide, is picked up.
  • After this gas exchange blood returns to the
    right atrium.

11
Impact of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Affects more than 60 million Americans each year
  • Results in nearly 1 million deaths each year
  • Cost nearly 275 billion

12
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one
    cause of death in the United States.
  • Most reported deaths are related to coronary
    artery disease

13
Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD or CVD)
  • Hypertension (Chronic high blood pressure)
  • Cerebral vascular accidents (strokes)
  • Peripheral vascular disease
  • Valvular heart disease
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Congestive heart failure

14
Coronary Artery Disease
  • Primary form of heart disease
  • A disease involving waxy plaque build-up in the
    arteries

15
Coronary Risk Factors
  • Primary Risk Factors Factors that have been
    definitively associated with or directly cause
    coronary artery disease.
  • Smoking, inactivity, hypertension
  • Secondary Risk Factors Factors believed to
    contribute to or advance the severity of CAD.
  • Gender, age

16
Primary Risk Factors (Alterable)
  • Smoking
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • High serum cholesterol
  • Physical inactivity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Obesity

17
Secondary Risk Factors
  • Stress
  • Age
  • Gender (male vs. female)

18
Smoking 1
  • The single most important, preventable cause of
    illness and early death
  • 400,000 related deaths per year, 50 billion
  • Cancer, heart disease, respiratory diseases
    (emphysema)
  • Cigarette smoking and passive smoke inhalation
    are highly related to CAD.

19
Smoking 2
  • Smokers have a 70 greater level of coronary risk
    than nonsmokers.
  • Magnitude of risk is related to number of
    cigarettes smoked.
  • Pipe, cigar, pot

20
Secondary Smoke
  • 53,000 annual deaths
  • For each pack of cigarettes smoked, the non
    smoker, sharing the same air, will inhale the
    equivalent of 3 to 5 cigarettes.

21
Smokeless Tobacco
  • Chewing tobacco

22
Actions of Cigarette Smoke on the Body
  • Injures the inner lining of the arteries
  • Increases the risk of blood clotting
  • Increases the risk of mycardial infarction
  • Lowers HDL cholesterol

23
Major Components of Tobacco Smoke
  • Carbon Monoxide reduces oxygen carrying capacity
    of red blood cells
  • Nicotine
  • stimulates various brain centers
  • constricts vessels of the skin
  • increases blood pressure and heart rate
  • Tar carcinogenic (lung cancer and emphysema)

24
Hypertension/Blood Pressure
  • Blood Pressure The driving force that moves
    blood throughout the body. The pressure exerted
    by the blood on the walls of the arteries.
  • Blood pressure is highest near the heart

25
Blood Pressure 2
  • Systolic Pressure The highest pressure occurs
    during heart contraction (ventricular
    contraction)
  • Diastolic Pressure The lowest pressure occurs
    during heart relaxation (resting or refilling
    stage of the contraction)

26
Normal Blood Pressure
  • 120/80
  • 120 is the systolic reading
  • 80 is the diastolic reading
  • NEVER 80/120

27
Hypertension
  • A silent killer
  • 140/90 considered mild stage of hypertension
  • Which is more problematic? a high systolic or
    high diastolic?
  • Potentially leads to stroke

28
Factors Affecting Blood Pressure
  • Hypertensive medications
  • Time of day
  • Full bladder content
  • Body Posture
  • Recent intake of caffeine
  • Nicotine
  • Alcohol
  • Recent strenuous activity

29
Impact of Hypertension
  • 25 or 50 million Americans are hypertensive
  • 67 are not treated
  • 1/2 are unaware of the complication

30
Factors Contributing To Hypertension
  • Age
  • Race
  • Sodium sensitivity
  • Chronic alcohol abuse
  • Sedentary living

31
Factors Related To Hypertension That Lead to CVD
  • Elevated serum cholesterol and lipids
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Cigarette Smoking

32
Cholesterol
  • High density lipoproteins (HDL) (GOOD)
  • May remove plaque from the arteries
  • Aerobic activity will raise HDL level

33
Cholesterol 2
  • Low density lipoproteins (LDL) (BAD)
  • enhances plaque build up in the arteries
  • increases with a high saturated fat diet

34
High Serum Cholesterol
  • Cholesterol levels
  • Desirable below 200
  • Borderline high 200-239
  • Risk for CVD 240 and above

35
Understanding Cholesterol 2
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDL) offer a
    protective effect against CAD.
  • Low-density (LDL) and very-low-density
    lipoproteins (VLDL) are undesirable and are
    associated with increase risk of CAD.

36
Understanding Cholesterol Ratios
  • One of the best methods of determining CAD risk
    is to determine the ratios of total cholesterol
    (TC) to high-density lipoproteins (HDL).
  • Having high HDL associated with low LDL decreases
    the risk of a CAD

37
Controlling Cholesterol
  • Avoid saturated fats
  • fats from animal sources
  • Avoid dietary cholesterol
  • Exercise
  • Limit red meats (fewer than 3 times per week)
  • Avoid commercially baked goods (tropical oils)
  • Use skim milk

38
Controlling Cholesterol 3
  • Plant foods do not contain cholesterol
  • Eat fish 2-3 times per week
  • Bake, broil, steam, microwave
  • Remove excess fat (soup, chili)
  • Is ground turkey better?

39
Controlling Cholesterol 4
  • Avoid fatty sauces (fettuccini Alf redo)
  • Substitute in recipes
  • Egg whites for eggs
  • Applesauce for oil in cakes
  • Salsa instead of butter for baked potatoes
  • Maintain proper body weight
  • High cholesterol may be genetic
  • Medications may need to be prescribed

40
Physical Inactivity
  • Physical activity levels and CAD are strongly
    inversely related.
  • Sedentary individuals have 2-3 times greater risk
    of CAD than active individuals.
  • Sedentary individuals have twice the risk of
    fatal heart attacks.

41
Physical Activity
  • Physical activity is argumentably be the single
    best method of controlling or reducing CAD.
  • Increases strength of the heart
  • Helps to establish and maintain normal blood
    pressure.
  • Helps to control obesity due to increase in
    caloric expenditure

42
Physical Activity 2
  • Raises HDL levels, while lowering LDL
  • Helps to manage stress levels
  • Increases coronary artery circulation
  • Decreases resting heart rates

43
Physical Activity 3
  • Increases resting and exercising stroke volumes
  • Lowers blood glucose levels, reducing risk of
    diabetes

44
Types of Diabetes
  • Type I insulin dependent or juvenile onset
  • Type II maturity or adult onset, usually
    non-insulin dependent

45
Diabetes Mellitus
  • A condition in which glucose is unable to enter
    the cells
  • A disease associated with problems in controlling
    blood glucose or blood sugar
  • The disease results when the pancreas has
    problems producing insulin
  • Insulin is the taxi that carries sugar from the
    blood to the cells

46
Diabetes Mellitus Adult Onset
  • The pancreas does not produce enough insulin or
    has just forgotten how
  • Directly related to obesity

47
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48
Blood Sugar Levels
  • Normal blood sugar levels 70-110
  • Hyperglycemia
  • High levels of blood sugar
  • When sugar levels remain high, over time, it
    damages the walls of the vessels
  • Leads to impairment of the circulatory system
  • Affects functioning of most organs
  • Problems healing (small cuts, amputations)
  • Blindness

49
Hypoglycemia
  • Low levels of blood sugar
  • May give sugar to the diabetic, protein
    recommended
  • Some may experience hypoglycemia but are not
    diabetic

50
Adult Onset 2
  • An 20 increase in body weight doubles the
    chances of developing diabetes
  • A diabetic male has twice the risk of CAD
  • A diabetic female has three times the risk of CAD

51
How To Avoid Adult Onset Diabetes
  • Control cholesterol
  • Control blood pressure
  • Exercise regularly (aerobic)
  • Exercise lowers blood sugar
  • Diabetics must plan for meals, insulin
    injections, and exercise

52
Obesity Fat Distribution
  • Apples Android Obesity
  • Fat distributed in upper body
  • Higher risk of CAD
  • Pears Gynoid Obesity
  • Fat is distributed in the hips and legs

53
Relationship of Obesity of Other Coronary Risk
Factors
  • Obesity is related to
  • High cholesterol
  • Hypertension
  • Elevated LDL levels
  • Lower HDL levels
  • Physical Inactivity
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity is also related to joint problems

54
What Constitutes Obesity?
  • Body fat percentages
  • Men 25
  • Women 30

55
Other Diseases Associated With Obesity
  • Stroke
  • Renal disease
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Pulmonary disease

56
Other Diseases 2
  • Degenerative arthritis
  • Some cancers
  • Post menopausal obese women 5 times more likely
    to develop uterine cancer

57
Stress A Secondary Risk Factor
  • Unmanaged stress is related to CAD.
  • Type A personality is related to CAD.
  • The relationship between stress and CAD appears
    stronger in white, middle aged men than in women,
    blacks, Hispanics, and younger adults.

A
B
58
Age Secondary Risk Factor
  • Men over the age of 45 and women over the age of
    55 appear to have greater risk of CAD.
  • CAD is related to menopausal women who do not
    take estrogen replacement therapy.

59
Family History Primary or Secondary?
  • Individuals with a family history of CAD are at
    greater risk.
  • The risk is greater when the father or other
    first degree relative has experienced a MI or
    sudden death before the age of 55.

60
Family History 2
  • The risk is greater when the mother or another
    female family member has experienced a MI or
    sudden death before the age of 65.
  • Individuals with family histories of diabetes,
    hypertension, are at a greater risk.

61
Gender
  • Men have a greater history of CAD earlier in
    life.
  • CAD is a disease of equal opportunity

62
Assignment
  • Read Chapter 5
  • Read Lab 5b (in-class lab)
  • Quiz ???
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