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SAUDI ARABIA

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Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. ... Extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SAUDI ARABIA


1
SAUDI ARABIA
  • Xiomara Archibald, Marco Conte, Andrew Gerrard,
    Gillian McVeigh, Joanna Robinson, Martha van
    Zanten

2
Location
3
Geography
  • Location 
  • Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the
    Red Sea. (Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, UAE
    and Yemen).
  • Extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea
    provide great leverage on shipping (especially
    crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal.
  • Area 1, 960, 582 sq. km (slightly more than
    one-fifth the size of the US)

4
Geography cont.
  • Physical Features mostly uninhabited, sandy
    deserts, plateaux and mountains.
  • Natural Resources petroleum, natural gas, iron
    ore gold, copper.
  • Land use Arable 2
  • Permanent crops 0
  • Permanent pastures 56
  • Forests and woodlands 1
  • Other 41

5
Geography cont.
  • Irrigated land 4,350 sq km
  • Natural hazards frequent sand and dust storms
  • Environment current issues Desertification
    depletion of underground water resources the
    lack of perennial rivers or permanent water
    bodies has prompted the development of
    extensive seawater desalination facilities
    coastal pollution from oil spills.

6
Demography
  • Population 22, 023, 506 (of which 5, 360 526
    are non-nationals)
  • Growth rate 3.28
  • Currently estimated that over 50 of population
    is under 20yrs old.
  • Birth rate 37,47 births/1000 population
  • Death rate 6.02 deaths/1000 population

7
Demography cont..
  • Infant Mortality rate 52.9 deaths/1000 live
    births
  • Sex ratio 1.24 males/female
  • Life expectancy Male 66.11 years
    Female 69.51 years
  • Total fertility rate 6.3 children born/woman

8
Demography cont.
  • Ethnic groups Arab 90, Afro-Asian 10
  • Religions Muslims 100
  • Languages Arabic
  • Literacy (age 15 and over can read and write)
  • Male 71.5
  • Female 50.2

9
Demography cont.
  • Currency Saudi Riyal
  • Capital Riyadh (population 3.1m)
  • Head of State and Prime Minister King Fahd bin
    Abdul Aziz, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques.

10
History - Cradle of Islamic Religion
  • Holy Quran revealed to Prophet Mohammed
  • Arabs expanded from Arabia, spreading Islam
    (provided stability for many)

11
Modern Saudi Arabia
  • Abdul Aziz Al - Saud
  • 1902 - history of modern Saudi Arabia
  • 1933 - renamed Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • 1936 - treaty with Yemen
  • Goals - consolidation of power
  • restoration of law and order
  • died 1953

12
Modern Saudi Arabia
  • Saud bin Abdul Aziz (1953 - 1964)
  • relations with neighbours
  • education, social services
  • abdicated after 11 years in favour of his brother

13
Modern Saudi Arabia
  • King Faisal (1964 - 1975)
  • continued programmes of reorganisation and reform
  • policy change--but slowly
  • development of Kingdoms resources
  • assassinated 1975

14
Modern Saudi Arabia
  • King Khalid bin Abdul Aziz(1975 - 1982)
  • a time of prosperity and enormous wealth
  • first serious evidence of public dissension and
    disagreement
  • radicals seized control of Grand Mosque
  • died 1982

15
Modern Saudi Arabia
  • King Fahad bin Abdul Aziz(1982 - )
  • continuing development
  • strengthened its ties of defence with USA,
    Britain and France
  • Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

16
Culture
  • Islamic Country
  • birthplace of Islam, Arab people and Arabic
  • home to Mecca and Medina
  • no consumption of alcohol or pork
  • Friday is Sabbath day
  • prayer 5 times every day
  • ultra-conservative dress
  • strict separation of men and women

17
Culture
  • The role of women
  • modesty expected in dress and behaviour
  • no unaccompanied travel
  • also applies to foreigners
  • increasingly well-educated and employed outside
    the home

18
Institutions
  • The Quran is the Constitution
  • Legal system based on Islamic Law
  • Monarchical System of Government
  • The King is Chief of State, Head of Government,
    and the ultimate source of Judicial and
    Organisational power
  • The King appoints the cabinet

19
Institutions
  • The Ulemma (Religious leaders)
  • Responsible for all preaching and guidance
  • Handle legal cases in courts
  • Public notaries
  • supervise girls education and Islamic teaching
    abroad
  • supervise all mosques
  • oversee all scientific and Islamic research

20
Infrastructure
  • Transport
  • Roads
  • Railways
  • Air
  • Shipping
  • Communications
  • Telephones
  • Internet
  • Satellites

21
Resources
  • Gas
  • Oil
  • Saudi Arabia has roughly 25 of the worlds
    proven oil reserves
  • Minerals
  • Water

22
Economy - Economic Overview
23
Key elements of the Saudi economy are
  • The Macroeconomy
  • Annual population growth rate - 3.5 per annum
  • Minors 50 of the current population

24
Government and Budget
  • Public sector debt
  • exceeded 120 of GDP(end of 1999)
  • SAG studying new non-oil tax revenues to dampen
    oil revenue volatility.
  • SAs bid to enter the WTO continues to move
    forward.
  • The new FDI Code will strengthen the climate for
    foreign investment

25
Oil
  • SAs economy still too dependent on oil and oil
    derivatives
  • 90-95 of SA export earnings, 75 of the budget,
    and about 35-40 of GDP.
  • Oil and gas initiatives moving forward.
  • Potential huge investment
  • Reinvigorated petroleum company investment in SA

26
Current Account and Finance
  • Net FDI slowed in recent years
  • SA - non member of WTO
  • Overseas Saudi private capital amounts to
    600-700 billion
  • Foreign worker remittances, about US 16 billion
    annually, continue as a drag on the current
    account.
  • Low inflation and stable currency due to oil

27
Private sector and Privatisation
  • Large state corporations, generally monopolies,
    dominate the Saudi economy.
  • Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), the
    Saudi Telephone Company (STC), the Saudi
    Electricity Company (SEC), and the Saline Water
    Conversion Corporation (SWCC).
  • Prior to the oil boom in the 1970s, parts or all
    of many of these firms, were in private hands.
    (Private sector - one third of GDP)

28
Sectoral Analysis - The Financial Sector
  • Central Bank - the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency
    (SAMA)
  • 10 commercial banks
  • The Stock Market
  • Specialised Funds

29
The Industrial Sector
  • Enormous growth in the number of industrial
    plants .
  • Power and Energy SA world leaders in per capita
    consumption of electricity, water, and gas
  • demand growing
  • Construction sector - vital to economys health.
  • The Saudi cement industry today ranks 3rd after
    petrochemicals and banking in terms of annual
    yield.

30
Agriculture
  • The Saudi agricultural sector has become one of
    the largest and most successful non-petroleum
    sectors in the Kingdom.
  • Sector growth
  • Average annual rate - 8.7 percent since 1970 and
    accounts for more than 9.4 percent of Saudi
    Arabias GDP.

31
Foreign Trade
  • Exports
  • Imports
  • US - Saudi Trade

32
Economic Strategy Policy
  • 5-Year Plans Development Strategy
  • 1995 - 2000 development plan
  • need to reduce state involvement
  • increase private sector
  • greater diversification away from oil production
  • deregulation of FDI
  • WTO membership
  • economic integration
  • other policies e.g.. saudiization

33
Internationalisation
  • New Foreign Investment Code
  • Legal, cultural and economic issues
  • US - Saudi Arabia ties

34
Risk
  • Saudi Customs
  • Political Risk
  • King Fahd Ailing
  • Relationship with USA
  • Terrorism
  • Human Rights

35
Risk
  • Economic Risk
  • Dependence on Oil
  • effect of Gulf war
  • Climatic Risk
  • High Temperatures
  • Water Shortages

36
Conclusion
  • Stable Economy but High Risk for foreigners

37
Sources
  • www.arabia.com
  • www.lonelyplanet.com
  • www.roughguide.com
  • www.cia.gov
  • www.odci.gov
  • www.saudiinf.com
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