# Geography Skills - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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## Geography Skills

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### Gerhardus Mercator. 1568 mathematician & cartographer ... Mercator's equations allowed cartographers to produce charts from which sailors ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geography Skills

1
Geography Skills
• The Five Themes

2
Geography Review Back to the Basics
• Compass Rose

NE
NW
SE
SW
3
Geography Skills Back to the Basics
• Cardinal Directions The main directions (North,
South, East, West)
• Intermediate Directions The directions half way
between the cardinal directions (NE, SE, SW, NW)

4
Hemispheres
• Hemi means half and sphere means circle.
• Each hemisphere shows one half of the earth at a
time.
• The earth is divided into the Northern, Southern,
Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

5
Northern Southern Hemispheres
• The Equator divides the Earth into Northern and
Southern Hemispheres.
• The Equator circles the middle of the Earth like
a belt. It is located between the North and
South Poles.

Equator
6
Northern Southern Hemispheres
• Everything north of the Equator is in the
Northern Hemisphere.
• Everything south of the Equator is in the
Southern Hemisphere.

7
Name that Hemisphere!!
8
Name that Hemisphere!!
Northern
Southern
9
Eastern Western Hemispheres
• The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into Eastern
Western Hemispheres.
• The Prime Meridian (also called the Meridian of
Greenwich) runs through Greenwich, England. It
runs from the North Pole to the South Pole.

Prime Meridian
10
Eastern Western Hemispheres
• Everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180
degrees is in the Eastern Hemisphere.
• Everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180
degrees is in the Western Hemisphere.

11
Name that Hemisphere!!
12
Name that Hemisphere!!
Eastern
Western
13
Exact/Absolute Location
• To locate places on Earth, geographers use a
system of imaginary lines that crisscross the
globe.
• These lines are called latitude and longitude.

14
Lines of Latitude
• Lines of latitude are imaginary circles that run
east and west around the globe known as
parallels.
• These parallels divide the globe into degrees.
• Lines of latitude measure distance north and
south of the equator.

15
Lines of Latitude Equator
• The Equator is 0 degrees latitude.
• The letter N or S that follows the degree
symbol tells you if the location is north or
south of the equator.
• Ex North Pole is 90 degrees N latitude and the
South Pole is 90 degrees S latitude.

30 N
30 S
16
Lines of Longitude
• Lines of Longitude, also known as meridians, run
from the North Pole to the South Pole.
• Longitude measures distance east and west of the
Prime Meridian.

17
Lines of Longitude
East
West
• Prime Meridian is 0 degrees longitude.
• The letter E or W tells you if the location
is east or west of the Prime Meridian.

Prime Meridian
18
Relative Location
• Sometimes you might find it more useful to use
relative location of a place or where it is
located in relation to some other place.
• Relative location includes knowing how places are
connected to one another.
• Ex Is a place located near a lake, river, or
other source of water and transportation?

19
Relative Location
• Answers to these kinds of questions explain why
cities grew where they did.
• Chicago, Illinois developed at the center of
Midwest.

20
• Interpreting Maps Globes

21
How was one of our first maps made?
• In a tiny Native American fishing village in the
1600s, a small group gathered around Samuel de
Champlain.
• They watched closely as the French explorer
pointed to the shore and then drew a sweeping
line on a deerskin spread out on the ground.
• The line represented the coastline where they
stood.

22
How was one of our first maps made?
• Then the Native American chief drew other lines
on the informal map.
• A young man added piles of rocks to represent the
village and nearby settlements.
• The Natives of Cape Ann in MA and Champlain may
not have understood each others languages but
they were still able to find a way to communicate.

23
How was one of our first maps made?
• Today, people use maps similar to the local map
created to help them locate places, judge
• Maps A flat drawing of the Earths surface.
Cartographers, or mapmakers, use mathematical
formulas to transfer information from the round
globe to the map.
• Globe A round model of the Earth that shows its
shape, lands and direction as they truly relate
to each other.

24
Map vs. Globe Accuracy?
• Which is more accurate? The Map or the Globe?
Why?

Globe
Map
25
GLOBE!
26
Globes vs. Maps
• Globes and maps serve different purposes and each

27
28
Map Projections
• No one map will ever be as accurate as a globe
since it presents a model of Earth as it is a
sphere.
• While certain map projections come pretty close,
all maps involve some form of distortion either
to show the correct shapes of a places or their
correct sizes.

29
Why?
• Think of an orange peel
• Once spread outan orange peel can never become a
perfect rectangle.
• The same is true when we try to make the globe a
map when we transfer Earths curved surface into
a flat piece of paper!

30
Interrupted Equal-Area Projection
• Accurate size and shape of continents, but
distorted sizes of oceans

31
Mollweide Map
• Accurate sizes of continents and oceans, but
distorted shapes of continents

32
Gerhardus Mercator
• 1568 mathematician cartographer
• Before this time navigation did not correctly
account for the recently proven fact that the
world was round.
• Mercators equations allowed cartographers to
produce charts from which sailors could easily
navigate.

33
Mercator Projection
• Mercators projection preserves exactly what was
needed
• Shows the true shapes of landmasses and true
directions, but it distorts their correct sizes.
• Ex Greenland appears much larger than it is

34
Robinson Projection
• Has minor distortions
• Continents and oceans are close to their sizes
and shapes, but the North and South poles appear
flattened.

35
Winkel Tripel Projection
Most Accurate? Probably...
• Sometimes cartographers create general purpose
world projections (such as this) in which
distortion of both size and shape is minimized.
• Land areas are not as distorted near the poles as
in the Robinson projection.

36
Political Map
• Shows capital cities, states, countries and other
political information
• May use lines to indicate borders
• May use colors to show different political areas
• The title will not only describe the maps purpose
but it can also tell you what kind of map it may
be
• The map key will sometimes make reference to
cities and capital cities represented on map.

37
Physical Map
• Shows Earths natural features such as landforms
• An elevation map, a type of physical map, uses
color to show height of land above sea level
• Some use relief or shadowing to show mountains,
hilly areas, and changes in elevation
• The title will suggest the maps purpose and main
idea
• The map key will usually make reference to the
various geographic landforms represented on the
map.

38
Historical Map
• Shows information about the past or where past
events took place
• The title usually represents a certain event or
era in history. It may also include specific
dates
• The map key will often include dates, countries,
or empires involved in a certain historical event
or happening

39
Historical Map Cont.
• May also use color to show passage of time or
different nations and empires/dynasties.
• Just like political maps, borders, cities of
political interest and capital cities may also be
represented on a historical map. After all,
cities and their developments are important parts
of history.

40
Distribution Map
• Shows how people, languages, religion, natural
resources, and/or other information are spread
out through an area
• The title may discuss a particular historical
event but it will also discuss how people,
languages, religion etc. is distributed
throughout the world

41
Distribution Map Cont.
• The map key will be color coded and will show the
distribution of geographic landforms, natural
resources and/or ideas
• Borders are usually illustrated
• Like political and historical maps, important
cities may be found on distribution maps