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Chapter 1: Studying Geography

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Title: Chapter 1: Studying Geography


1
Chapter 1 Studying Geography
  • Section 1 Themes and Essential Elements
  • Pages 3-7

2
  • Geography is the study of everything on
    earthfrom rocks to rainfallto people and places
  • Natural environments
  • Cities, Cultures
  • Plants, resources

3
  • Perspective is an integral part of learning about
    geography
  • Perspective is the way a person looks at
    somethinggeographers look for patterns where
    things are located on Earth and then try to
    explain these patterns

4
  • Geographers also look at landscapesthe scenery
    of a place including its physical and cultural
    features

5
  • What are the two main branches of geography?

6
  • What is the difference between human and physical
    geography?
  • Humancharacteristics of the worlds people
  • Religions, languages, food, music, etc…

7
  • Physicalfocuses on Earths natural environments,
    such as landforms, water features, plants and
    animals
  • How are the two similar?
  • The interaction of people with their environment

8
  • What are some of the ways (fields) we use
    geography?
  • Cartographythe study of maps and mapmaking
  • Meteorologythe study of weather

9
  • How do we study geography?
  • The most important concept of geography is the
    idea of a region
  • A region is an area with one or more common
    features that make it different from surrounding
    areas

10
  • Regions are defined by their physical and human
    features
  • Sometimes the boundaries of a region are clear
    the United States is a political region with
    clear boundaries (physical features)

11
  • Sometimes the boundaries are not so clear the
    Bible belt is a religious region across the
    southern portion of the U.S. (cultural feature)
  • There are three major types of regions

12
  • 1. Formal regionswhich are based on one or more
    common features that make it different than other
    areas
  • These features might include population, income
    levels, crops, temperatures, or rainfall
  • The Middle East

13
  • 2. Functional regionsare regions made up of
    different places that are linked together and
    function as a unit
  • Functional regions are organized around a central
    point
  • The Mall of Georgia

14
  • 3. Perceptual regionsare regions that reflect
    human feelings and attitudes
  • These regions have their own special features
    that make them different from anywhere else
  • The South

15
  • In groups or three, choose one of the following
    Six Essential Elements of geography
  • 1. The World in Spatial Terms
  • 2. Places and Regions
  • 3. Physical Systems
  • 4. Human Systems
  • 5. Environment and Society
  • 6. The Uses of Geography

16
  • Homework
  • Each group needs to find a minimum of 10 images
    from a newspaper, magazine, or Internet that
    shows and demonstrates an understanding of their
    assigned element

17
  • Each group will be given a piece of butcher paper
    to display their images
  • Groups will then present their images to the
    class and explain how their images relate to
    their element

18
  • Each group member then needs to research an
    article from a newspaper, magazine or Internet
    that addresses their assigned element and write a
    half page summary explaining how their article
    illustrates their essential element

19
Chapter 1 Studying Geography
  • Section 2 Skill Building Using the Geographers
    Tools
  • Pages 9-20

20
Objectives
  • How do geographers and mapmakers organize our
    world?
  • What are three kinds of map projections that
    mapmakers use?

21
  • Latitude lines run in an east-west pattern
  • Longitude lines run in a north-south pattern
  • The intersection of these lines help us find an
    exact location of places on the Earth

22
  • Latitude lines measure distance north and south
    of the equator
  • Lines of latitude are also called parallels
    because they are always parallel to the equator
    and never intersect

23
  • Longitude lines are also called meridians
  • Longitude lines measure distance east and west of
    the prime meridian
  • Both parallels and meridians measure distance in
    degrees
  • Degrees are further divided into minutesthere
    are 60 minutes in a degree

24
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26
  • The most common projections are cylindrical,
    conic, and flat plane
  • Cylindrical maps only touch the globe at the
    equator
  • The meridians are pulled apart and are parallel
    to each other instead of meeting at the poles

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  • A Mercator projection is a cylindrical projection
  • Benefits a Mercator map is useful for navigation
    because it shows true direction and shape
  • Faults in high parallels, places such as
    Greenland and Alaska are exaggerate in size

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31
  • Conic projections are designed as if a cone has
    been placed over the globe
  • A conic projection is most accurate along the
    lines of parallels where it touches the globe
    (Arctic)
  • Conic projections are most useful along long
    east-west dimensions such as Russia

32
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  • Flat-plane projections are those that appear to
    touch the globe at the poles
  • Flat-plane projections are useful for showing
    true direction for airplane pilots or ship
    navigators
  • It shows true area size

34
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35
  • True or false Drawing a straight line on a flat
    map will show the shortest route between two
    places
  • False
  • The shortest route between any two places on the
    planet is called a great-circle route

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39
  • Draw a map (free hand) of north and central
    America on notebook paper
  • Use page S30 in your book
  • Include the areas of Alaska, Greenland, Canada
    Mexico, Central America and the major cities that
    occupy these areas
  • Include the major lines of longitude and latitude

40
  • What is the approximate latitude of the Florida
    Keys?
  • (24 degrees N)
  • What is the approximate latitude of the
    U.S.-Canada border from Washington to Minnesota?
  • (49 degrees N)

41
  • What is the approximate longitude of Seattle,
    Washington?
  • (122 degrees W)
  • What is the approximate longitude of Philadelphia
    Pennsylvania?
  • (75 degrees W)

42
  • What major city is located about 43 N and 71 W?
  • Boston, Massachusetts
  • What major city is located about 19 N and 99 W?
  • Mexico City

43
  • What state would you be in if you were at 65 N
    and 150 W?
  • Alaska
  • What body of water would you be in if you were at
    27 N and 90 W?
  • Gulf of Mexico

44
Chapter 1 Studying Geography
  • Section 2 Skill Building Using the Geographers
    Tools
  • Continued
  • Pages 9-20

45
Objectives
  • What kind of special maps and graphs do
    geographers use?

46
  • Almost all maps have several common elements
  • Distance Scaledetermines real distance between
    points on a map
  • Directional Indicators (compass rose)shows which
    direction on a map are N, S, E, or W.
  • Key (legend)identifies the symbols on a map and
    what they represent

47
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48
Objectives
  • How do geographers use climate graphs and
    population pyramids?

49
  • Geographers use many kinds of maps and graphs to
    show data
  • population maps, world religions, land use and
    resources map, etc…
  • Climate and Precipitation Mapsuse colors to show
    the various climate areas of a region

50
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52
  • Climate graphs show the average temperatures and
    precipitation in a place
  • Climate graphs usually use bars to represent
    monthly precipitation and a red line to show
    average monthly temperatures

53
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54
  • Pg 681Climate Graph for Singapore
  • What is the widest variance in the monthly
    rainfall totals?
  • (About five and one half inches)
  • How does Singapores location affect temperature?
  • (warm temperatures created by location in the
    tropics)

55
  • Some maps show just the topographyor elevation,
    layout, and shapes of the land
  • Elevation profile maps use color to show land
    elevations
  • Elevation maps can also how a side view of a
    place or area

56
  • Page 239Central America Physical
  • What country in Central America has the highest
    elevation?
  • (Honduras)
  • What is the average elevation of the island of
    Cuba?
  • (O (sea level) to 656 feet)

57
  • Page 555Elevation Profile Map South Asia
  • What latitude line is represented on this map?
  • (28 North)
  • What is the approximate height of the tallest
    mountain in South Asia?
  • (28,000)

58
  • The purpose of some maps is to show just the
    topographyor elevation, layout, and shapes of
    the land
  • One type of topographical map is called a contour
    map
  • Contour maps use lines to connect points of equal
    elevation above sea level

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60
  • Population Pyramidsshow the percentages of males
    and females by age
  • Population maps help us to understand population
    trends in countries
  • Countries that have large percentages of young
    people have populations that are growing rapidily

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62
  • Page 687-Population Pyramids, Southeast Asia
  • In which country has the population growth rate
    remained the most constant?
  • (the Philippines)
  • In which country does the growth rate appear to
    have slowed somewhat?
  • (Indonesia)

63
  • What do the graphs indicate about future
    population growth in all three of these
    countries?
  • (they will continue to grow at a fairly constant
    rate)

64
  • Page 19Population Pyramids
  • Will Nigerias population continue to grow
    rapidly? Why or why not?
  • (Yes, because each year the percentage of females
    of child-bearing age increases)

65
  • Which Russian age group is the largest?
  • (40-44)
  • What does this indicate about Russias future
    population growth?
  • (Russia will not grow rabidly because most of
    these people are beyond child-bearing years)
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