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Geography Skills

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Gerhardus Mercator. 1568 mathematician & cartographer ... Mercator's equations allowed cartographers to produce charts from which sailors ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geography Skills


1
Geography Skills…
  • The Five Themes

2
Geography Review Back to the Basics…
  • Compass Rose

NE
NW
SE
SW
3
Geography Skills Back to the Basics…
  • Cardinal Directions The main directions (North,
    South, East, West)
  • Intermediate Directions The directions half way
    between the cardinal directions (NE, SE, SW, NW)

4
Hemispheres…
  • Hemi means half and sphere means circle.
  • Each hemisphere shows one half of the earth at a
    time.
  • The earth is divided into the Northern, Southern,
    Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

5
Northern Southern Hemispheres
  • The Equator divides the Earth into Northern and
    Southern Hemispheres.
  • The Equator circles the middle of the Earth like
    a belt. It is located between the North and
    South Poles.

Equator
6
Northern Southern Hemispheres
  • Everything north of the Equator is in the
    Northern Hemisphere.
  • Everything south of the Equator is in the
    Southern Hemisphere.

7
Name that Hemisphere!!
8
Name that Hemisphere!!
Northern
Southern
9
Eastern Western Hemispheres
  • The Prime Meridian divides the Earth into Eastern
    Western Hemispheres.
  • The Prime Meridian (also called the Meridian of
    Greenwich) runs through Greenwich, England. It
    runs from the North Pole to the South Pole.

Prime Meridian
10
Eastern Western Hemispheres
  • Everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180
    degrees is in the Eastern Hemisphere.
  • Everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180
    degrees is in the Western Hemisphere.

11
Name that Hemisphere!!
12
Name that Hemisphere!!
Eastern
Western
13
Exact/Absolute Location
  • To locate places on Earth, geographers use a
    system of imaginary lines that crisscross the
    globe.
  • These lines are called latitude and longitude.

14
Lines of Latitude
  • Lines of latitude are imaginary circles that run
    east and west around the globe known as
    parallels.
  • These parallels divide the globe into degrees.
  • Lines of latitude measure distance north and
    south of the equator.

15
Lines of Latitude Equator
  • The Equator is 0 degrees latitude.
  • The letter N or S that follows the degree
    symbol tells you if the location is north or
    south of the equator.
  • Ex North Pole is 90 degrees N latitude and the
    South Pole is 90 degrees S latitude.

30 N
30 S
16
Lines of Longitude
  • Lines of Longitude, also known as meridians, run
    from the North Pole to the South Pole.
  • Longitude measures distance east and west of the
    Prime Meridian.

17
Lines of Longitude
East
West
  • Prime Meridian is 0 degrees longitude.
  • The letter E or W tells you if the location
    is east or west of the Prime Meridian.

Prime Meridian
18
Relative Location
  • Sometimes you might find it more useful to use
    relative location of a place or where it is
    located in relation to some other place.
  • Relative location includes knowing how places are
    connected to one another.
  • Ex Is a place located near a lake, river, or
    other source of water and transportation?

19
Relative Location
  • Answers to these kinds of questions explain why
    cities grew where they did.
  • Chicago, Illinois developed at the center of
    water, road, and railroad transportation in the
    Midwest.

20
How Are Maps Made Used?
  • Interpreting Maps Globes

21
How was one of our first maps made?
  • In a tiny Native American fishing village in the
    1600s, a small group gathered around Samuel de
    Champlain.
  • They watched closely as the French explorer
    pointed to the shore and then drew a sweeping
    line on a deerskin spread out on the ground.
  • The line represented the coastline where they
    stood.

22
How was one of our first maps made?
  • Then the Native American chief drew other lines
    on the informal map.
  • A young man added piles of rocks to represent the
    village and nearby settlements.
  • The Natives of Cape Ann in MA and Champlain may
    not have understood each others languages but
    they were still able to find a way to communicate.

23
How was one of our first maps made?
  • Today, people use maps similar to the local map
    created to help them locate places, judge
    distances and follow routes.
  • Maps A flat drawing of the Earths surface.
    Cartographers, or mapmakers, use mathematical
    formulas to transfer information from the round
    globe to the map.
  • Globe A round model of the Earth that shows its
    shape, lands and direction as they truly relate
    to each other.

24
Map vs. Globe Accuracy?
  • Which is more accurate? The Map or the Globe?
    Why?

Globe
Map
25
GLOBE!
26
Globes vs. Maps…
  • Globes and maps serve different purposes and each
    has advantages and disadvantages.

27
Advantages
Disadvantages
28
Map Projections…
  • No one map will ever be as accurate as a globe
    since it presents a model of Earth as it is a
    sphere.
  • While certain map projections come pretty close,
    all maps involve some form of distortion either
    to show the correct shapes of a places or their
    correct sizes.

29
Why?
  • Think of an orange peel…
  • Once spread out…an orange peel can never become a
    perfect rectangle.
  • The same is true when we try to make the globe a
    map when we transfer Earths curved surface into
    a flat piece of paper!

30
Interrupted Equal-Area Projection
  • Accurate size and shape of continents, but
    distorted sizes of oceans…

31
Mollweide Map
  • Accurate sizes of continents and oceans, but
    distorted shapes of continents

32
Gerhardus Mercator
  • 1568 mathematician cartographer
  • Before this time navigation did not correctly
    account for the recently proven fact that the
    world was round.
  • Mercators equations allowed cartographers to
    produce charts from which sailors could easily
    navigate.

33
Mercator Projection
  • Mercators projection preserves exactly what was
    needed
  • Shows the true shapes of landmasses and true
    directions, but it distorts their correct sizes.
  • Ex Greenland appears much larger than it is

34
Robinson Projection
  • Has minor distortions
  • Continents and oceans are close to their sizes
    and shapes, but the North and South poles appear
    flattened.

35
Winkel Tripel Projection
Most Accurate? Probably...
  • Sometimes cartographers create general purpose
    world projections (such as this) in which
    distortion of both size and shape is minimized.
  • Land areas are not as distorted near the poles as
    in the Robinson projection.

36
Political Map
  • Shows capital cities, states, countries and other
    political information
  • May use lines to indicate borders
  • May use colors to show different political areas
  • The title will not only describe the maps purpose
    but it can also tell you what kind of map it may
    be
  • The map key will sometimes make reference to
    cities and capital cities represented on map.

37
Physical Map
  • Shows Earths natural features such as landforms
  • An elevation map, a type of physical map, uses
    color to show height of land above sea level
  • Some use relief or shadowing to show mountains,
    hilly areas, and changes in elevation
  • The title will suggest the maps purpose and main
    idea
  • The map key will usually make reference to the
    various geographic landforms represented on the
    map.

38
Historical Map
  • Shows information about the past or where past
    events took place
  • The title usually represents a certain event or
    era in history. It may also include specific
    dates
  • The map key will often include dates, countries,
    or empires involved in a certain historical event
    or happening

39
Historical Map Cont.
  • May also use color to show passage of time or
    different nations and empires/dynasties.
  • Just like political maps, borders, cities of
    political interest and capital cities may also be
    represented on a historical map. After all,
    cities and their developments are important parts
    of history.

40
Distribution Map
  • Shows how people, languages, religion, natural
    resources, and/or other information are spread
    out through an area
  • The title may discuss a particular historical
    event but it will also discuss how people,
    languages, religion etc. is distributed
    throughout the world

41
Distribution Map Cont.
  • The map key will be color coded and will show the
    distribution of geographic landforms, natural
    resources and/or ideas
  • Borders are usually illustrated
  • Like political and historical maps, important
    cities may be found on distribution maps
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